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2020, Vol.26, No.2

  • 1.

    City and Temple: A Study on the Origin of Zion Theology

    Jaeduck Seo | 2020, 26(2) | pp.14~40 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to clarify the origin of Zion theology by comparing the spatial aspects of ‘Zion theology’ and ‘Temple theology’ with a focus on the Psalms.
  • 2.

    New Interpretation of Ecclesiastes 7: 15-18 in the Eyes of Zhuanzi

    Lee, Hana | 2020, 26(2) | pp.41~67 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine the meanings of two similar passages in Ecclesiastes and 「Zhuangzi」 and to create, then, a new interpretation based on the common concepts found. That is to interpret the book of Ecclesiastes in terms of the concept of 「Zhuangzi」. First, after considering the meaning of 「Zhuangzi」 「Yangshengzhu, 1-2」, it is discussed the new interpretation of Ecclesiastes 7:15-18. The Psalms warn against human beings captivated by their ‘limitations of knowledge(Chengxin)’ to live their true life, and encourage them to live according to ‘Du’. This is in the state of following ‘Dao’, and it does not make it absolute by biasing either good or evil. And this is ‘following the laws of nature’. Rereading Ecclesiastes 7: 15-18 through the lens of 「Zhuangzi」 「Yangshengzhu, 1-2」, it is found the possibility of expressing Ecclesiastes in the language of 「Zhuangzi」, and is also found new interpretations. The unreasonable reality in Ecclesiastes could be interpreted as ‘the reality of no limit’ of 「Zhuangzi」 and the concept of ‘the fear of God’ could be interpreted as the concept of ‘Yuandu’. This added an oriental concept on the text of Ecclesiastes, which means giving it ample meaning. Also, when reading the book of Ecclesiastes in terms of the concept of ‘Chengxin’, it is found an interpretation that Ecclesiastes is wary of the absoluteness of humanity, and the story of 「Zhuangzi」 about the result of ‘Yuandu’ also has revealed positive expectations of life emphasized throughout Ecclesiastes. The attempts in this study to read the Hebrew Scriptures, the Bible, in the concept of ‘Daojia’ could give a new direction to the interpretation of Ecclesiastes that has been only carrying out in the Western-centered perspective. And this would be the opportunity to build a new foundation of sermons to which Asians can relate.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Transmission of the Fourth Servant Song in the Earliest Translations and Jewish Literature: Focused on the Vicarious Suffering of the Messiah

    Oh, Abraham Sung-Ho | 2020, 26(2) | pp.68~114 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper studies how the Fourth Servant Song (Isaiah 52:13-53:12; FSS hearafter) has been understood and transmitted in the pre-Christian Judaism. This issue may give light on the understanding of the role of the pre-Christian Jewish view that takes in the continuum of the understanding of the FSS between the OT and the NT. Our purpose is to review whether the suffering servant of the FSS has been read as the Messiah being in charge of vicarious atonement in the pre-Christian Judaism. To this end, we examine the Jewish literature such as Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha as well as the first three translations of the Hebrew text, that is, LXX, Targums, and Peshitta. There has so far been no pre-Christian Jewish literature that had understanding with certainty of the Servant of the FSS as the vicarious Messiah. In LXX, the suffering servant has vicarious atonement ministry, but it is uncertain whether the servant is an individual Messiah. Although the servant of the Targum is a Messiah, he is a victorious rather than vicarious Messiah, and the suffering, death, and atoning ministry of the Servant in the MT are completely transferred to other subjects. In Peshiṭta, the vicarious ministry of the Messiah is preserved, but it is not certain whether it is pre-Christian and of Jewish perspective. In conclusion, pre-Christian Jewish literature as well as the LXX, Targum, or Peshiṭta did not display clear evidence that pre-Christian Judaism had understood the Servant of the FSS as the vicarious Messiah.
  • 4.

    Ezekiel’s Trauma in the Prohibition of the Mourning rites for his wife

    INCHOL YANG | 2020, 26(2) | pp.115~148 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, I argue that Ezekiel’s behavior before the loss of his wife (Ezek 24:15-27) reflects PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder) of the exiled community after the fall of the Jerusalem Temple. Ezekiel and his exiled community suffered the trauma of invasion by the Neo-Babylonian Empire. In Ezek 24, Ezekiel’s loss of his wife symbolizes the loss of the Jerusalem Temple. By his symbolic act, the prohibition of mourning before the death of his wife, Ezekiel becomes the symbol for his exiled community. It means that Ezekiel extends his individual trauma to his exile community’s collective trauma. By explaining the meaning of his individual trauma, Ezekiel makes his exile community recognize the nature of their suffering and their responsibility. Furthermore, Ezekiel hopes that his exile community becomes a new community recovered from their trauma. Rather than weeping for their destroyed city, Jerusalem, Ezekiel and his community start a new beginning in the exile while they wear turbans and put their sandals on their feet. This behavior facilitates recovery from trauma for his exile community. In order to demonstrate my argument, first of all, this study introduces Cathy Caruth and Jeffrey Alexander’s trauma theories in cultural and literary studies. Second, this study introduces biblical scholars’ psychoanalytic analysis of Ezekiel. Lastly, building upon Alexander’s collective trauma theory, this study attempts to understand Ezekiel’s trauma after it analyzes the translation, the structure, and the setting of Ezek 24:15-27. As a conclusion, the study discuss the contributions of Ezekiel’s trauma studies for the Korean Society.
  • 5.

    The purpose and function of the Zadokite law(Ezek 44:17-31)

    hong sung min | 2020, 26(2) | pp.149~177 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study investigates the purpose and function of the Zadokite law(Ezek 44:17-31) through the intertextual approach. The Zadokite law is a reform plan that calls for a thorough self-criticism and an internal change from the past that has failed to build a new society. Since Wellhausen suggested the Zadokite’s exclusivity and the demotion of the Levites in Ezekiel 44, many scholars follow his suggestion, and so the Zadokite's law is lightly dealt with as later redactional layers. Also, regarding the phenomena that occur when the Zadokite law is compared to the Mosaic Torah, M. Haran evaluates Ezekiel’s code can be considered P's byproduct of the lower class or a small-scale transcript of P. This regulations, however, deal in depth with the conduct and responsibilities of the Zadokite priests, and request special holiness grade of them in regard to their duties. Ezekiel 44:17-18 changes the subject of hearing from the people to the Zadokites, and shows the shocking use of the terms for the priest’s clothing. Besides, Ezekiel has no interest in the glory and beauty of priests, but he only emphasizes the glory of Yahweh. The priestly hair ordinance(vs. 20) is no longer in the mourning context, but in a general context that requires their normal, neat and flawless lives. The marriage regulation(vs. 22) takes the high priest’s(Lev. 21:13-15) and applies it to the Zadokite priests. Ezekiel has a stricter stance than the Mosaic Torah does. In the judical role(vs. 24a), the responsibilities and roles of priests are reinforced. Regarding the priestly responsibility toward the dead(vs. 25-27; cf. Num 19), it was newly enacted and applied it in a new situation, and so after their contact with the corpse the Zadokites are not allowed to serve as priests and are asked to offer the purification offering. This text notes that genuine reform is not a distinction and differentiation of external grades, but a substantial change in the clergy, the so-called social leader, who are in charge of the worship.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Sexual Violence of Judith

    Unha Chai | 2020, 26(2) | pp.178~201 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Judith’s story is fascinating and widely read because she plays a decisive role in eliminating Holofernes, the Assyrian army general for herself and ending her village Bethulia’s crisis. With this Judith is highly praised as heroine, model or alternative leader for rescuing her community successfully. However, it is considered that Judith’s sexual violence is the main theme in the Book. It is difficult to obtain or fully understand Judith’s story without looking into the problem of her sexual violence. This comes first in her invocation of Yahweh as “O Lord God of my father Simeon”(9:2) who took the lead of revenge for Dinah’s rape (Gen. 34) and who eliminated Shechem and his tribe. Judith identifies herself with Dinah and takes revenge on her enemy. It is of significance that she plans at the risk of run into sexual violence, but she has committed connivance with male political and religious leaders in the village. She uses her beauty as a weapon against Holofernes. Taking the place of sexual violence, she suffers from verbal and sexual harassment, molestation and perhaps rape. We hear that “it was my face that tricked him to his destruction, and yet he committed no act of sin with me, to defile and shame me”(13:16, RSV), We can imagine, however, that there must have been no small amount of her anxiety and fear about Holofernes and other men’s verbal and sexual violence. Even though she rescued the community, she could not forget the displeasure, shame and disgust she had experienced at the place of the sexual violence. Probably the social system and atmosphere at the time would let her go into her own private house and live alone without remarrying. The author of Judith’s story would expect the effect of highlighting Judith’s characteristic, further strengthening the patriarchal society and promoting the sacrifice of women. But it doesn't end with a pious and beautiful woman’s heroic story that happened a long time ago. Isn't the history of various kinds of sexual violence continuing even now? We have a sad history of comfort women forced by Japanese military into sexual slavery, young women pushed into sex industry and women still suffering from sexual assault on the battlefield around the world, and men and women in the Me too movement now. They live as anonymous people living with deep wounds physically and emotionally. Although their situations and causes are different, I finish this article by remembering their sorrow, just like what Judith endured alone until her death.
  • 7.

    A Study on the bi'arta-law of Deuteronomy

    Choi Jong-Won | 2020, 26(2) | pp.204~230 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study is based on the text of Deuteronomy 13: 1-5; 17: 2-7; 19: 15-19; 21: 18-21; 22: 13-21, 23-24; 24: 7. By explaining the structure and meaning of the 'bi'arta-formula' that has typically appeared, it is necessary to diagnose the literary growth of the Deuteronomy Law (Deuteronomy 12-26). This is going to find a new value system as law in laws. These texts include social justice issues and are closely related to the subject of the Leviticus's justice and dishonor. The typical idiom of the 'bi'arta-law' is 'You shall remove the evil in the midst of you', which consists of the close formula (Abschlußformel). This unique expression plays a central role in the Deuteronomy thought, which is the concern of Deuteronomist historians who are interested in how the society should deal with crime as a judicial act of 'evil'. The analysis of this text suggests that the fundamental thinking of the 'bi'arta-law' is based on the tradition of the Deuteronomy through the traditional criticism. This suggests that these accidents are greatly influenced by the North - Western Semitic covenant tradition. Comprehensively, the constituent(s) of the 'bi'arta-law' propose the social concerns of Deuteronomy's new-era fate community through their texts. In particular, the 'evil' which is emphasized in the judicial system in the text means an unlawful act which can be applied in the demonstration law. This 'evil' can be seen as the intention of a Tradition of a dtr composer who wants to apply the new nationality to the new community by replacing the state-centered judicial power that can be applied in the Persian era with religious power.
  • 8.

    A Study on Ancient Near East Literature Influencing motifs of ‘blessing’ and ‘curse’ in Deuteronomy 28

    Lee,Keungjae | 2020, 26(2) | pp.231~269 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Blessings and curses found in Deut. 28 were influenced by the various regions of the ancient Near East and various ancient Near Eastern traditions. The purpose of this study is to propose the origin of the ancient Near Eastern tradition of various blessings and curses found in Deut. 28 and to confirm the Old Testament theological view of the blessings and curses mentioned in Deut. 28. First, as evidenced by various types of literature in the ancient Near East, the blessing motif has a long history that can be traced back to the ancient Sumerian city-state era. However, the content of the blessings mentioned in Deut. 28 is quite normal compared to the ancient Near Eastern blessing motifs. In contrast the ancient Near Eastern blessing motifs contain mythical content that can confront God or political content such as prospering the kingdom. The curse mentioned in Deut. 28 was also influenced by various ancient Near Eastern regions and traditions. Among them, the discovery of Esarddon’s Succession Treaty (EST) greatly influenced the study of the curse motif in Deut. 28. Because the similarities between the curses of Deut. 28:20-44 and EST § 56 demonstrate a direct impact from EST, for example, a combination of shared motifs, sequence, and structural similarities between two documents. The ‘Cannibalism’ curse motif in Deut. 28:53.55.57 was influenced by EST §§ which inherited the Assyrian tradition. And the curse motif of ‘Not obtained’, which affected Deut. 28:31.33.38-40.42, is already confirmed in the three Aramaic inscriptions between the 9th and 8th centuries BC. This cursive motif is rooted in the Hittite mythology recorded around 1500 BC. Nevertheless, only theological reinterpretations of Deut. 28 about the curse motif are found. For example, the so-called ‘ritual curses’ in EST (§§ 59-67) are not identified in Deut. 28. Perhaps because YHWH religion strictly forbids witchcraft and magic.
  • 9.

    Old Testament Response to the Multicultural Phenomenon

    Taek Joo Woo | 2020, 26(2) | pp.272~297 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to attempt a new approach to the multicultural phenomenon in Korea, not seeking a new solution. This arose from critiques on the previous studies on the issue under consideration. They illustrate insufficient exegesis on the words like ger and nokri, as well as on narratives of immigrating people, the lack of understanding the ancient society, and inadequate application of the modern concept to the ancient society. To complement such drawback, this study explores three dimensions of the Old Testament, that is, literary, historical and theological one with regard to the multicultural phenomenon. Literary and historical dimensions of the Old Testament on this issue share the point that the multicultural phenomenon is embraced under the condition of confessing Yahwism. Ruth is a representative case and Job is understood as a discourse on Yahwism in the multicultural society. And a history of ancient Israel illustrates a spectrum from acceptance to rejection to this phenomenon. Israelites were the descendants of Abraham who came from Chaldea in Mesopotamia; Joseph were married with an Egyptian, and Moses, with a Midianite woman. The Exodus group did not expell the Canaanites completely and coexisted with them. David the king of the united kingdom managed the foreign mercenary; Solomon married with foreign women; Ahab married with Jezebel, a Phoenician princess. In the colonial period, however, Ezra and Nehemiah reformed Yehudites by prohibiting the intermarriage. For it threatened the identity of Yehudites as Yahweh believing community. Theological dimension focuses on exploring how two Hebrew terms, ger and nokri of the Deuteronomic code are treated. Dates of the legal codes show that certain political and military conflicts caused the people to move to safer places, but it is also considered as a generic trend in agrarian society. The Deuteronomic code suggests that ger as the societal weak are to be taken care of, while nokri as affluent people from outside are to be socially distanced from the natives. In sum, the Old Testament teaches that the societal weak are to be taken care of under the condition that they do not threaten Yahwism. To discuss the multicultural phenomenon is related with how to keep our identity. The more the outsiders in the society, the more fear grows. But the Old Testament teaches the faith community to provide care and support to the societal weak, for instance, like the Yehmenite refugees arrived at the Jeju Island in 2018, as far as they do not threaten Christian faith and our identity.