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2017, Vol.23, No.2

  • 1.

    Rezeption und Revision der Tora. Das Gemeindegesetz in Dtn 23

    Kyunggoo Min | 2017, 23(2) | pp.14~42 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Für den Diskurs über die alttestamentliche Rezeption und Revision dient die Forschung der Tora bedeutsam, weil die Rolle der Tora im Alten Testament unverkennbar ist und die von Mose verschriftete Tora durch den Mosetod unüberbietbar geworden ist. Wird diese Tora wegen der Situation korrigiert, sind die Gründe der Tora-Revision und ihre Spindeln zu fragen. Dazu wird die Rezeption und Revision der Tora in diesem Aufsatz durch die historisch-kritische Methode untersucht. Dieser Aufsatz geht von Dtn 23, wo das Gemeindegesetz das Thema bildet, aus. Vom Eintreten in die Gemeinde werden hier einige Gruppen dauerhaft ausgeschlossen (2. 1). Dieses Gesetz sollte unaufhörlich gültig sein (Neh 13; vgl. Klgl 1), weil es durch Mose übergeben wird. Jedoch erheben einige Texte einen Einwand gegen dieses Gesetz. Im Jesaja 56 befindet sich mit der Botenformel, was den Text als Wort Jahwes verstehen lässt, wobei die Zulassung des Eintreten derjenigen, die das Eintreten in die Gemeinde nicht erlaubt werden, zum Thema wird (2. 2). Somit wird Dtn 23 durch Jes 56 korrigiert. Ein ähnliches Phänomen findet sich im Buch Ruth wieder, wo es um das Verhältnis zu Moab geht (2. 3). Eine Voraussetzung für die Tora-Revision wird hier beobachtet, dass man einen Bund mit Jahwe schließen bzw. das Bekenntnis zu Jahwe ablegen soll, was als Tora-Gehorsam zu verstehen ist. Dadurch wird das Konzept ‚das ethnische Volk Israel‘ zum Konzept ‚das das Tora-Gehorsam haltende Volk Jahwes‘ bedeuten soll. Diese Untersuchung hat zu folgenden Ergebnissen geführt: 1) Die Tora bildet ein Schlüssel zur Interpretation von Nebiim und Ketubim. 2) Konkurrenz zwischen Nationalisten und denjenigen, die die Tora-Revision erwogen. Beachtenswert ist, dass am Toragehorsam festgehalten werden muss. 3) Das Kriterium der Tora-Revision ist der Toragehorsam, was durch das Bundesbekenntnis formuliert wird. Daher zielt diese Revision nicht auf die Überwindung der Tora, sondern ist eine neue Interpretation der Tora, die auch auf den Toragehorsam abzielt.
  • 2.

    A Supra-Juristical Conciliation Place: Animal Protection - Exodus 23:4-5 and His Context -

    Minsu Oh | 2017, 23(2) | pp.43~71 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to research Exodus 23:4-5, which ist regarded as crux interpretum on account of its differentiative style and contents within the literary context of Exodus 23:1-9. Comparing with Exodus 23:1-3 and 6-9, the verses 4-5 are of casuistic law und uses positive imperative forms. Besides, its content differs in so called enemy’s love (or overcoming of enmity) or animal protection On the contrary of this, its environments deal with only juristical issues. So, many scholarship separated vv.4-5 from the current unit of MT. The researcher tries to approach the literary unit Exodus 23:1-9, based on the methode of syntactical and structural analysis und to illuminate rhetorical dimension, as well, he re-constructs typical juristic setting in the text. This produces following conclusions: 1. in Exodus 23:1-9 a chiasm structure, the center of which ist merciful dealing with lost or overloaded lying animals(vv.4-5), is coming out, 2. the rhetorical orientation, which moves from simple apothetic style over persuasive casuistic style to apothedic style with strong appeals, 3. so-called syncopation effect: deliberative pause in vv. 4-5 for intentional stress on vv.6-9, 4. pointing out the animal protection(or love), which would lead to reconciliation between both hostile partners in spite of extreme inner situation. As a result, the writer suggests the animal protection as effective and active alternative for resolving the sin on opposite of the sacrificial animals. In conclusion, the writer takes a view that vv. 4-5 in quasi-legalistic language are a necessary part in the juristic context of Exodus 23:1-9 and demonstrates a super-juristical conciliation place, namely animal protection.
  • 3.

    Ironic royal ideology in the so-called succession narrative with special consideration of the legal proceedings of the King

    Cha-Yong Ku | 2017, 23(2) | pp.74~100 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Within the framework of the common royal ideology in Israel and its neighbors, two elements appear as the relevant royal obligations: to create laws in legal proceedings and warfare, as indicated in 1 Sam 8:3, 5 and 20. Surprisingly, in the so-called succession narrative, David neglects these two royal obligations. With regard to his trials as king, or similar royal judgments (see 2 Sam 12:1-7b; 14; 16:1-4 + 19:25-31), he is presented either as an incompetent judge, or characterized in a subtle-ironic way. How is this very conspicuous phenomenon to be understood? Is it possible that at this point the image of the king in the history of Israel emerges? If it is only a literary form of representation, does it then not bear any meaning? If it does, what meaning could be attributed to the Israelite royal ideology with the help of it? In this article, the court proceedings of David within the succession narrative are described and assessed in detail with particular regard to his ironization. Afterwards an attempt is made to compare the presentation of the royal court proceedings with other texts outside the succession narrative. Conclusively, it will be clear that the ironized royal ideology reflects a real and existing image of the king in Israel. Only the problem of temporal classification will remain open.
  • 4.

    Sex, Capital, and Power Meta-Theology on Sexuality

    Kim, Sun-Jong | 2017, 23(2) | pp.101~127 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Sexuality is essential to human beings. Human history began and has been preserved by sexual activities. In a narrow sense, sex satisfies on of the basic desires and pleasures of the creatures, and in a broad sense it brings them security and happiness in relation to the family system. However, when sexuality is abused, many problems arise. Sexuality concerns not only an individual but also a community. How sexuality is treated in theology? Sexuality is not a main topic of theology, being compared with the other discipline. Although biblical studies deal with the issues related to sexuality, they are limited to specific subjects and the biblical scholars failed to reach an agreement. It is no exaggeration to say that the church does not touch the issue of sexuality. It seems to put a taboo on the subject. The Bible considers sexuality as a source of happiness and holiness (Gen 2; Lev 18-20; Song) as well as that of evil (Deut 22:21), but the church sometimes takes an ambivalent attitude to sexuality. Christians have a choice of two extremes, either secretly indulging in sex or living abstinent lives. This paper tries to investigate the theology of sexuality in the Old Testament in a holistic manner. Sexuality shows an aspect of the religion of ancient Israel in that individuals and their community are closely bound up with capital and power through sexuality. Written in an ancient language, the Bible is not an old document that is abrogated today. But it can serve as the rules of life. Therefore, we have to provide a theoretical basis to solve sexual problems brought up in the real life.
  • 5.

    Religious Knowledge in light of the Big Data and Its Influence on the Political Power in Ancient Mesopotamia and Israel

    Dong-Young Yoon | 2017, 23(2) | pp.128~154 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The present study aims to find out the types of the religious knowledge portrayed in the ancient Near Eastern texts and to analyze how to use them in the process of political decisions and in maintaining their power. The rites and rituals in the ancient Near East functioned characteristically in their own boundaries. They were managed by the specialists with religious knowledge. Sociology names these specialists as religious specialists or religious intellectuals. In the ancient Near East, extispicy, astrology, and magic were categorized as bārûttu, skills of diviners, but they can be branded as religious knowledge from the sociological perspective. This religious knowledge can be regarded as the results of observations on the earthly and celestial phenomena, which are the basis of today’s mathematics and science. Religious specialists used this knowledge to interpret the divine will, while kings referred to them to make crucial political decisions. Kings executed and maintained their power efficiently with the religious knowledge. Just as today’s big data business considers the volume, variety, and velocity of data as important elements, so the ancient Near Eastern religious specialists rapidly circulated various vast data. The data were utilized to make political decisions and stored in royal archives to be retrieved and referred to in cases of necessity.
  • 6.

    Documental Origin of the Old Testament

    Han, Dong-Gu | 2017, 23(2) | pp.155~181 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to explore the documental origin of the ‘Word of God.’ Even though the topic of this study has been considered as an issue concluded in the Old Testament study, it was raised anew due to the new information providing that most of the Old Testament scriptures were only established since the exilic period. Regarding the documental origin of the ‘Word of God,’ this study discusses that the Old Testament accepted a certain part of the traditions of the Near East and Canaan in accordance with the traditional trends. Then it explores the documental origin from a fundamentally different tradition, that is, a prophetic tradition. Jeremiah’s prophecies had a mainly negative tone, stating “one shall serve the Babylonians.” Therefore, he faced a great amount of political opposition, and there arose the debate of ‘True or False Prophecy’ in the process (cf. Jer 27-28). Such a debate of ‘True or False Prophecy’ also lasted in the exilic period. On the other hand, because the prophecy of Jeremiah was proven true by the historical events in the exilic period, the criterion of the true prophecy was established as a historical fulfillment of prophecy (Deut 18:9-22; Jer 28:8-9). The criterion required a certain time of waiting until the words of the prophet would be fulfilled, and also documental records as evidence for future reference (cf. Jer 29:4-7; 32:1-15). These processes gave birth to the course of the documental establishment of God’s revelations. The course of documental establishment of God’s revelations proceeded in quite diverse ways. One of them was the re-surfaced necessity to record the revelations of God, as the wait for salvation from God should always be fulfilled historically. This religious movement finally resulted in a ‘recording culture’ which documents the revelations of God (cf. Hab 2:2, Isa 30:8). This recording culture, along with the theology(s) facilitating the documentation of God’s Word, has actively expanded the Old Testament, and, as a result, it finally formed today’s Old Testament. In order to clarify the process of the documental formation of the Old Testament further, we need to study the contents of the theology continually, which facilitated the documentation of the Word of God that developed in a diverse fashion in the Pentateuch, historical books, and prophetic books.
  • 7.

    Some Directions of Interpreting the Psalms for Preachers

    Myung Soo Suh | 2017, 23(2) | pp.184~206 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The book of psalms in the Bible is very unique. Ultimately the Bible is the words of God given to his people from the heaven to the earth. But the psalms contain various human voices from the earth upward the heaven/God. For this reason, it can be said that the psalm is 'theopoetry'. The book of psalms is the very useful text in and for christian daily life and churches. It is a kind of standard text in christian worship. However, in spite of it's utility, many preaches are apt to choose their sermon texts outside the book of psalms. Thus a new try is necessary for letting preachers choose the psalms as a sermon text. This paper starts from this issue. At first it makes a summary of the biblical foundation of preaching and its tradition. Prophetic preaching, liturgical preaching and culitc-prophetic preaching are typical preaching in ancient Israel. After the summary of preaching tradition this paper examines some approaches for reading and interpretation of the psalms such as gutting(genre/form) analysis, relationship between poetic word and silence, finding poetic narrativity in the psalms, thematic approach and so on. Finally this paper suggests a possible approach to the psalms, that is, reading the psalm according to "mac"(脈=pulse), which can be understood in various context. In the poetic text there is a poetic "mac"(脈). In the five books of the psalm there are various poetic "mac"(脈). Finally in the book of the psalms as the one book there is the great "mac"(脈) which consists of various sub-"mac"(脈). All of these "mac"(脈) are correspond to the "mac"(脈) of the Old Testament which penetrates the Bible. In reading the psalms finding "mac"(脈) can be another key. The "mac"(脈) can be compared to orbit. Various "mac"(脈) beat and move in the psalms just as an uncountable planets move according to their orbit in space. So the approach according to "mac"(脈) can be coined as the term, orbital approach.
  • 8.

    Gath, the Center of the Philistines during 10-9th Century BCE - Based on the recent Excavations of the Walls at Tel es-Safit -

    MiYoung Im | 2017, 23(2) | pp.208~229 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The Bible mentions Gaza, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Gath, Ekron (Jos. 13:3) as five city nations of the Philistines. However, it does not reveal which city was the center of these cities. Archeologically, the discovery of the unique pottery of the Philistines that seemed to have been used from around the 12th century BCE often referred to Ashkelon, Ashdod, and Ekron, but it was impossible to say which city was the center. However, when we approach the biblical expressions a little more, we can see the possibility that Gath acted as a center by being prominent in the war scenes. The recent excavation of Tel es-Safit shows that at least Gath was a large-scale settlement of the Philistines during the 10th-9th century BCE. The traces of the walls found in the east of Area D in 2015 made this view more solid. Therefore, this article briefly summarized the literature references and previous publications that can support the hypothesis that Gath played a central role in the 10th and 9th century BC Philistine cities, and introduced recently discovered walls. Based on the biblical evidence, Gath became an important city during Samson and David time. The land of the Philistines, as the expression of Israel from Dan to Beersheba (2 Sam. 24: 2), refers to military importance, specifying that it is from Gath to Ekron (1 Sam. 7:14; 17:52). The political and military significance of Gath during the 9th century BCE seems to have grown even greater. Hazael king of Syria struck down Gath before going to Jerusalem (2 Kgs. 12:17). Gath was a powerful city in the city of the Philistines, and it must have been a land of necessity before it hit Jerusalem, the capital of Israel. The moat and the traces of the war of Hazael were found Area C and Area D in the archaeological discoveries. In the excavation in 2015, at least 30m of the walls of the city of Gath has been revealed. Based on the line of the walls and the discoveries in Area D, now we can claim that Gath was a huge city of 40-50 hectares in the 10th-9th centuries BCE. It is larger than Jerusalem, which was 20 hectares in the 9th century BCE. This result changed the historical view of scholars who criticized, since Gath was small city during the 10-9th centruy BCE, David was a fictional hero and not based on historical backgrounds. Gath was certainly the central city of the Philistines. Recent excavations have also revealed metal workshops at Gath. These metal workshops were found only in Gath among the cities of the Philistines. Perhaps metal trade might be economic source of Gath to help to become more powerful city in the 10-9th century BCE.