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2017, Vol.23, No.1

  • 1.

    Holiness and Jusice in Isaiah 56-66

    Kim, Rae Yong | 2017, 23(1) | pp.11~40 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This article investigates several functions of ‘holiness’ and ‘justice’ in Isaiah 56-66. For this, I analysed the languages, structures, and contents of the texts related to these two concepts and three issues in the Third Isaiah period: the delay of salvation, the acceptance of foreigners, and idolatry. The issue of the delay of salvation concretely appears in Isaiah 59 and 63-64. In particular, Isaiah 63-64 describes the delay of salvation through the concept of holiness, and here the concept of holiness plays a role in indicating the people's unholy life (Isa 63:7-14) and emphasizing the perfect restoration of the unholy people and cities (Isa 62:1-9). On the other hand, Isaiah 59 emphasizes that the delay of salvation is due to the absence of justice, and this is repeated especially by the words of the Third Isaiah, people, and Yahweh. However, Isaiah 61 emphasizes that the people and cities will be ultimately restored through Yahweh's love of justice (vss. 4-11). The issue of the acceptance of foreigners occurs in Isaiah 56 and 66, the beginning and the end of the Third Isaiah respectively, and Isaiah 60, its middle. ‘Holiness’ is used to explain the qualification of foreigners as members of the Israel community (Isa 56:1-8), to emphasize that the foreigners realized the fact that God is one and only and that Zion belongs to God the Holy (Isa 60:1-14), and furthermore, to emphasize that the foreigners would be able to serve as priests and Levites because they get the qualification as members of the community (Isa 66:18-21). Here especially ‘justice’ and ‘righteousness’ are mentioned as a condition required for their salvation and blessing (Isa 56:1-2). The issue of idolatry appears in Isaiah 57, 65, and 66. ‘Holiness’ is used to indicate the wrong way of thinking of Israel who worship idols (Isa 57:3-13; 65:1-17), and to stress that they have not followed God wholly (Isa 65:8-16). In particular, the Hebrew term šāphaṭ, the verb of mišpāṭ, is used for the judgment against the idolaters who have been proud of their self-righteousness (Isa 66:15-18). Accordingly, ‘holiness’ and ‘justice’ are the two important concepts that are central issues of religion and society in the period of the Third Isaiah, and they serve as core components composing the messages of the Third Isaiah.
  • 2.

    The Reconsideration of the Macro-structure of the Book of Numbers

    Jae Gu Kim | 2017, 23(1) | pp.41~73 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The book of Numbers had caused a vexing problem related to its literary structure to Old Testament scholarship. In 1985, D. T. Olson's book, The Death of the Old and the Birth of the New: The Framework of the Book of Numbers and the Pentateuch, opened a new era to the field of the study on Numbers' macro-literary structure. Olson divided the book of Numbers into two parts, chaps. 1-25 (the death of the old generation) and 26-36 (the birth of the new generation). Since then, his book has taken a place among the scholars who study the book of Numbers should consider. But this paper intends to argue against Olson's view and to present a more reliable macrostructure of the book. I contend that chaps. 1-20 deal with the death of the old generation and chap. 21 shows the hopeful start of the new generation. In finding its integral literary structure, B. S. Childs' canonical approach is employed because this method sees the book of Numbers as a unified whole. To present a more persuasive structure, this paper tries to find the macrostructure, firstly, in the book of Numbers, secondly, in the literary structure of the Pentateuch, and, thirdly, in the literary structure of the Hexateuch. Firstly, in the book, Numbers 11:1-3 functions to outline what is to come to the old generation and Numbers 21:1-3 functions to sum up what is to come to the new. Numbers 11:1-3 tells that the fire of Yahweh consumed some outlying parts of the camp. This is only the beginning of the demise of the old generation. The camp of Israel consists of three parts, the outer (the twelve tribes), the inner (the Levites), and the center (Moses, Aaron, Aaron's sons). This three part camp collapses one after another, first, the twelve tribes (11:4-14:45), second, the Levites (16:1-17:13), and third, Moses and Aaron(20:1-29). Finally, after all these failures, Numbers 21:1-3 presents the victory of the new generation as a turning point. Secondly, the comparison between Numbers and Deuteronomy reveals the clear demarcation of the old generation and the new. Deuteronomy tells that the entire old generation had perished until they crossed the Wadi Zered (Deut 2:13-15). In Numbers, the event of the old generation crossing Wadi Zered is reported in Numbers 21:12. Then the comparison of the two books clearly proves that the turning point from the old generation to the new is at Numbers 21. Thirdly, in the Hexateuch, the old generation and the new have the same stages of faith journey. The Pharaoh of Egypt fears the old generation because of their numbers and strength, worries and orders to kill them (Exod 1). Balak, king of Moab, fears the new generation because of their numbers and strength, worries and orders to curse them (Num 22). The two kings' behavior to remove the Israelites is the same and the result is also the same (Exod 1-2; Num 23-24). Then the old generation are saved by God and make a covenant with God at Sinai (Exod 19-24), and the new are also saved by God and make a covenant with God at the plains of Moab (Deut 1-34). Finally, the old generation break the covenant and perish in the wilderness (Num 11-20), but the new keep the covenant and conquer the Promised Land (Josh 1-24). These comparisons between the old generation and the new clearly demonstrates that the shift in generation does not occur between Numbers 25 and 26, but between Numbers 20 and 21. Therefore, this study provides the obvious ideas for the macrostructure of the book of Numbers.
  • 3.

    Interpretation on Eccl 10:1 and his today’s Messages: Social Crisis and Wisdom

    Minsu Oh | 2017, 23(1) | pp.74~102 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to apply the conclusions drawn from the study on Ecclesiastes 10:1 to today’s educational situation. For this purpose, the writer first observes the interpretations of the text. In view of the morphology of the MT, he compares the consonantal text with the LXX, the Vulgate, and modern Bible translations, as well as authorized Korean Bible translations. The writer directs his attention to various readings of the masoretic consonants in the verse. These result in differentiable understandings of the verse. To perceive the deep meaning of this difficult passage, he employes the knowledges of the verbal syntax and semasiology of the classical Hebrew and thus shows that the passage is about the professional field of perfumery. In the opinion of the writer, verse 1a points semantically to a potentiality of the risk that dead flies would make a perfumer’s oil stink. So the verse 1a has an instructive and warning character. In correspondence with it, verse 1b recommends a consideration of a little foolishness is more precious than wisdom and honor. For that reason the wiser (or technicians and scholars) should direct their attention to the indefinite situations of the worker’s fields, where wisdom should effect its purpose. For wisdom (or knowledges and technics) is indeed very useful for workers, but it does not guarantee its users to achieve success. This insight illuminates today’s tendency of the educational concept which is focused on quantitative multiplication of knowledges. Therefore, firstly, Ecclesiastes 10:1 suggests an educational concept of the employment of wisdom adequate to the situations and its usefulness. Secondly, it is necessary to take interest in the sphere of wisdom’s activity, that is, the worker’s fields, which may be an important factor to the preservation of knowledges and technics. Lastly, in democratic social structure one needs general education for the people based on responsibilities, because they confide their rights to their representatives for the decision making in the education-political issues. In conclusion, this study represents an alternative and suitable wisdom in the society of today.
  • 4.

    Old Testament Studies of Korea: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow

    Sung Yul Kang | 2017, 23(1) | pp.104~138 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to survey and analyze the history of Old Testament Studies of Korea from 1901 to 2016 in connection with Old Testament Studies of the West, and thus to propose the future of the Old Testament Studies of Korea. In order to achieve these aims, I divided the history of the Old Testament Studies of Korea into three stages: (1) 1901 (beginning theological education at Pyeong Yang Theological Seminary) — 1956; (2) 1957 (first publication of Christian Thought) — 1999; (3) 2000 (a new millenium) — 2016. In addition, I dealt with the relationship between Old Testament Studies of Korea and Old Testament Studies of the West from the three standpoints of acceptance, transformation, and development. In the first stage (1901-1956), Old Testament Studies of Korea were highly influenced by the conservative theology of the western missionaries. However, as a few advanced western missionaries and Korean scholars, who studied the western theologies, gradually introduced the historical criticism to Korean churches and theological students, there happened serious conflicts and tensions. They resulted in the division of Korean churches. The first publication of Christian Thought (1957) with the intention of popularization of Korean theology begins the second stage of Old Testament Studies of Korea. In this stage, various theological thoughts (esp. the historical criticism) of the West were introduced into Korean churches and theological seminaries. Not a few Korean Old Testament scholars cautiously used the theological reflections of the western scholars and applied them to the interpretation of the Biblical texts. According to these changes, the earlier diachronic approaches gradually moved towards the synchronic approaches in the later phase of this stage, and many Korean Old Testament scholars became interested in the ancient Near Eastern studies, the religion of Israel, Old Testament theology, and Old Testament exegesis. With the beginning of a new millenium, Korean churches and pastors experienced various literary approaches to the biblical interpretation beyond the historical criticism. On the other hand, however, they faced serious crisis of slowdown of church growth. As a result, Old Testament scholars had to pursue the theology for churches and to develop messages and theologies for the right changes in the life of Christians. In the future, Old Testament Studies of Korea must conduct two investigations, that is, historical critical (diachronic) studies and literary critical (synchronic) studies side by side, and have to concretely present biblical solutions to the various issues of the Korean society. Furthermore, Korean Old Testament scholars along with Korean church leaders should put their whole energy into overcoming the present crisis of Korean churches and, finally, should practice what the Old Testament teaches and what they advocate. Both intellectual/academic efforts and practical efforts of Old Testament Studies of Korea will transform Korean churches and the Korean society as well.
  • 5.

    Gottesbild Hiobs - Unter dem Aspekt von der Frage-und-Antwort-Struktur -

    Chol-Gu Kang | 2017, 23(1) | pp.139~164 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    In der Hiobforschung gibt es viele verschiedene Methoden. Die vorliegende Untersuchung gehört zu der jüngsten Tendenz, das ganze Hiobbuch unter dem Aspekt von der Frage-und-Antwort-Struktur zu verstehen. Eines der zentralen Themen, die unter dem Aspekt beobachtet werden, ist das Gottesbild Hiobbuches. Die vorliegende Arbeit thematisiert die Gottesbild zwischen Hiob und Gott unter dem Aspekt von der Frage-und -Antwort-Struktur. Es gibt große Unterschiede bei den Gottesbildern zwischen den Aussagen Hiobs im Dialogteil und in den Gottesreden. Im Hiobbuch ist das Gottesbild so vielfältig und dynamisch, dass die Gegensätze des Gottesbildes vom Gewalttäter auf der Seite Hiobs und vom barmherzigen Gott auf der Seite Gottes aufeinander bezogen werden. Obwohl Hiob ein negatives Gottesbild hat, verzichtet er nicht auf die Hoffnung, Gott als Retter, Zeuge und Bürge zu erfahren. Damit kann er Gott begegnen und ein anderes Gottesbild als das, das er im Leiden erfahren hat, erleben. Als einzige und universale Gottheit ist Gott auch Schöpfer der Welt und Lenker der Welt und ihrer Geschichte. Gott ist es, der das Leben gibt, bewahrt und fördert. Mit der neuen Einsicht in dieses Gottesbild hat Hiob Gott „nun in der persönlichen Begegnung geschaut und kehrt zu dem wahren Gott um (Hi 42:6). Unter dem Aspekt von der Frage-und-Antwort-Struktur kann man beobachten, dass die Hiobreden im Dialogteil und die Gottesreden in Hi 38:1-42:6 ein Thema “Gottesbild” der gemeinsamen Themen haben.
  • 6.

    A Function of Opinion Formation in Women's Victory Songs

    Yoon Kyung Lee | 2017, 23(1) | pp.165~189 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper attempts to examine the purpose of women’s victory songs. What did the women intend to deliver through songs with instruments and dancing? What was the purpose of women's victory songs? In this paper, I will analyze Miriam’s song and Deborah’s song in order to find the answer to this question, and how to form and even lead the public opinion in a strict patriarchal society. Miriam leads a group of women in the patriarchal social culture where the voices of individual women can not be heard, and conducts musical performances such as singing and dancing in public sphere. Through this performative activity, Miriam collects the voices of individual women, communicates their voices, and forms public opinion. Miriam and the women publicize the key fact that ‘not Moses but YHWH’ is a hero. Deborah’s song contains diverse networks, leads the public to break down stereotypes and creates new relationships in the network. Through the relationship between Deborah and Barak, this song suggests that in patriarchal societies men and women are not relationships of mastery or antagonism but of cooperation. Also, the relationship between Deborah and Yael suggests that women and women can cooperate, and particularly the ridiculous ridicule of Sisera’s mother makes a new idea of being a mother.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Relationship between the Laws of Hammurabi and Proverbs 8 based on the Divine Council

    Jong-Keun Lee | 2017, 23(1) | pp.190~233 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study deals with the relationship of divine councils between the Laws of Hammurabi and Proverbs 8, and with its hermeneutic implications. Wisdom is couched in the mundanities and conducts of people, but her authority is compared to Yahweh’s creation and she has the highest authority as the fear of God. Wisdom is edited as a literary purpose to integrate the various features of ancient Israelite life and religious vision. Furthermore, she expands to a typological eternal truth through the spiritual relationship with God. The divine councils in the Laws of Hammurabi and Proverbs 8 are parts of common features in the ancient Near East. They operate as absolute consultative bodies based on justice and righteousness, revealing noble features of divinity. The divine council in Proverbs 8 is developed independently from that in the laws of Hammurabi, rather than influenced by some special forms of literature like the laws of Hammurabi. The divine council in Proverbs 8 is Israelite cultural heritage of faith. Wisdom is personified and depicted as a hypostasis, the co-creator. It seems possible to interpret the co-creator as Jesus Christ, Logos and Sophia in the background of hermeneutic implications, though not clearly mentioned in Proverbs. The co-creator illuminates joy and gladness, and intercession with God the creator, who is the ideal of all living beings. The divine council of Proverbs is based on concern, care, sacrifice, and love for humanity. Communication and mutual help of the co-creator seem to be one of the best ways toward democracy and governance overcoming confusion and conflicts in this contemporary world. The model of the co-creator in primeval time in creating the heavens and the earth, delight and dynamism, mission and vision as an intermediary for humanity, is the blueprint of the human spirit, relationship and attitude to the end of time.