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2016, Vol.22, No.1

  • 1.

    A Study on the Twofold Function of the Sin Offering in the Light of the Kipper Act by Using Structural Criticism and Text Linguistics: Focused on Leviticus 4

    Chung Hee Kyung | 2016, 22(1) | pp.10~37 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study attempts to investigate the twofold function of the sin offering (taJ'x;) in the light of the kipper act. It is achieved by applying structural criticism and text linguistics to Leviticus 4 which is a representative text of the sin offering. J. Milgrom and his followers have forcefully asserted that the function of the sin offering should be limited to the purification of the sancta since its blood is applied only to the sancta rather than to the people. But this assertion has been challenged by many scholars including N. Kiuchi who have insisted that the sin offering has the twofold functions of purification and forgiveness. Unfortunately, however, they have failed to suggest what the kipper act consists of in detail. According to the exegetical study of Leviticus 4, the sin offering seems to have the dual function of purifying the sancta through the blood rite(hz'hi/!t;n') and providing forgiveness to the offerer through the comprehensive kipper act (laying a hand, slaughtering, the blood rite, and the burning rite). Laying a hand (%m;s') seems to symbolize the identification of the offerer with the sacrificial animal, and thus the animal identified with the offerer is slaughtered (jx;v') to pay the price for his sins. It seems that the blood sprinkled on the altar has the meaning of showing the evidence to God that the offerer’s life was offered (Lev 17:11), and that the burning rite (rj;q') on the altar confirms the acceptance of the offerer to the Lord. When all these atonement rituals (i.e. kipper act) are performed properly, ‘kipper’ and ‘forgiveness of the offerer’ are proclaimed (4:20, 26, 31, 35). In short, the twofold function of the sin offering—purification and forgiveness—is more clearly revealed in the light of the kipper act.
  • 2.

    A Study on the Theological Unity of Jephthah’s Story (Judg 10:612:7)from the Perspective of the Deuteronomistic Historian

    SinHo Lim | 2016, 22(1) | pp.38~61 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to find out the theological unity of the Jephthah’s story (Judg 10:6‑12:7) from the perspective of the Deuteronomistic Historian. Much ink has been spilled on the story of Jephthah, but it has largely been focused on the theme of Jephthah’s human sacrifice due to the difficulty of the interpretation of the text as well as the lack of unity in the story of the human sacrifice in Judges 11 and that of the internal war in Judges 12. Therefore, this study will argue that the three texts of Jephthah’s story (Judg 10:6-12:7)—the story of war with Ammon (10:6-11:28), the story of Jephthah’s human sacrifice (11:29-40) and the story of internal war between Jephthah and the tribe of Ephraim (12:1-7)—are to be understood as a series of events, and not separate ones, and thus to be studied as a unified story which was edited with cause and effect. This study aims (1) to find out the cause of the religious and moral sins shown in Jephthah’s story, (2) to investigate the problem of Israel’s idolatry and disobedience from the aspect of religious sins, (3) to trace the sins of the individual and the community from the aspect of moral sins, (4) and to reveal the theological unity of Jephthah’s story. This study came to the conclusion that the story of Jephthah (Judges 10:6-12:7) was deliberately edited with a unified frame of cause and effect by the Deuteronomistic Historian.
  • 3.

    Public Discourses of Amos reviewed in the Perspective of ‘Torah-based Publicness’ : Reinterpretation of Amos 2:6-7

    한규승 | 2016, 22(1) | pp.62~101 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the public discourses (prophetic ministries) of the 8th century B.C. Israelite prophet Amos and to prove that his publicness was rooted in the publicness of the Torah, that is, the Covenant Code (Exod 20-23) and the Deuteronomic Code (Deut 12-26). For this, I traced the modern concept of publicness and then analyzed the public discourses of Amos on the basis of it. I analyzed the publicness of the 8th century BC Israelite prophets with a focus on the three elements (populus, salus publica, Publizität), which constitute publicness on the basis of the publicness ideas of the two scholars—Rudolf Smend and Cho Han Sang. These three elements of publicness are found in the oracles of the four 8th century B.C. Israelite prophets. For them populus was the free peasants of Israel in the land of inheritance, salus publica means the enjoyment of rest there, and Publizität refers to the publicly delivered oracles in the public places such as the city-gate square, the sanctuary, and the palaces. The prophets of Israel, especially the 8th century B.C. Israelite prophets incessantly ran the risk of being endangered to suffer persecutions in order to protect the ‘Torah-based publicness’ of the Yahwistic faith. The publicness of the Israelite prophets was embodied in the Torah-based publicness and it strikes root in the ‘theology of the land.’ This study touched the ‘theology of the land’ in the laws of the Torah, which is the basis of the Torah-based publicness. The land for the ancient Israel meant more than an arable soil for securing food and connoted all the economic activities done on and for it. Thus the Torah-based publicness is the economic publicness that seeks to protect the God-given rights and life of the free peasants so that they may not be victimized for lack of economic injustice. The Torah-based publicness penetrates the public discourses of the prophets of Israel, specifically of the 8th century B.C. Israelite prophets. Therefore, In order to interpret the public discourses of the 8th century B.C. Israelite prophets properly, a socio-scientific exegesis based on the ‘Torah-based publicness’ is needed. As such an example, I tried to do an intertextual exegesis on Amos 2:6-7 socio-scientifically on the basis of the Torah-based publicness. Thus, in Amos 2:6 the preposition ‘ב’ is interpreted as “by means of” and thus the phrase ‘rWb[]B’ as “any practical action”(e;rgoj). Besides, though many scholars have interpreted that Amos 2:7c generally means sexual depravation in a family, I understood it to mean that a family faced the loss of hypothec economically, which was the socio-economic situation of the free peasants of the time. In this way I tried to make it clear that, different from the traditional interpretation, Amos 2:6-7 was a public discourse of the prophet Amos which criticized the socio-economic context of the 8th century B.C. Israel on the basis of the Torah-based publicness. Through this study, by illuminating the publicness of the Old Testament, which has been remarkably formed in the long historical process, such as the formation of the Torah, the activities of the prophets, and so forth, we come to notice that the Old Testament is the genuine text for the publicness of the church and Christian theology .
  • 4.

    A Study on the Lists of Property and the Change of God’s Name in the Prologue and the Epilogue of Job: Focused on the Texts of 1:1-5 and 42:12-13

    Kim Jin Myung | 2016, 22(1) | pp.102~124 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to study the literary function and theological meaning of Job 1:1-5 and 42:12-13. Especially the list of property of Job in Job 1:2-3 (prologue) is literally echoed in 42:12-13 (epilogue). These two texts make an 'inclusio' which is a rhetorical and literary structure, and there are some changes in them. The change of the appellation of God (Elohim → YHWH) is the most important. What is the purpose of Job’s writer in regard to this change? Most former interpreters of Job 1:1-5 have not taken much interest in the list of Job’s property (1:2-3; 42:12-13). The present study, however, explores the rhetorical structure and function of 1:1-5 (2-3) and its theological meaning as an ‘inclusio’ of the proclamation of YHWH. The assumption is that the Hebrew tale of Job is connected with the common tradition (traditum) of the suffering-literature of Ancient Near Eastern texts and that it includes the process of Israelization of the tradition (traditio). By using a rhetorical critical method, this study compared and analyzed the texts in the book of Job (introduction, chaps. 1-2 (1:14-18); conclusion, 42:7-17 (12-13)), which are connected with the lists of Job’s property. In the process of this research, the dual function of Job 1:1-5 was identified not only as a small intro to the introduction (chaps. 1-2) but also as an intro to the whole book (chaps. 1-42). The conclusion was also reached that the writer of the book of Job tried to propose a religious message through this literary structure and rhetorical devices: ‘Elohim’ as a common god of the Ancient Near Eastern world (traditum) is Israel’s ‘YHWH,’ who is the Lord of life, the first and the last, the Creator of the world, and the real giver of blessings (traditio). Through this study, it was proved that one of the purposes of writing this book is to deliver such a religious message to the Ancient Near Eastern world. This interpretation can help us to understand the timeless lesson of the book of Job and its identity as one of the religious canonical books in the Old Testament.
  • 5.

    The Literary Pattern of the Story of the Book of Ezra - Nehemiah, and its Theology

    Cheol-Woo Park | 2016, 22(1) | pp.125~156 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The Book of Ezra-Nehemiah is shown to consist of three basic literary units (Ezra 1-6, 7-10; Neh 1-13) interconnected with each other to form a single literary corpus. It takes the form of three parallel literary units (ABC [Ezra 1-6]//A'B'C' [Ezra 7-10] //A"B"C" [Neh 1-13]) and two parallel conclusions (X [Ezra 9:1-10:44]//X' [Neh 12:44-13:31]) being unified. Each of the three units shows the sequential coincidence of literary elements and the similar literary pattern in the development of the story (1. introductory statement; 2. quotation; 3. initial partial fulfillment; 4. list; 5. implementation; 6. obstacle; 7. overcoming [finial fulfillment]; 7. worhip of thanks and devotion). These literary aspects show that the Book of Ezra-Nehemiah is a document written by the same literary tendency and methods of compilation. At the same time, through the two interconnected parallel conclusions of the book(X//X'), it shows the theological particularity which lays emphasis on the principle of Ezra-Nehemiah’s religious reformation and on the importance of continual efforts for the reformation of the faith community and each one of its members as well. In Nehemiah 1-13, the compiler succeeded in delivering the unique theological message of Ezra-Nehemiah by means of the tactical change of the literary structure and the organization of the basic story pattern, such as Nehemiah 7:4-12:26 (A-B-A' structure), his use of prayer (stylistic inclusio), and so on. These literary particularities should be considered for the clarity of the theology of the Book of Ezra-Nehemiah.
  • 6.

    Theology of the Prayer of the Old Testament: Centered on Hannah’s Prayer of Vows (1 Sam 1)

    Han, Dong-Gu | 2016, 22(1) | pp.158~181 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The values of objectivity, totality, value-neutralness, and so forth, were highly regarded in the age of modernism, but moving into the age of post-modernism, the importance of ‘life with stories’ and ‘value-oriented life’ has been emphasized. In such an age I intend to study ‘prayers’ rather than public phenomena, before which personal piety stands. Under the situation when public religion was being dissolved in the exilic period and in the exilic transition period, personal piety such as prayers functioned as an important means to receive God’s revelation. Nevertheless it was difficult for prayers, different from the cult or the Word, to obtain the certainty of revelation. Therefore, they tried to complement the vagueness of the reception of revelation. In the process of this try, theology of prayer is also formed. This study first traces the history of the change in the reception of revelation in the exilic period and in the period before and after it. During the process the differences between the revelation of the Word and the prophetic revelation are investigated. Besides the try to complement the vagueness of prophetic revelation, that is, theology of prayer is found out. The theology of prayer, which 1 Samuel 1 shows, is that the way to live by following the lead of God, that is, the sure way to receive God’s revelation has to be connected with personal piety and commitment which are self-emptying, and that then only the certainty of prophetic revelation can be obtained above its vagueness.
  • 7.

    Understanding God's Mercy in the Wisdom of Solomon

    Samuel Cheon | 2016, 22(1) | pp.183~209 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to find out Pseudo-Solomon’s understanding of God’s mercy in the Wisdom of Solomon 11:15-12:27, where its author presents God who provides mercy upon even the wicked, the Egyptians and Canaanites, as well as the righteous, the Israelites. To do so, I analyze the text exegetically, apply his presentation of God’s mercy to the historical context of the anti-Jewish riot in Alexandria in 38 C.E., and find out its social function. I insist that Pseudo-Solomon’s idea of God’s mercy reflects universalism. Tha is to say, God’s mercy is impartially paid on both the just and the wicked, because God, as the Creator with unlimited power, takes care of the creatures. Such a way of providing mercy is also the way of God’s punishing sinners, because it is also the way the wicked are enabled to realize their sins and to believe in God. Taking the opportunity of their committing sins, God gradually punishes them for their repentance. Nevertheless, they never repent, because they do not have reasonable discernment. As a result, they cannot escape God’s final judgment. This means that Pseudo-Solomon recognizes the free will of the wicked, even though he exaggeratedly describes their inborn nature as evil. On the other hand, the righteous quickly repent by being lightly punished and return to God, through which they realize that the just should not only love human beings but also seek God’s mercy with their repentance even in the context of their comitting sins. Through such an idea of God’s mercy, Pseudo-Solomon would try not only to make the Alexandrian Jews, who suffered by the anti-Jewish riot in 38 C.E., find their self-identity, but also to suppress their intention of retaliating upon their enemies and their expectation of the attackers’ immediate destruction.