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2016, Vol.22, No.4

  • 1.

    An Exegerical Study of War Oracle in Joel 3:10a against the Vision of Peace in Isa. 2:4a and Mi. 4:3a

    왕대일 | 2016, 22(4) | pp.14~43 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is intended to study Joel 3:10a (H 4:10a), “Beat your plowshares into swords and your pruning hooks into spears,” which takes a stand against the famous word of peace in Isaiah 2:4b and Micah 4:3b, “They shall beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks.” In order to understand the meaning of Joel 3:10a in its relation to disarmament phrases in Isaiah 2:4 and Micah 4:3, this paper carries out hermeneutical enquiry to discern the validity of Joel 3:10 in its literal, textual, historical, and compositional context.
  • 2.

    God’s Spirit, Isaiah, Ezekiel, Temple, God - recognition

    Sa-Ya Lee | 2016, 22(4) | pp.44~69 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Studies on the theme of הור or Holy Spirit are rare in comparision with other theological themes in the Old Testament. In fact, the word Holy Spirit (שודק חור) occurs only three times in the Old Testament(Ps.51:13; Is.63:10,11). But the books of Prophets include sixty-five times of God’s Spirit of theoepistemological meaning. The theoepistemological meaning of God’s Spirit and Power is unique expression which could not find in any other near eastern texts except the Old Testament. Especially, God’s Spirit was a way of God’s presence to the prophets. The purpose of this paper is to make clear theological features in interpreting God’s Spirit texts in the Prophets and to prove the fact that חור is one of the theologically important themes in the Old Testament and to contribute to the development of studies of Holy Spirit in the Old Testament. God’s creation and re-creation, supremacy, Israel’s restoration, universalism on the theoepistemology, changes of individual religious life are main theological characteristics engaging with the God’s Spirit in the Prophets. Ezekiel said not merely the creatures' life-receiving through life-giving spirit, but entire Israel's restoration and new creation(Ez.37) and required Israel’s internal, ethical changes. Also Isaiah presented the fact that the meaning of new life-giving was not restricted in natural creatures and pointed out wider meaning about the restoration of the own land and nation(Is.40:12-14; 44:1-5 etc.). And there appeared the integrated relationship between pouring of oil and presence of Ruah YHWH, so to speak, the selection of YHWH appeared through oil-pouring was replaced by pouring of Ruah YHWH. Shem YHWH, Kabod YHWH and Yad YHWH supports the presence of Him(Is.59:19; Ez.3:12,14; 43:5 etc.). These are the alternations of the ark which was traditional symbol of God’s presence. Haggai, Zechariah and Ezekiel paid attention to God’s Spirit, necessary element of the reconstruction of the temple and the restoration of the faith of Israelite community. Especially שודק חור(Is.63:10,11) was the expression of God’s presence itself (not a symbol) starting from the emphasis of God’s holiness and it could be the theological great conversion because God’s Spirit appeared as the agent of YHWH or even His own manifestation. We could see the diversity of the epistemology of God’s presence and even its changes in the prophets.
  • 3.

    Bring Forth Out Of The Temple Of Jehovah And Burn Them

    Eunwoo Lee | 2016, 22(4) | pp.70~101 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Since de Wette, the relationship between 2 Kings 22-23 which is King Josiah’s reform report and Deuteronomy has been one of the main topics of modern Old Testament study. There have been various arguments on the textual history of King Josiah’s Temple Purification report in 2 Kings 23: 4, 6-7 which is King Josiah’s first reform report. Some regards this part as Dtr1 redaction, others as DtrH. In this study, the writer traces the textual and literary history of this report through etymological, lexical, and exegetic analysis. Through this study, the writer reveals that v. 6a which describes the removal of Asherah from the temple and its cast outside Jerusalem at the brook Kidron belongs to the primary material of Josiah’s reform portraying the purification of the temple. The writer finally reveals that to those older material, deuteronomic redactional layer like 4abα, 6b, 7 and post-deuteronomic layer like 4bβ gradually added. The writer especially pays attention to some terminologies such as ‘the high priest’, ‘the priests of the second order’, ‘the keepers of the threshhold’, ‘the temple of Yahweh’, ‘the fields of the Kidron’, and the relationship between this text and the book of Jeremiah, and the relationship between Deuteronomic redaction and Jeremiah.
  • 4.

    Effect of Social Relationship on Sufferer: Based on Song of Songs 2-4

    Lee Il Rye | 2016, 22(4) | pp.102~128 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Effect of Social Relationship on Sufferer: Based on Song of Songs 2-4 This article has investigated the effect of social relationship on sufferer and its positive and negative aspects. The concept of 'garden'(!G:) in Song of Songs 2 reminds us of Genesis 2-3. The concept of 'helper'(rz<[) in Genesis 2:18-25 is pivotal to understand God's creation and human disobedience, and it is a theological theme to connect between the two events. Adam's lost of a role as helper to have to help Eve who is exposed to the temptation of the serpent leads to the lost of their community the Garden of Eden (Gen. 4:12) and further changes the Garden to a doomed garden that has deep scars (Gen. 2-4). However, a winter garden in Song of Songs 2, which is a dwelling place of a suffered Shullammite woman and a closed place where oppresses her life, begins to be restored into a 'open garden' by her lover's calling her from the garden. The story of the lovers in Song of songs 2-4 also helps us understand the event of Abraham in Genesis 12, in particular, through a imperative verb Halah(%l;h'). When a man who is peeping through the windows calls her, he uses the words imperative form "arise"(ymiWq) and "let's go"(ykil.). Also, in Genesis 12:1, God requests Abraham to leave his hometown, relatives, and father's house and "go"(^l..-%l,) to the land that He will show him. The two stories that have the same motive "halah," however, gradually reach different theological conclusions. In Egypt where the desire of the powerful is at once order and commonsense, Abraham succumbs to Pharaoh who wants to possess a beautiful woman Sarah without hesitation, and Sarah also succumbs to Abraham's violence to her in another way. On the contrary, a Shullammite woman is different from Abraham and Sarah's choice. The restoration of the garden started with halah(%l;h') in Song of Songs 2 is realized by the great vision of a Shullammite woman in Song of Songs 3. As a wall and a window lattice that are between a Shullammite woman and her lover suggest, there are some risks before the winter garden is restored to a 'open garden.' However, a Shullammite woman resists the closed social structure, existing circumstance, and destiny. The suffering and risky situation of a Shullammite woman are overcame by her lover's calling her out and her answering his calling, and the garden is finally restored.
  • 5.

    Kreation und Geschichte in der Initiative Gottes: Betrachtungen zu holistic Reading des Buch-Jeremias durch den Brückenschlag zwischen Jer 1:10 und 31:28

    임시영 | 2016, 22(4) | pp.129~153 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Diese Studie geht um die Betrachtungen zu holistic Reading des Buch-Jeremias. Bis jetzt wird das Buch-Jeremia nur durch Verheißungskonzept als ein Ganzes verstanden. Aber diese Studie versucht es im Kreationsmotiv zu verstehen. Dafür wird das Verhältnis zwischen Jer 1:10 und 31:28 aufgefallen, die auf einen starken Brückenschlag miteinander liegen und das Kreationsmotiv gewiss enthalten. Mit den Betrachtungen zu dem literarischen Gemeinschaftsverhältnis zwischen Jer 1:10 und 31:28 wird das Verheißungskonzept, das sich nur in der Geschichte befindet, in das Kreationsmotiv absorbiert. Damit kann die Möglichkeit von holistic Reading gelten lassen: Das Jeremia-Buch kann man unter dem Thema ‘Initiative Gottes’ als ein Ganzes lesen, das mit dem Kreationsmotiv ganz eng verbunden ist. Im Buch-Jeremia befinden sich die Beschreibungen, die das Kreationsmotiv enthalten. Die Gerichtsbeschreibungen im Buch-Jeremia, die durch Kreationsmotiv dargestellt sind, leisten die literarische Einheit des gesamten Buches zu bilden. Die Fluch durch das Bund JHWHs und das Gerichtsurteil von JHWH werden durch die Erneuerung des Bundes zum durch eine neue Kreation entstandenen Heil gewendet: Dieser zwischen JHWH und Israel erneurte Bund wird von Gott selbst abgeschlossen. Dadurch sind der Vorderteil und Hinterteil des Buches inhaltlich miteinander eng zusammen gestellt. Diese Einheit ist noch durch die Darstellung eines neues und ewiges Bundes(Jer 31:31; 32:40) versichert. In dieser Hinsicht werden Jer 1:10 und 31:28 wieder aufgefallen. Jer 31:28 muss inhaltlich und theologisch das Konzept von Jer 1:10 reflektieren. Außerdem wird das ursprüngliche Konzept durch die Parallele zwischen Jer 1:10 und 31:28 weiter verbreitet und verstärkt. Also baut ein literarlisches Brückenschlag(Einheit, Aufeinanderfolge und Erweiterung beweisst) damit an. Dieses Brückenschlag behält die Spannung zwischen Gericht und Heil bei. In dieser Spannung kann das Buch-Jeremia als ein literarisches Ganzes gelesen werden(holistic Reading). Das durch das Brückenschlag aufgestandene semantische Netzwerk pointiert die Initiative Gottes im ganzen Buch.
  • 6.

    Narrative Criticism and the Primary Narrative (Genesis ~ 2 Kings) in the Old Testament

    Dohyung Kim | 2016, 22(4) | pp.155~191 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This article aims to study the structure in the Primary Narrative(Genesis ~ 2 Kings) in the Old Testament. For this, narrative criticism is employed as the main research method. Narrative criticism is a synchronic and synthetic literary analysis that tries to read the text as an implied reader that would understand it in its present shape rather than looking at the proven historical information. A close reading enables analysis of the elements such as plot, character, setting and point of view in the text. One of the advantages of this methodology is that, although one may not have complete historical knowledge about a text, it is still possible to read and interpret it. A biblical narrative can analyze the Primary Narrative through the communication system of the narrative. The longest block of Genesis to Kings in the Hebrew Bible (TaNaK) consists of nine books with the exception of the book of Ruth. This part is divided in two sides by the book of Deuteronomy in the center, and it is called a doublet. Each consists of five steps, that is, beginning, development, crisis, climax and denouement. Deuteronomy is the last position of the first part and also in the first position of the second part within the Primary Narrative. When the two parts are unfolded, these show a symmetric pattern or uneven chiasmus from the literary perspective. The Primary Narrative, therefore, is a story as a discourse and it shows the various majestic contents from the beginning of the Kingdom of Judah to its destruction.
  • 7.

    Rhetoric and Theology in the Holiness Code

    Kim, Sun-Jong | 2016, 22(4) | pp.192~217 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    As an enforceable rule, the law regulates and controls human behavior. In that regard, the language of the legal profession should be clear and distinct. When the law is written ambiguously, its various interpretations will cause lots of problems. In this point, the Holiness Code(Lev 17-26), one of the main law codes in the Hebrew Bible, does not meet the linguistic criteria of the modern law. In this law code, one can find the art of persuasion such as inventio, dispositio, and elocutio that were developed in the classical rhetoric in order to persuade the audience. In the Holiness Code appear various rhetorical arrangements, for example the parallelism in a micro-structure and the chiasm in a macro-structure. By using rhetorical techniques such as omission, metaphor, and repetition, the Holiness Code does not satisfy the legal language up to a modern standard. However, this legislation does not expose its naivete as being written in ancient times. On the contrary, its style aims to persuade the audience or the readers who listen or read the Law and finally to invite them to live autonomously according to the Word. This intent is not revealed only by the stylistic scheme of this law code. The Holiness Code does not mention political and social personage like king, judge, and ruler that are found in the Covenant Code(Exod 20:22-23:33) and the Deuteronomic Code(Deut 12-26). No political power is given to the priests. This fact gives a lot of implication to the religious, political, and legal groups who use the rhetorical devices actively.
  • 8.

    The Study of Anthropology History in Old Testament: Before and After H. W. Wolff

    이용호 | 2016, 22(4) | pp.218~249 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Today's western biblical scholarship -Old Testament study- concentrates on human another newly. For the past 150years, anthropology belonged to humanities presented the philosophical anthropology base on philosophy. It showed universal and general human image through the question "what human is?" But different studies and civilization development made such a human image ambiguous. The traditional philosophical anthropology is superseded by "Historical anthropology" in German in the 70s because of giving up a regular answer regarding unchangeable being. It is different from Historical anthropology that deals with description of historical and cultural diversity: such as deed, thought, sense and trouble etc. It's fundamental search is that "How acts are historical in basic method?" So the object of study is not human itself but human acts, creative works, and cultural heritage. This change had a decisive effect on the study of Old testament anthropology. The anthropology of Old testament based on philosophical anthropology, initiated by W. Eichrodt, hopes to prove that God creates more superior human than any animals. Henceforth H. W. Wolff's work, Anthropologie des Alten Testaments has developed the anthropology of Old testament. His excellent linguistic terminology showed again Hebraistic synthetic human image from hellenistic dichotomy and trichotomy and defined biblically human life existing in time and space. His study has been criticized and extended scope of study by a lot of scholars who defined comtemporary humanity in the new millennium. Bernd Janowski currently suggests "Konstellative": Synthetic relationship anthropology haw human acts is linked to society and how he acts in such conditions. The anthropology of Old Testament points out manners of relations of human and human, human and neighbors, human and community with the bible through this study.
  • 9.

    Judges 19-21 and Pro-monarchical Theology

    Lee Hee Hak | 2016, 22(4) | pp.250~284 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Scholars believe that Jud 17-21 is an additional product of pro-monarchical theology which attempts to provide the theological foundation of the monarchy in the kingdoms of Israel and Judah as well as a theological judgment upon the religious and ethical corruption of the period of judges, and that it was written after the period of Deuteronomistic redactional work. In other words, scholars believe that there is no Deuteronomistic editorial work in Jud 17-21. However, is Jud 17-21 really an additional text and without any relation to Deuteronomistic edition? The traditional viewpoint of Jud 17-21 as an additional text added after the Deuteronomistic edition was finished is not conclusive. There are some Deuteronomistic editorial statements such as “all the people did what was right in their own eyes” (17:6b; 21:15b), “residing” (17:7) and “Gershom” in chs 17-18, “in those days the tribe of the Danites” (18:1b), “Micah’s idols” and “Shiloh” (17:5), and “Levite,” “Bethlehem in Judah,” and “residing” (19:1). Previously, Jud 17-21 was not considered to be part of the work of the Deuteronomist because this text does not express the so-called Deuteronomistic theological viewpoint. Of course, Jud 17-21 does not follow the theological literary formation of “Israel’s corruption-YHWH’s rage-enemy’s invasion-suffering of the people and cry-salvation by Judge’s activity” as there is no judge in the text. If we extend the outset of the Judges’ period to 1 Sam 7 when Saul’s dynasty was not yet born, the result is entirely different. In this context, 1 Sam 1-7 reports the transitional period from Judges to monarchy. Then, in the whole context of Deuteronomistic History, we need to connect 1 Sam 1-7 to Jud 17-21. 1 Sam 1-3 reports “Judge” Samuel’s young age and 1 Sam 4-6 (the first half of the Ark of God narrative) deals with the subjects of the Philistines’ invasion and the loss of the Ark of God, which is the symbol of YHWH’s presence. 1 Sam 1-7 is loosely connected with Judges’ theological formation. The Deuteronomistic understanding of history is to promote that the Israelites’ sin puts them into the hand of enemy, and judges sent by God save them, but the Israelites sin again. In that case, Jud 17-21 and 1 Sam 1-7 can be connected. At the end of the story of Samson (Jud 13-16), the text reports Samson’s death (Jud 16:31). 1 Sam 4-6 describes military devastation by the Philistines and the loss of the Ark of God. Based on Deuteronomistic History, Israel’s sinful behavior must appear between ‘judge’s death’ and ‘military failure’ because 1 Sam 4 does not mention any problem of religious corruption in Israel. Moreover, the subject of 1 Sam 1-4 is Samuel’s young age, suggesting that the religious corruption must occur before Samuel’s birth and early life. Israel’s religious and ethical corruption in Jud 17-21, working as a model of unfaith, provides the basis of what the Deuteronomistic History criticizes. The episodes after Samson died are recorded as “a thing ever happened since the day that the Israelites came up from the land of Egypt until this day?” (Jud 19:30). Jud 17-21 works well in the theological formation of the Deuteronomistic History. The crime story in relation to the Levite is not a local scandal but a severe guilt which decisively brings Israel’s defeat by the Philistines.