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2019, Vol.25, No.3

  • 1.

    Another Fresh Look at the Four Lepers as Subaltern Characters in 2 Kings 7

    Yoon Kyung Kim | 2019, 25(3) | pp.14~48 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The present paper aims to define and illustrate what subaltern biblical interpretation is about with a close reading of a set of subaltern characters in 2 Kings 7 through the lens of socio-literary methods: subaltern studies and literary studies of minor characters.
  • 2.

    A Prolegomena to the Study of Ezra-Nehemiah

    Kim, Sun-Jong | 2019, 25(3) | pp.49~73 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    에스라와 느헤미야는 바벨론으로 포로로 끌려갔던 이스라엘 백성들과 함께 페르시아 시대에 고국으로 돌아와 정치, 종교, 사회의 각 분야에서 개혁 운동을 벌인 대표적인 인물이다. 이들은 스룹바벨 성전과 예루살렘 성벽을 구심점으로 활동했고, 무엇보다 이방 여자와의 결혼으로 야기된 종교 혼합주의에 맞서 싸웠다. 에스라-느헤미야서는 제2 성전기 시대의 유대교를 반영하여 율법주의와 민족주의를 낳은 책으로 부정적으로 평가되어 왔다. 그러나 최근에 들어와 이 시대가 중요하게 인식되기 시작한 것은 오경을 비롯한 구약의 정경화 과정이 진행되기 시작한 시대이며 신약 시대 유대교의 기원을 낳은 시대로 여겨지기 때문이다. 전승사의 차원에서 에스라-느헤미야서의 신학을 이룬 과거 전승(신명기, 에스겔)과 동시대의 전승(말라기), 또한 그 이후 시대의 전승(마카비)의 흐름을 파악해야만 유대-기독교 전승의 연속성과 불연속성을 바르게 이해할 수 있다. 에스라-느헤미야서는 전통적으로 역대상하와 함께 역대기 역사서를 이루는 것으로 알려졌지만, 최근에는 역대상하와 에스라-느헤미야서는 별개의 분리된 책으로 여겨지고 있어 독자적인 연구를 필요로 한다. 이 글은 에스라-느헤미야서 연구를 위한 여러 주제들을 소개하는 연구 서설(prolegomena)로 기능하는 것을 목표로 한다.
  • 3.

    Wisdom and Law in the Warnings against Strange Woman in the Book of Proverbs

    Keun Jo Ahn | 2019, 25(3) | pp.74~101 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the traditions of the Wisdom and the Law in the Old Testament by analyzing five texts of the book of Proverbs(2:16-19; 5:1-23; 6:20-35, 7:1-27; 9:13-18), which focus on the warnings against the so called, ‘strange woman’(hrz hva). It has been discussed that the ‘strange woman’ was either an immoral woman or a foreign girl. Sometimes, she has been suggested as a syncretic cultic practice or an ideological metaphor to control women’s body. However, it is hard to pinpoint who she was. Instead, this paper accepts diversified identities of the strange woman as they are by recognizing the characteristic of the Proverbs as a complex of various literary traditions throughout different times. More important question to ask is not about her identity but her other-ness. Why did the woman became strange? This paper interprets all the five ‘strange woman’ texts through structural analysis and intertextual criticism in order to find why the woman has emerged into the symbol of strangeness in contrast to the ‘Woman Wisdom’. Four common points have been found: 1. the strange woman symbolizes the way of the wicked; 2. her estranged way always ends up with ruin; 3. the reason for the strangeness derives from her liminal place on the boundary; 4. the strange woman functions as same as legal ordinances and statutes in the book of Deuteronomy. What brings a literary connection between the legal codes and sapiential instructions is the concept of boundary. The statute(qx) in the book of Deuteronomy sets limits for the covenant people. Likewise, the warning against the strangeness or otherness keeps the faith community from trespassing the regulated border. The scribal circle in the post-exilic times who had preserved all the literary traditions of Yahweh faith transformed the torah tradition into teaching the right way not turning aside to the right or left(cf. Deut 5:32; Prov 4:27) in the frame of wisdom tradition. As a result, this paper identifies the strange woman as a rhetorical instrument of the scribal sages who emphasized the purity of ‘Israelite’ in the Persian period when the identity of the people in Yehud colony was threatened to fall into a confusion. It was the matter of boundary for the sage or sages of the Provers that kept Yahwistic faith alive from the contemporary pagan cults and teachings. By pointing out the consistent traditional flow between the law and wisdom traditions, this paper claims that convergence of wisdom and law has already made in the book of Proverbs already in about 400 BCE, rather than in the book of Ben Sira around 180 BCE as most scholars have proposed thus far. The significance of this paper are two. One is its new approach to the problem of the ‘strange woman’ in the perspective of literary traditions, concluding the strange woman in the Proverbs as integral mixture of both legal and sapiential traditions. The other one is its new discovery that the convergence of the Wisdom and Law was already being processed in the Proverbs. One of the limitations of this paper is that the discussion of prophetic traditions has not included for the limited scope of this paper. However, filled with metaphors of immoral Israelites in the covenant relationship, prophetic traditions also expect deeper study on the literary relationship between unfaithful Israelites and the strange woman.
  • 4.

    The Use of Hosea 11:1 in Matthew 2:15

    Seong-Kwang Kevin Kim | 2019, 25(3) | pp.102~129 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study deals with the relationship between Matt 2:15 and Hos 11:1. The way in which Matthew relates Hosea’s words “Out of Egypt I called my son” with Jesus’ journey to Egypt does not seem to fit for the original contextual meaning in Hos 11:1. First, in the original context of Hos 11:1, the sentence is not a “direct predictive prophecy” but a “reflection” about Israel’s past history (the exodus from Egypt). Second, Hosea is talking about the “nation Israel,” while Matthew is talking about the “individual Jesus.” Third, Hos 11:1 speaks of Israel’s “coming out of Egypt,” so its best place would be after 2:21, the return from Egypt. However, Matthew puts the quotation after Jesus’ “entering into Egypt.” “Typology” may be a solution. Seeing Jesus as the “true Israel,” Matthew is offering a “Jesus as Israel” typology that involves both a comparison and a contrast. In contrast with Israel who failed to obey YHWH, Jesus was the obedient Son who completed all that Israel should have completed. As for Matthew, Hosea 11:1 was finally fulfilled as Jesus fled to Egypt. Suggesting typology for understanding Matthew 2:15, the first two problems have been solved. However, the last problem still remains unsolved. Hosea’s own typological perspective may provide a solution. Matthew’s typological understanding was not his own perspective but something affected by Hosea’s typological understanding. The quotation in Matt 2:15 is not out of order, because the holy family’s flight to Egypt is an “inauguration of the packed typological Hos 11:1 reference.” The “out of Egypt, return to Egypt, and out of Egypt again” pattern itself is inseparable and is to be viewed as a whole package. In this way, this study contributes to understanding not only the relationship between Matt 2:15 and Hos 11:1 but also how the New Testament authors use the Old Testament texts.
  • 5.

    Jonah's hidden intention for Nineveh through form of prophetic judgment

    Chol-Gu Kang | 2019, 25(3) | pp.130~157 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This essay is an attempt to understand the book of Jonah through form of prophetic judgment. By comparing oracles of judgment in the book of Jonah with other books of prophets, I tried to understand the book of Jonah more specifically and to understand the purpose and meaning of prophetic judgment in the old testament in general. For this purpose, I used an approach of forms of prophetic speech(form criticism) as a methodology rather than a historical approach of the book of Jonah. In general, when the prophets proclaim the judgment of God against Israel or foreign nations around Israel, it is the fact that God or prophets specifically point out or accuse them of their sins. In the book of Jonah, unlike other prophetic books, these elements do not appear. In the book of Jonah, there is only a scene in which God points out a very comprehensive sin of Nineveh, as Jonah 1:2 (Go to the great city of Nineveh and preach against it, because its wickedness has come up before me). He simply announced that Nineveh would be overturned. If God sent Jonah to announce Nineveh God's Judgment, then Jonah should explain concretely what Nineveh has sinned against God. But there is not found in the book of Jonah that Jonah pointed to Nineveh's sin. There is only one prophecy of Jonah in the book of Jonah (3:4 "Forty more days and Nineveh will be overturned"). What is surprising, nevertheless, is the fact that the King of Nineveh and all the people repented. In response to Nineveh’s repentance, God relented and did not bring on them the destruction he had threatened (Jonah 3:10). It appears that Jonah intentionally disturb Nineveh's repentance by changing the form of prophetic judgment. Even though Jonah immediately declared the destruction without pointing out the sin of Nineveh, Nineveh repented. Why did Jonah do this? For what reason did this happen? This is the central theme that I want to research in this paper. Jonah saw that God’s prophetic judgments can be actually prophetic warnings to causes repentance. Therefore Jonah did not point out the sin of Nineveh. He does not want Nineveh to bring relief from the threat of punishment. But God knows the intention of Jonah and by forgiving Nineveh he wanted to teach where God's will is. The purpose of oracles of judgment is in the repentance and forgiveness of the subjects of judgment. This applies not only to Israel but also to all nations like Nineveh. The book of Jonah reveals God as a Creator and Lord of history to the post-exilic Jewish community. Therefor, God is asking them to accept his new image.
  • 6.

    The formation of the Book of Daniel viewed from New Revelation Dispute

    Chong Hun Pae | 2019, 25(3) | pp.158~179 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to show how new revelation dispute in the 2nd c. influenced the formation of the Book of Daniel, and to examine the understanding of the dream and the vision used as the instrument of revelation in the formation of the Book of Daniel. Israelite community in the 2nd c. needed new revelation about eschatology under the persecution by Antiochus IV, the king of Greek. The contemporary apocalyptical form to contain new revelation is vision - throne vision - vision interpretation. Under the struggle between the Deuteronomistic demand not to add or subtract to the contents of the Torah, and new revelation, the Book of Daniel was formulated in the following stages, 1) The new revelation is received through the instrument of dream and vision. 2) Daniel is qualified to receive new revelation through dream and vision, since his faithfulness to the Torah is proved in Dan 1-6. 3) Dan 10-12 transformed vision into word according to prophetic tradition. 4) Furthermore, Dan 9 subjected vision about eschatology to Jeremiah’s words, exile-70-years, the word given to Jeremiah. Now vision, identical to 70 years, was interpreted as weeks. In sum, the book of Daniel presented the revelation about eschatology based on the Deuteronomistic theology by transforming apocalyptic genre. The meaning that the Book of Daniel gives to later communities is both receiving new revelation through dream and vision, and preventing new revelation by subjugating new revelation to the word. On the one hand, the demand not to add or subtract new revelation formulated the identity of Judaism. On the other hand, the Book of Daniel made possible the emergence of Christianity by showing the possibility of new revelation through dream and vision.
  • 7.

    Re-interpreting Miriam in the wilderness (Num. 12:1-15)

    Min-Jung Kim | 2019, 25(3) | pp.182~216 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Old Testament’s descriptions of Miriam are fragmentary and even conflicting with each other. This makes it difficult to figure out her leadership style and heritage. Her name, however, presented at every critical moment, shows strong impressions and traces of sustained tradition, even amid the sparse information on the female leaders of ancient Israel. This study attempted a reinterpretation of the text of ‘Miriam in the wilderness’(Num. 12:1-15), which describes her negatively and overbearing. The previous feminist studies identified this issue as one of women’s sufferings in the patriarchal society and recognized it as a sacrifice for strengthening the leadership of Moses. Based on this, I began my research by questioning the social dynamics behind that. Because the description of female leaders and the way of accepting their traditions are not just a matter of gender but related to the power structure of society at the time of literary editing. In order to deal with this subject, I analyzed the text through historical criticism, did a sociological review of it, and attempted a feminist theological interpretation. In particular, I examined the historical background by dividing the document layers of the major texts that mentions Miriam, and discussed how the leadership of Miriam was edited and handed down under the relationship of power in each period. Numbers 12 is a complex editorial text which deals with social situations of leadership conflicts and the rise of arbitrary prophecy problems. Miriam was portrayed here as being punished and exiled under the circumstances of suppressing all resistance in order to strengthen power. And her story became a guarded epic, emphasizing punishment for power challenges. This led to the decline process of the liberation tradition. But Miriam is the leader of the liberation of the Exodus and remains as a bearer of liberation tradition. This study presented a new perspective on the interpretation of Numbers 12 and revealed the leadership of a veiled and distorted female leader.
  • 8.

    Power and sexual violence: Focused on 2 Sam. 13:1-22

    LeeEunAe | 2019, 25(3) | pp.217~245 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The story of Tamar in Chapter 13 of 2 Samuel was understood as an incident in the literary context of the struggle for power of the sons who surrounded the throne in the court of the powerful King David. But this paper defines the horrific incident that happened to Tamar as a power-related rape under the protection of the royal system and patriarchal family relations, and reveals that it serves as a pessimistic allusion to the tragic history of the David monarchy and the negative fate of the kingdom as the judgment of God (2 Sam 12:10-13). The deuteronomistic history books criticize theological the kingdom and monarchy of Israel in relation to the God of Israel, Jahwe. The formation of a powerful kingdom in Israel has led to the defense of aggression externally or an advantageous position in diplomatic relations, and internally the order of the state has become stable and prosperous. On the other hand, the kingdom based on a centralized and powerful royal authority was built on a paternal patriarchal system that prioritized the authority of fathers, men and elders, resulting in the emergence of new social classes, such as political royalty and nobility, and the resulting various conflicts. Amnon, David's eldest son, made beautiful sister Tamar the object of sexual desire. For Amnon, Tamar was not one person as an equal, independent entity or his own sister, something that he wanted to have and do with her. It was not important what she thought or wanted. The idea that had sickened Amnon was already the beginning of violence and rape, and the men around him, including Jonathab and David, were facilitators in the rape. Tamar refuses clearly to Amnon, who is trying to rape, and offers the possibility of a solution in wise words, but in the end, her wisdom is rejected and Amnon forces her to fulfill his desires and rape his sister. After the incident, Amnon again rejects Tamar's words of wisdom warning him, and drives her out the door. Although Tamar exposed the sexual assault outside, the men around her remained silent about the incident and forced her to remain silent. The tragic incident that happened to Tamar should be interpreted around the rape victim, not just the premise of a succession battle between the two princes. The horrific and brutal sexual assault, which took place in the non-visible power structure of father-son-centered family relations, is, after all, an indication of the violence of power and the consequent failure of the monarchy within the powerful kingdom of David, and ultimately, the collapse of the kingdom.
  • 9.

    A Comparative Study of Chinese and Korean Bible Translations of the Decalogue(Exo. 20:1-17)

    LI XIAOLIN | 2019, 25(3) | pp.248~272 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study will focus on the Ten Commandments. The Ten Commandments played an important role in the translation process of the Chinese Bible and Korean Bible. When there was not active in the mission using texts, the Ten Commandments were loved by many Christians as the favorite text expressing their rule of Christian life. I will compare the Ten Commandments in various Chinese Bible versions and Korean Bible versions to see how the interpretation was made. Their interpretation was dynamic by time periods, characters, or translation rules. The original meaning of the Ten Commandments was also differently applied in East Asian culture. I will study the different understanding of the words in various versions. Moreover, my focus will be on the differences between the Chinese Bible and the Korean Bible. As a Chinese scholar, it is meaningful to study the comparison of the versions in the different intentions. The question of how the Korean Bible accepted the Chinese Bible is also important for the Korean scholars. The first through fourth commandments show many variations among the Bible versions; there are not specific differences in the fifth through tenth commandments in relation to human life. The first part overall has longer sentences than the others, and the difficult theological concepts and interpretations typically made for different interpretations. There is a saying that the work of the translation of the Bible is adventure and treason. The language differences exist in all the translation tasks and no one can stop changes. The changes and editorial works are so important as these tasks provide continuous extensions of the Bible. There will be no exact word in the translation process. Translators just seek to find a most preferable word. This process was the same in the translation from Hebrew to Greek. There would be additions and subtractions, even alterations. The coherences and discords in this process may be natural. Rather, the translators should consider which words were most comparable to their society. Whenever the Bible is translated into other versions, there will be an effort to find the possibility from the impossibility.