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2019, Vol.25, No.1

  • 1.

    The Redemptive-Historical Significance of the March 1st Independence Movement

    Hae Kwon Kim | 2019, 25(1) | pp.12~52 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this essay is to explore the redemptive-historical significance of the Samil Movement on March 1, 1919, on its 100th anniversary. The present essay argues that the Samil Movement is part of God’s saving activities for the oppressed people and claims that the anti-Japanese independence struggle that lasted for 27 years was a body prayer analogous to “the outcry of the Hebrew slaves” who longed for liberation from Egyptian bondage. This paper summarizes the significance of the Samil Movement and its impact on the 27 year-long resistances against Japan in three aspects. The greatest significance lies in its contribution to the emergence of “the Republic of Korea” where the people replaced a king or emperor in ruling the country. In addition, the Samil Movement was the forefront of the anti-imperialist union that was first realized in anti-Japanese independence movements during the previous 36 years. Finally, while the Samil Independence movement failed in the short term, it has became a ‘canon’ to secure the legitimacy and sustainability of the anti-Japanese movements that continued for 27 years. Finally, the reason why this paper regards the 36 year-long anti-Japanese independence movements, which were initiated by the Samil Movement, as a redemptive history led by God’s saving will and interest is that they were carried out in the same pattern of the saving activities of God who intervenes in human history (the Situation of Oppression ---> Outcry for liberation ---> Redemption ----> Renewal of the covenant). In this respect, this paper contradicts the understanding of the modern history of Korea that has been espoused by the New Rightists, which undermines the 36 year long independence struggles itself.
  • 2.

    The foreign Peoples in the Book of the Twelve: A Study of the Composition of the Book of the Twelve in consideration of the prophetic Address against foreign Nations

    Cha-Yong Ku | 2019, 25(1) | pp.54~91 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to examine the 'descriptions of the foreign nations' in the Book of the Twelve by using a new methodology which is currently applied in this field, that is, ‘a diachronic and synchronic approach.’ In particular, it tries to find out how the descriptions of the foreign nations in the compositional aspect are arranged in the Book of the Twelve and which role they play there. The word of judgment against the foreign nations there, whether it is related to the judgment or salvation of Israel, or to their salvation itself, is first referred to in the frame of ‘Amos-Obadiah-Jonah’/‘Micah-Nahum-Habakkuk’ and also in the frame of the consecutive order of Jonah-Nahum in the LXX. The remaining six books are separately analysed into pre-exilic and post-exilic books, namely ‘Hosea-Joel and Zephaniah’ and ‘Haggai-Zechariah-Malachi.’ When we consider the meaning of the descriptions of the foreign nations, firstly, we recognize that there is the repeated pattern of ‘Israel-nations-nations’ in the frame of 'Amos-Obadiah-Jonah'/'Micah-Nahum-Habakkuk,' and that the messages focus much on Israel. Secondly, we know that the judgment and salvation of God goes beyond not only the national dimension but also the periodical one and encompasses the whole nations of the world. Besides, the intentional arrangement of the ‘Jonah-Nahum’ in the LXX is seen as an expression of God's absolute freedom of sovereignty in judgment and salvation. In the pre-exilic and post-exilic books, Hosea as the introduction to the Book of the Twelve shows the Israel-centric character, and all the other books contain the motif of ‘the day of YHWH.’ This motif confirms not only that both Israel and the nations are the object of YHWH's judgment and salvation, but also that the last part of the Book of the Twelve more strongly emphasizes YHWH’s eschatological dominance. This study is an academic try to keep pace with current trends in the research on the Book of the Twelve. God's attitude toward the foreigners shown in the Book of the Twelve may teach us how we should behave toward them under the social situation rapidly changing toward a multicultural society.
  • 3.

    The Description of Heavenly Temple in the Pseudepigrapha and Qumran Literature and Its Literary Dependence on the Hebrew Bible

    Kim, Sang-Lae | 2019, 25(1) | pp.92~117 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The ‘heavenly sanctuary/temple’ motif does not appear terminologically in the Hebrew Bible. But in the apocalyptic literature of the Pseudepigrapha and Qumran documents the motif is often explicitly described. It is evident that the extra-biblical Jewish literature uses the Hebrew Bible as the authoritative source when it develops a certain motif. In this intriguing circumstance this research aims to explore, by using the literary-synchronic analytical approach, which passages of the Hebrew Bible these literature depends on. Outcomes show that Exodus 25 and Isaiah 6 are used as the main biblical sources in relation to the present existence of the heavenly temple, and that Exodus 15:17, Ezekiel 1, 10, and 40-48 with regard to its eschatological and ideal function. Exodus 25 and Ezekiel 40-48 out of these texts function as the two most significant texts. It is finally revealed that Exodus and Ezekiel are the primary sources of the heavenly temple idea not only in the apocalyptic Jewish literature but also in the Qumran literature. The manner of the literary dependence of these literature on the Hebrew Bible is creative, using citation, enlargement, and synthesis.
  • 4.

    Reading Isaiah 6 in the Context of Isaiah 1-12

    Kim, Sung-Soo | 2019, 25(1) | pp.118~150 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Reading Isaiah 6 in the Context of Isaiah 1-12 Sung Soo Kim, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Old Testament Korea Theological Seminary The purpose of this article is to identify the literary function of Isaiah 6 in the context of Isaiah 1-12, which then will help us understand why Isaiah 6 is located there as a call narrative. For this task we need a close reading of Isaiah 6, a genre-based survey of the literary arrangement of Isaiah 1-12, and a research of the common themes, expressions, and vocabularies that Isaiah 6 and other parts of Isaiah 1-12 have. First of all, the account of Isaiah 6 serves in the context of chapters 1-12 to reinforce Isaiah's indictment against the people of Israel for the sin of not honoring Yahweh as their true king. Their sin was their blindness and deafness to the word of Yahweh their king (Isa 6:9-10), which resulted in their unrighteousness and injustice condemned by Yahweh in chapters 1 and 5. A typical case of this sin was the arrogant attitude of King Ahaz in chapter 7. Secondly, Isaiah 6 warrants Isaiah's declaration of the harsh judgments Yahweh is about to impose upon his people (Isa 2:6-4:1; 6:11-13). As a result the land and cities of Israel will become desolate and the people will go into exile, which will soon begin with the Assyrian invasion (Isa 7-8). Thirdly, Isaiah 6 validates Isaiah's announcement of the wonderful promises of Yahweh's future redemptive act. Isaiah's confession of his uncleanness and the forgiveness of his sins in Isaiah 6 provides Israel with the hope that they will come back to Yahweh from any circumstances of the judgment. The ‘holy seed’ in Isaiah 6:13 symbolizes the ‘remnant’ who, trusting Yahweh as their true king, will survive the harsh judgements (Isa 8:9-23; 10:20-34). The ‘holy seed’ also means that through the purification of judgement (Isa 2:1-5; 4:2-6) Jerusalem will be restored as ‘the city of righteousness’ and ‘the faithful city’ (Isa 1:26), over which a righteous Dravidic king will reign in peace (Isa 9:1-7; 11:1-16). Thus, Isaiah 1-12 ends with a praise of Yahweh’s salvation(Isa 12).
  • 5.

    Reading Psalm 126 in the Background of the Feast of Booths

    Ki-Min Bang | 2019, 25(1) | pp.151~182 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a reading of Psalm 126 as a prayer of the Feast of Booths a fall festival in the ancient Near East, that petitions God for rain and an abundant harvest. Because the Feast of Booths takes place between the dry and rainy seasons, it is probable that the ancient Israelites offered this prayer on this holiday as a way of bidding for a smooth transition between the seasons. For the purpose, this paper (1) explores the history of the interpretation of Psalm 126, and offers a conventional translation and a reading of the Psalm, (2) discusses several characteristic features of the collection of the Songs of Ascent (Pss 120-134), (3) examines its association with pilgrimage and autumn, or the beginning of the rainy season. Finally, based on the preceding analysis, this paper attempts a reading of Psalm 126 as a song for the Feast of Booths liturgy. The collection of the Songs of Ascent has philological, formulaic, and thematic evidence for its designation as Pilgrim Songs composed during the Persian period, and some scholars find additional allusions to the Feast of Booths within the collection. The seasonal and climatic pattern of the Levant was vital to the agriculture and religion of the eastern Mediterranean region (e.g., the Demeter myth and the Ba’alu cycle). Psalm 126 offers a number of images that are related to the climatic and agricultural pattern of the region. These images include: the invocation of Negev wadi’s flowing waters (vs. 4), the farmers’ sowing seeds in expectation of an abundant harvest (vss. 5-6), and, less directly, God’s restoration of fortunes (or seasons) (vss. 1, 4) and the feast of joy and gladness (vss. 2-3) that recalls the observance of the Feast of Booths in Nehemiah 8, and so on. The reading suggested here has many advantages over the translations and readings that have previously been suggested. First, this reading explains the trajectory of the textual changes of Psalm 126 through time. Second, this reading can explain the complexity of the verbal usages in verses 1-4. Third, this reading enables the reader to understand how the Israelites used Biblical texts to engage in the climatic pattern of the ancient Israel.
  • 6.

    Hosea 6:7; ‘like Adam?’ or ‘as in Adam?’ - Based on Semantical Uses of The Hebrew Preposition Kaph

    Minsu Oh | 2019, 25(1) | pp.183~212 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    ESV Hosea 6:7 “But like Adam they transgressed the covenant; there they dealt faithlessly with me.” The clause “like Adam” is questionable, whether it is a personal name or a local term. Until now, the scholarship suggested very differential ideas; (1) Adam as a proper name, (2) city’s name, (3) the ancient city Admah on the base of the textual emendation, (4) ‘dirty’ on the base of the textual emendation. In order to resolve this problem the researcher takes the uses of hebrew preposition Kaph as his starting point. Its uses could be divided to nine rubrics. R 1: comparison, R 2: similarity, R 3: imitation, R 4: situational repeat, R 5: mental realization, R 6: announce and fulfillment, R 7: demand and fulfillment, R 8: temporal use(immediate sequence), R 9: quantitative use. According to philological argument the relevant prepositional use of Hos 6:7a definitively should be ascribed to R 4. Also, this conclusion can be asserted by verbal-syntactical(asyndesis) and syntactical(casus pendens) analyses.
  • 7.

    A History of the Northern Kingdom of Israel and Its Capitals From a Geographical Perspective

    Mi-Sook Lee | 2019, 25(1) | pp.214~244 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The schism of the united Kingdom right after Solomon’s death set Israel along a totally different historical path. Jeroboam could establish national institutions for the northern Kingdom of Israel on the model of the southern Kingdom of Judah, but to choose a new capital was the most urgent task for him. Jeroboam moved the capital from Shechem to Penuel and again to Tirzah during his reign. Omri, unlike former kings, also transferred the capital to Samaria, which did not exist until its being established by Israel. Events of this nature had been very unusual in the history of Israel. Although the transfer of capitals in the northern Kingdom is very important, few studies have been performed, and their conclusions about these transfers have not been useful. Especially regarding the transfer of the capital to Tirzah and Penuel, historians have considered these movements to be strange and unsuitable. To choose a capital reflects a national policy and vision. This study tries to explain the capitals of the northern Kingdom with a geographical approach for the purpose of understanding the reasons and background for their transfer. As a result of this study, now we can state confidently that those movements were not strange but suitable transfers that Jeroboam made to concentrate on eastern-oriented cities in order to control the Transjordan land and to integrate its tribes. Omri turned his eyes toward the coast and the sea. He chose Samaria as a base to cooperate with Phoenicia which had monopolized the coastal trade in the Mediterranean. Samaria was located inland not far from the coast and was the best place for Omri to develop his foreign policy and strategy. He accomplished prosperity and fame for the northern Kingdom of Israel after Solomon. Jeroboam and Omri founded a national base and succeeded in making the state rich and powerful. They, however, were denigrated as vicious kings because of their leading Israel to betray God and to bring the religion of Israel to a form of syncretism. Therefore, their dream and policy for a new nation reflected in the transfer of the capital was subsequently forgotten or devalued.