Korean Journal of Old Testament Studies 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.42

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pISSN : 1229-0521 / eISSN : 2799-9890

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2015, Vol.21, No.3

  • 1.

    Mishpaṭ and She'erit in the Book of Micah

    Kim, Rae Yong | 2015, 21(3) | pp.10~37 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This article investigated the relationship between justice and the remnant, as well as the characteristics and the functions of these two concepts in the book of Micah. For this, I divided the book of Micah into three sections on the basis of the Hebrew terms, mishpaṭ and she'erit, and examined the language, structure, and syntax of each section, including these two terms. First, the two terms, justice and remnant, are main ideas in the messages of each section in the book of Micah. While justice is a main idea of the judgment oracles, remnant is a main idea of the salvation oracles in the book of Micah. Second, the concept of the absence of justice is gradually developed in the three sections. In the first section, Micah rebukes people of power who do not maintain justice. In the second section, he rebukes leaders, such as judges, priests, and prophets, who also fails to maintain justice, by using the language and expressions given in the first section. In the third section, Micah concludes the problem of the absence of justice with a rhetorical question, "What does the Lord require of you?" emphasizing doing justice, loving-kindness, and walking with God. Third, the remnant idea is developed step by step in the three sections. In the first section, the Lord promises to the remnant that he will gather them in one place, and he will rule them. Here the remnant are identified with the scattered by those who are in power. In the second section, the remnant are described as the lame who are afflicted by the Lord. In the future, however, they would be the main subjects ruled by the Lord in Zion. In the third section, the remnant would be pardoned by the Lord who is love, although they have many iniquities and transgressions. The results of this study should prove useful for a better understanding for those who read and study the book of Micah.
  • 2.

    A Study on the Controversy over the Causes of Economic Polarization Reflected In the Conversation of Job and His Friends

    hangeuncho | 2015, 21(3) | pp.38~68 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This Study aims to demonstrate the influence economic polarization caused controversy appeared in postexilic time in the book of Job. In this paper, I investigated economic polarization in the postexilic time reflected in the conversation of friends and Job. The Book of Job describe about the poor social position and situation in peculiar historical context in the postexilic period. For the purpose of the study, I used sociological criticism as a tool interpreting the text. The Book of Job describes the nine kinds of underprivileged has occurred as a result of economic polarization. If this analysis is the use of terms such as the !Ayb.a,('ebhyôn/ poor), ynI['('ānî/ needy) and lD;(dal/ helpless) came to mean the poor as a whole. And in the Book of Job It's classified hn"m'l.a;(almānāh/ widows), ~Aty"(yāṯôm/ orphans), db,[,('āḇaḏ/ slave), hm'a'('āmâ/ female salve), rGE(gēr/ Alien), rykif'(s̍āḵîr/ day-laborer) by type of economic disadvantaged. Especially, the Book of Job shows how the ethical imperative for the poor was not adapted in postexilic society. Accordingly I have found demonstrated considerable different of view between Job and Job's friends conversation the with the regarding the attitudes for the weak and the poor. Job's friends diagnose economic polarization that was at the time it did not socially practice of the traditional Hebrew laws. So they are a logical Theory that is God punish the greed and exploitation of the nobility can not achieve social justice. They did not understand the real problems of the poor. Historically, in the postexilic period, the Judah society showed a great economic and societal gap between the poor people and nobles of vested interests. Job has also strongly criticized this social phenomenon. At the postexilic period, Judah was needed social reform in deepening of economic polarization. But Job was accepted as a practical problem for the survival of the poor economic polarization problem. And he has presented the social reformist elements for the people who descends into poverty due to economic exploitation. The Book of Job demonstrated how Job, the righteous noble, had diligently helped the poor. In fact, Job of reform practical show the authentic meaning of the protection for the poor.
  • 3.

    Background of the Composition of Psalm 144 in Light of its Strategic Arrangement

    Jinkyu Kim | 2015, 21(3) | pp.69~98 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Psalm 144 heavily relies on the earlier psalms such as Pss 8, 33, and especially 18. Because of its mixed form, Ps 144 has puzzled many form-critical commentators. Form-critical approaches have failed to explain its compositional background. But recent development of the compositional approach to the Psalter will shed light on its compositional background if one correctly understands the way Ps 144 is using earlier psalms in its literary context. Up to the present time, however, the compositional approach to Books IV-V has predominantly relied on Wilson’s view of the Davidic covenant and his view of the editorial agenda of the Psalter as trusting in Yahweh in Book IV. Because Wilson views that the Davidic covenant has failed in Ps 89, he is not able to recognize the thematic development of the Davidic covenant and its eschatological implications in Books IV-V. In my doctoral dissertation, I have challenged Wilson’s negative evaluation of the Davidic covenant in Books IV-V and found the strategic arrangement of the royal psalms (Pss 110, 132, 144) in these books, by which I have opened the way to eschatological understanding of the royal psalms in Books IV-V. In particular, there are many literary similarities between Ps 144 and Zech 14 which is one of the prime eschatological texts. In this paper I have demonstrated that the eschatological idea of Zech 14 has significantly influenced the present form of Ps 144 in the way by which Ps 144 reuses Ps 18. Zech 14 contains the imagery of both warfare and eschatological blessings, which may have influenced upon the way by which Ps 144 is composed. Ps 144 is the last royal psalm in the Psalter and was strategically arranged in its present position (near the end of the subgroup of Pss 135-145 followed by a doxology) in order to impart an eschatological message - the Messiah's eschatological warfare, victory, and blessings under the leadership of Yahweh.
  • 4.

    Qoheleth's Preservation and Innovation of the Hebrew Wisdom Tradition in the Period of the Early Hellenism

    Keun Jo Ahn | 2015, 21(3) | pp.99~124 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to pursue the origin of the revolutionary voice of the Qoheleth who seems to be against traditional teachings of Hebrew wisdom literature. This study shows that Qoheleth's innovative ideas and critical attitude do not derive from the external influences of the early Hellenism in the third century or Ancient Near Eastern culture in the previous ages. Instead, Ecclesiastes is a result of innate pious efforts of the Qoheleth in which the sage(s) integrate original traditions of Hebrew wisdom with the new ideas of Hellenistic philosophy. This paper first summarizes historical circumstance in the third century C.E. when the Greek Ptolemy Empire ruled the Levant. To the contrary to our initial thought, an inevitable clash between Hellenism and Judaism did not transpire a conflict in this period. For the Greek rulers, a peculiar religious tradition of a colony in the empire was not of significant importance. It was not a threat to their rule because it was just one of diverse cultures in their world. Also, for Jews, Hellenistic culture did not cause a serious problem as far as their religious customs and rituals were kept to be taken place in their life. Even some Jews eagerly welcomed and followed new style of Hellenistic life because of her rationality and convenience. Hellenism, to be sure, broadened their perspectives and guaranteed wealth and new knowledge. Next, Martin Hengel's discussion is introduced to demonstrate how far the idea and attitude of Qohelth went from traditional teachings of Hebrew sages. Hengel points out six new features of Qoheleth, which were not a part of Hebrew tradition: 1. individualism; 2. the use of divine name, ha Elohim rather than Yahweh; 3. critical attitude toward traditional doctrines; 4. skepticism; 5. determinism; 6. lessons on Carpe Diem. This paper claims that these characteristics of Qoheleth are the result of energetic efforts of preservation and innovation of sages who had kept open mindset. Even they utilized the concepts and methods of Hellenistic philosophy to express better their own Hebrew faith. This tendency of acceptance and adaptation was not new but original for sages since they had preserved intellectual tradition of their religion throughout the history of Israelite and Jewish people. The study of this paper proves that Qoheleth's teachings are still in the tradition of Hebrew wisdom literature and even innovative development of new wisdom through which Hebrew faith of Yahwism survived in the face of universal and pluralistic values Hellenistic worldview. Furthermore, we can observe the crucial role of sages in the preservation and innovation of their religious tradition.
  • 5.

    The Crisis-Solving Process of King David in Light of the Substitute King Ritual

    Dong-Young Yoon | 2015, 21(3) | pp.126~155 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The present study purports to analyze the crisis solving process of King David (2 Samuel 12 and 24) in light of the motif of the substitute king ritual. The substitute king ritual is “an arrangement in which, briefly put, the ruling king temporarily abdicates his throne for a surrogate who, having ruled his predetermined period, is put to death, after which the king reascends his throne and continues ruling as if nothing had happened.” The account of the death of David’s son (2 Sam 12:13-14) implies a kind of substitution. Nathan tells David that his first-born by Bathsheba will die as a consequence of his adultery and murder of her husband. The shameful and wicked deeds of David must to be punished. The text, however, says that David will not die for his misdeeds but rather his son. YHWH has transferred (he‘ebîr) David’s sin to the newborn baby. Because his son died in his stead, David was able to maintain his kingship and to have a second son who became his successor. Regarding the census narrative (2 Samuel 24), there is no evidence that Gad initiates and intermediates David’s prayer and substitution ritual. However, the substitutional motif and context are evident. Manipulating divination to draw a choice among three punishments, Gad transfers David’s sin to the people of Israel. Seventy thousand people of Israel die in place of King David. The episodes concerning the death of the infant and people of Israel are properly speaking not instances of the substitute king ritual, but they contains all (or some of) the essential elements of it: a divine message threatening the king, the magical transfer of the king’s person upon another individual by robbing and enthronement rites, and the irrevocability of the fate decreed by the gods both for the king and the substitute. It can hardly be doubted that both instances have been inspired by the ritual. The same mental climate that fostered the performance of the rite in the Near East is illustrated in the episodes.
  • 6.

    The Cult Statue and the Ritual of the Opening of the Mouth in the Old Testament

    SEUNG IL KANG | 2015, 21(3) | pp.156~183 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    The central aspect of the religions of ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt was the care and feeding of the gods. The problem is how to care and feed the invisible deities. To resolve this issue, the ancients manufactured cult statues made of wood covered with gold and silver and precious stones, and clothed and fed them as if they were real gods. Once created in a workshop, the cult statue then underwent the so-called ritual of the Opening of the Mouth which was designed to animate the statue so it could eat, breathe, and see. This study briefly surveys the Opening of the Mouth ritual in Egypt and Mesopotamia and examines the possibility of the existence of YHWH's cult statue in ancient Israel. The in-depth analysis of biblical and archaeological evidence as well as historical references would reveal that there was probably YHWH's cult statue in the Solomonic Temple. In addition, it is shown that some prophets like Jeremiah and the Second Isaiah were acquainted with the procedures of the ritual as practiced in Egypt and Mesopotamia, and they pronounced the supremacy of YHWH by utilizing those elements in their own polemics against idol worship. The results of this study imply that the Yahwistic cult may have not been aniconic in its incipient stage, and would contribute to the understanding of the origin and development of the aniconic tendency of the religion of Israel.