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2016, Vol.22, No.2

  • 1.

    Betrachtungen zu den griechischen Textformen der Paralleltexte zwischen 1Kön 8,1-53 und 2Chr 5,2-6,42

    Kim, Jong-Hoon | 2016, 22(2) | pp.10~37 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Der vorliegende Beitrag wollte die in den Samuel- und Königebüchern erkennbaren Phänomene erweitert untersuchen. Dafür wurde die Paralleltexte zwischen 1Kön und 2Chr ausgewählt. Vom ersten Lesen her ist intuitiv zu erfassen, dass 2Chr noch treuer zur Vorlage als 1Kön ist. Diese Tatsache lässt die weitere Annahme stellen, nämlich ob analog zur Relation zwischen dem antiochenischen Text und der Kaige Rezension die der Ausgangssprache treue wortwörtliche Übersetzung später als die auf die Zielsprache gezielte freie Übersetzung sein könnte. In diesem Zusammenhang ist unsere Untersuchung wie folgt zusammenzufassen: (1) Die beiden hebräischen und griechischen Texte gehen eigentlich auf eine Tradition zurück. Allerdings sahen sie sich bestimmt einer flexibelen und vielfältigen Phase des Alten Testaments gegenüber. In dieser Phase gingen sie auch wohl durcheinander in Bezug auf die eizelnen Texttraditionen. Dieses Phänomen ist in den verschiedenen Büchern des Alten Testament zu erkennen. In unserem Textbereich befindet es sich als die verschiedenen Kobinationen der unterschiedlichen Texttraditionen, was sicherlich die Flexibilität und Vielfältigkeit der Traditionen zwischen den beiden Büchern widerspiegeln. (2) In vielen Fällen, wo die hebräischen Texte der beiden Bücher identisch sind, weichen die beiden griechischen Versionen voneinander ab. Dieses Phänomen ist nichts anderes als, was die Beziehung zwischen dem antiochenischen Text und der Kaige Rezension der Samuel- und Königebücher darstellt. Aufgrund unserer Untersuchung ist zu besagen, dass 2ChrLXX schon 1K nLXX kannte und mit einer gegenüber 1KönLXX abweichenden zur Ausgangssprache treuen Übersetzungstechnik seine eigene Wiedergabe herstellte. Zum Schluss könnte bescheiden aber mit Plausibilität aussagen: Die auf die Ausgangssprache gezielte Übersetzungs- bzw. Bearbeitungstechnik wie die der Kaige Rezension ist nicht bloss die Tendenz des erst in der hellenistisch/frühjüdischen Zeit aufgetauchten Hermeneutiksregels, sondern sie setzt einen noch älteren von Haus aus wortw rtlich wiedergegebenen Vorläufer voraus und wurde in jener Zeit bei der Bearbeitung der Septuaginta weiter angewandt, stark entwickelt und immer weiter polemysiert. Natürlich braucht unsere Betrachtung weitere Bestätigung der anderen Textbereiche. Sie wird die nachfolgende Aufgabe des vorliegenden Beitrags.
  • 2.

    Holiness and Justice in Isaiah 1-12

    Kim, Rae Yong | 2016, 22(2) | pp.38~65 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to investigate not only the relationship between holiness and justice but also the characteristics and functions of these two in Isaiah 1-12. For this purpose, I examined the language, structure, and syntax of each of the units where these two terms occur in Isaiah 1-12. In Isaiah 1-12, holiness and justice play important roles in the judgment oracles and in the salvation oracles alike. In the judgment oracles, in particular, both holiness and justice are employed in justification of the Lord's judgment upon his people. Furthermore, holiness is used to explain or describe the reasons for God’s judgment on his people and the sins that the people committed against their neighbors or against God. In the salvation oracles, holiness is used to describe the identity of the remnant, the relationship between the remnant and God, the ideal world in which the remnant will reside in the future, and an object whom the remnant will worship. Justice, which occurs with righteousness in Isaiah 1-12, is also used to explain the reasons for God’s judgment on his people. Here, justice and righteousness play very similar roles as holiness does. Absence of justice from them is a reason for God's judgment upon his people, and God passes judgment upon them in order to restore justice to them. In the salvation oracles, it is emphasized that salvation is due to both justice and righteousness and that they are very important virtues that the future Messiah should have. The results of this study prove useful for those who read and study Isaiah 1-12 to understand it better.
  • 3.

    An Understanding of the Salvation of the Righteous in 1QpHab vii.5-viii.3

    Pong Dae Im | 2016, 22(2) | pp.66~95 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, I will attempt to evaluate the salvation of the righteous through the lens of Pesher Habakkuk (1QpHab), particularly vii.5-viii.3, which is the interpretation of the biblical text of Habakkuk 2:3-4. This requires a previous understanding of a figure of the Teacher of Righteousness since the text describes the salvation of the righteous as "their trouble and fidelity to the Teacher of the Righteous"(1QpHab viii.1-3). The interpretation of Habakkuk 2:4b in 1QpHab viii.1-3 gives us a clear view of God's salvation from the house of judgment through both lm'['(‘āmāl, trouble) and hn"mua/(’emunâ, fidelity) to the Teacher of Righteousness. The Teacher of Righteousness is the founder of the community and the supreme interpreter of the Law. He confronts opponents from within and without, including "the Man of Lies" and "the Wicked Priest." While the Man of Lies is the leader of opposition among his own community who rises up against the Teacher, the Wicked Priest is the high priesthood of the Temple, from which the Teacher of Righteousness and his community separate themselves. The perspective of 1QpHab shows that the Qumran community knew the concept of the need for righteousness imputed by God. Here is also a significant development beyond the Old Testament itself in that the Qumran community already understood Habakkuk's words in terms of relationship to a person. This enabled Paul to apply Habakkuk 2:4 to Jesus Christ and to understand it. When it comes to faith in Jesus Christ, Paul understood this text teaches that one is not justified before God through the works of the law but accomplished through faith. This was intensified as the declaration of the Reformation by Martin Luther, which is “Only by faith” (sola fide), and became the core of the Reformed credo of Christianity. However, we can say that, in 1QpHab, the salvation of the righteous is not the alternative of ‘by works’ or ‘by faith.’ This understanding leads us to reconsider the Reformed credo “Only by faith” (sola fide) in the context of the modern church, which is confronted not only with spiritual issues but also ethical ones.
  • 4.

    “%lma yna”: Twist in the Line of Succession to the Throne of David

    Son Jong-hee | 2016, 22(2) | pp.98~131 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Who will succeed the throne of David? This has been an issue of utmost importance not only for the people of Israel but also within the court of David. According to the principle of primogeniture as a fait accompli in Israel, Amnon is David's eldest son and therefore the heir to the throne. However, the line of succession within the royal palace is completely twisted and eventually Solomon succeeds David. Regal power in David's house is not smoothly transferred, and thus the court is exposed to urgent crisis with continuous power struggles among the princes related to the succession. What is the reason for such a twist? Was there a redactor's activity? Why was the Succession Narrative (2 Sam 9-20 and 1 Kgs 1-2), which revolves around the succession of the throne, written? In order to answer these questions, this study looks at each of the four candidates for the throne in order, and searches for the purpose and intentions of the author of the Succession Narrative. The author of the Succession Narrative, who worked as Solomon's apologist, reveals the reasons why Amnon, Absalom, and Adonijah were all rejected as David's successor, although they were the most privileged. The author records that Solomon is the only lawful successor set by Yahweh. The three candidates violated the law of Yahweh and committed crimes such as rape, murder, and rebellion, even though they had the legitimacy and rights to succeed David's throne. Thus those who committed crucial sins against the law cannot claim the throne, even though they are David the King's eldest son or the second one. In the eyes of the author of the Succession Narrative, therefore, Solomon's accession is the fulfillment of the Davidic covenant and a legitimate, natural result which accords with the will of Yahweh. The author explains through such a theological analysis why Solomon, the youngest son and thus the last candidate for the throne, was able to succeed the throne, and he seeks to find a solution to the immediate political crisis during the early years of Solomon's reign. Thus the Succession Narrative functions as Solomon's political propaganda, which is an apologetic account of the court to resolve public suspicions and accusations.
  • 5.

    Death and Funeral in the Hebrew Bible: Memory of Being and Relationship

    LeeEunAe | 2016, 22(2) | pp.132~165 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Death in the Hebrew Bible belongs to the essence of humans as the created beings, and because of death humans can realize that they are only human beings. Humans can not live forever, they belong to God’s created order, and someday they as a part of nature will have to return to dust. Therefore, death is natural and unavoidable, and it belongs to a unique human feature. In the Hebrew Bible, death is described by the expressions such as “he was gathered to his people” or “he rested with his fathers.” The expressions reveal their understanding of death as a cultural memory of the ancient Israel community. That is, they are gathered to their ancestors through their death. Their gathering place is the graves in the land that God promised to their ancestors. Therefore, such a unique literary expression is not a description of death for a person only, but it is a vehicle of their identity to form one community which also includes descendants who continue to live, die, and be buried in the land where their forefathers lived. It is also a vehicle for them to continue to transmit their cultural memory to the community. The funeral ceremony in the Hebrew Bible reveals that the ancient Israel community did a series of mourning rites such as fasting, acting to incur self-inflicted injuries, and lamenting with cry and sigh. The funeral ceremony can be explained as the last moment for the living to meet the dead. The living could realize their destiny of mortality as human beings, when they meet the dead face to face. By saying their unique literary expression to the dead, they become to predict their own future when they, although they are alive now, will also be gathered to their people after their death. It is an expression of their faith that death cannot break the relationship of the living with the dead even after death, although the dead seem to be cut off from the living through death. The funeral rites in the Hebrew Bible, therefore, can function as a vehicle to remind the living community of their lasting relationship with the dead. Burial can also be interpreted as such a cultural memory. The burial culture in the Hebrew Bible was a vehicle to remind the living of the nature of human beings who will be buried and return to dust. Furthermore, it is a vehicle to remind them of faith toward God the Creator who bestowed life to humans which he made with dust. Through burial the relationship between the dead and the living, between the past generation and the present generation, could be remembered and reserved. Thus burial could be understood as a vehicle for their remembering the past and the present, and the promise of the land and its fulfillment. The understanding of death and the funeral ceremony in the Hebrew Bible are related to the social, corporate, and selective remembrance of the ancient Israel community. This symbolic meaning connects the community as one and puts it in a cultural world of faith. The ancient Israel community is said to have made their unique corporate identity in such a common space.
  • 6.

    Divine Healing in the Prophetic Literature and Its Theological Significance

    Hong, Seong Hyuk | 2016, 22(2) | pp.166~196 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The primary purpose of this study is to find out the theological significance of healing exclusively by God’s intervention, namely divine healing, on the basis of the prophetic literature. For this purpose, I first argue that, while divine healing is exclusive and ultimate, healing by prophets or physicians was not denied. I also mention that to recognize prophets or physicians as healing consultants was not to acknowledge their healing as a competition with the exclusive position of divine healing, but as complementary to God’s healing. In addition, I maintain that the emphasis of the scriptures on divine healing in the prophetic literature is for the purpose of affirming God’s utter sovereignty over the present world and the eschatological alike. For this purpose, I rely on the theological analysis of the texts in the prophetic literature while minimizing the historical analysis of them. The texts, which clearly show a variety of concepts associated with healing, are selected. When necessary for the conceptual explanation of healing, a few texts of other genres, which is not in the prophetic literature, are selected. It is shown that in the prophetic literature divine healing is primary, but that healing by prophets or physicians, and the application of medicine to the sick as well, were not excluded. It means that the human healing consultants had to pray to God for a divine guidance in the healing process, prescribing a right medicine for the patient. The healing account in the prophetic literature particularly stresses that the Divine Healer is utterly superior to the other deities of the neighbouring heathen countries. This leads us to claim that healing was for the purpose of consolidating the exclusive worship of Yahweh against the idolatrous worship of the neighboring pagan nations. Divine healing was intended to promote not only God’s present rule over the world but also the hope of God’s eschatological rule, although healing was not successful. Finally, this paper suggests that, although healing is ultimately dependent on God, believers should not neglect the prayers of the pastor and the help of physicians and medicines, holding to his belief in God’s present and eschatological sovereignty over the world.