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2020, Vol.26, No.3

  • 1.

    Functions of gôi in a Tripartite Structure of Ezekiel

    Kim, Rae Yong | 2020, 26(3) | pp.14~43 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper investigates the functions of gôi in each element of a tripartite structure of Ezekiel. For this, I analyzed contents, structures and syntax in each element. First, a judgment oracle against Israel(ch. 1-24) is the first stage of Yahweh's restoration program composed by four elements and it describes systematically both sins of Israel and contents of her judgments with a term gôi. Here a unique thing is that an intention of Yahweh’s judgment is related to Israelite's repentance and their recognition of Yahweh. In this view, the oracle can be the first stage for Yahweh's restoration program. Second, a judgment oracle against foreign nations(ch. 25-32) is the second stage of Yahweh's restoration program composed by three elements and it describes systematically both sins of foreign nations and contents of their judgments with a term gôi. Here a unique thing is that sins of foreign nations are related to both insults against Israel and arrogances against Yahweh. This is a supporting evidence that judgments of foreign nations are closely related to the restoration of Israel. In this view, the judgment oracle against foreign nations can be another stage for Yahweh's restoration program. Third, a salvation oracle for Israel(ch. 33-39) is the third stage of Yahweh's restoration program composed by four elements and it describes systematically both restoration of Israel and salvation of Israel with a term gôi. The first stage and the second stage are presented as an introduction and now the third stage becomes a blueprint. In particular, the four elements mentioned here serve as a specific blueprint for the Yahweh' restoration program. Accordingly, this study might be a great help for understanding of both an intention of a tripartite structure of Ezekiel and functions of gôi mentioned in the structure.
  • 2.

    The Analysis on the Textual Literary Strategy Regarding Ideologies Represented in Exodus 1-2

    김성진 | 김상래 | 2020, 26(3) | pp.44~69 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to analyze how the ideologies of ‘sex’, ‘race’ and ‘rule-resistance’ are presented in Exodus chapters 1-2 and what strategies the text uses to deliver each ideology to the readers. The analysis of the text has led to the following conclusions. Firstly, the detailed record of the pharaoh's order to kill the boys and the activity of the female roles shown in Moses' rescue is a literary device to make the appearance of ‘a man’ Moses dramatical. This is a textual strategy to convey the male-centered ideology that salvation is eventually achieved through men. Secondly, a direct contrast between the Hebrew and Egyptian women through the mouths of the midwives, the pharaoh's silence to the answers of the midwives, the death records of the Egyptians but not the Hebrews, and the connection to Moses' self-identity and God's covenant are all literary devices to show Hebrew superiority. Pharaoh and the Egyptians try to demonstrate wisdom and power, but their trial is collapsed through the text. Thirdly, the text shows the pharaoh’s ruling ideology, which is revealed in the name of protecting his own people. The ensuing narratives, however, justify the resistance and ostracism of the Hebrews, revealing that pharaoh's rule was unjustified violence. This analysis could contribute to a new understanding of the Bible text as a case study that investigates what literary strategies the Bible text uses to keep or convey certain ideologies.
  • 3.

    A Study of the Literary and Theological Meaning of Leviticus 18-20: In the Context of Literary Structure of Leviticus

    Roh, Se Young | 2020, 26(3) | pp.70~105 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This analysis of the strucure of Leviticus shows that chapter 18-20, which presents the list of ethical crimes that leads to critical punishment, are located in the center of chiasmus. This means that ethical holiness is important for salvation through the presence of Yahweh in the society of Israel, Also, by presenting cultic and ethical contexts one by one, the structure of Leviticus signals that the cultic and ethical holiness has to be accomplished at the same time.
  • 4.

    A Study on ‘the Destruction and Restoration of the Walls of Jerusalem’ in the Proclamations of Nehemiah and Other Post-Exilic Prophets

    Lee Hee Hak | 2020, 26(3) | pp.106~140 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    After the Babylonian captivity ended, returning prophets proclaimed Israel’s restoration in the way to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem based on the important faith that Jerusalem temple had. The purpose of this article is to explore the messages of Nehemiah and other post-exilic prophets about the destruction and restoration of the walls of Jerusalem in the view point of tradition criticism, pointing out that the process of rebuilding the walls implied the faithful symbol of Israel’s restoration. Nehemiah 1:3; 2:13; 4:3, 7; 6:1 explain the destruction of the walls of Jerusalem and city itself, utilizing Hebrew verb ‘fall’(#rp) in all these five verses. The topic of the destruction of the walls of Jerusalem and it’s restoration appears in the trito-Isaiah texts(Isa. 58:12; 60:10-11, 18; 61:4; 62:6-12; 64:9-11) which are evaluated as one of the post-exilic prophetic texts. By using various terms, they proclaim that the ruin of Jerusalem is the symbol of the old age, and the restoration of the walls is the new symbol of the new age. Furthermore, this topic is found in the eschatological texts(Amos 9:11-15; Micah 7:11) which were generally evaluated as the work of the final redactor of the post-exilic period. It is Isaiah 58:12 and 61:4 to show textual similarities related to the rebuilding process of Jerusalem in the book of Nehemiah. These two verses point a deep intertextual relationship as they look like the same. They equally use the form of the proclamation of restoration, convince that the old ruin will be restored for the mourner, and promise that the broken cities will be renewed. Here, we find the connecting point in relation to the motive of ‘the destruction(#rp) and rebuilding(hnb) of the walls’ mentioned in Nehemiah and Isaiah texts. Prophecies concerning judgment and restoration of Jerusalem appear on the eschatological texts(Amos 9:11-15; Micah 7:11) which are viewed as an addition during the post-exilic period. One common point between Amos 9:11 and Isaiah 58:12 is that only in these verses, the verb ‘wall up’(rdg) is used with the object ‘breach’(#r,P,) in the Bible. Moreover, the thematic words, such as set up(~wq), build(hnb), and old(~l'A[) mentioned in Amos 9:11 suggest very similar commonality to Isaiah 58:12 and 61:4. In the traditional view point, Isaiah 58:12, 61:4, and Amos 9:11, 14 stand at the same tradition in that Micah 7:11 strongly expects the restoration of Jerusalem(Judah). In conclusion, this article argues that Nehemiah and other prophetic texts edited in the post-exilic period utilize very diverse terms and motives to point the destruction of Jerusalem and restoration of the fallen walls. In some cases, without any special relations, they use other words to depict the events. However, overall they share common words in order to suggest that the desolated Jerusalem will be renewed and the walls will be restored, and finally the destructed cities will be rebuilt. To restore the walls of Jerusalem and especially the ‘breaches’ of the fallen walls were proclaimed as the sign of entering the new restoration period. This article proves that the trito-Isaiah and some eschatological texts of Amos and Micah, attributed to the post-exilic final editor, have deep intertextual relations to Nehemiah text in the research based on the tradition criticism.
  • 5.

    Contemporary application of Sexual ethics and sexual crimes in Deuteronomy 22:13-29

    Youmee Park | 2020, 26(3) | pp.142~171 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to enhance the sex ethics of the Korean church and regard sex crimes as serious through a study on the text of Deuteronomy 22:13-29. As a research method, first, through a close reading of the text its content is perceived and in light of the social and cultural background of the time its interpretation is done. Second, the basis and problems of the covenant-theological interpretation of this text are pointed out. Third, based on the results of this study, suggestions for their practical application to today’s church are made. In chapter 1, the purpose and method of this study was presented. In chapter 2, through the study of Deuteronomy 22:13-29 some insights were found. First, women’s sex was strictly controlled by men. Second, the virginity of women was considered important in terms of father’s authority and economy. Third, marriage was a kind of transaction, and female virginity was the most important transaction item. Fourth, sexual intercourse with a married or engaged woman is an infringement of her husband’s rights. Fifth, women’s extramarital sex was considered an evil to be eliminated from the community. Sixth, in the case of men, sexual intercourse with a virgin was not considered a crime, whether it was a consensual sex or a sexual assault. Seventh, male sex was not subject to control. What was found from this study is that Deuteronomy considerably reflects the culture and system of the patriarchal society in ancient Near East, which does not independently recognize women’s personality and sex but thinks they are subordinate to men. In chapter 3, the Book of Hosea and Malachi 2:10-15 are suggested as the basis for the covenant-theological interpretation of Deuteronomy 22:13-29. And it was pointed out that the limitations of the covenant-theological interpretation are to connect all women’s sex to the covenant, and that only the chastity of women. In chapter 4, three suggestions for modern application are made. First, the differences of the status and independence between women in the Old Testament times and modern times are to be acknowledged. Second, the equality and exclusivity between the husband and the wife in a marriage relationship need to be recognized. Third, the violation of women’s right of sexual self-determination should be viewed as a serious crime.
  • 6.

    Metaphors of Psalm 23 for Refugees and Refugee Admission Policy

    Lee Il Rye | 2020, 26(3) | pp.172~200 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The life mentioned in Psalm 23 signifies the life that could have received salvation from “Jehova’s home”. In particular, he poet sings of gratitude in a desperately dangerous situation because he has gotten the right of asylum. Of course it is difficult to view it in relation with an accidental murder or as a function of asylum to protect oneself from an unjust blood revenge. The function of asylum protection, mentioned in the Old Testament, has led to changes within its fundamental nature depending on the situation and time period. Therefore, it is clear that Psalm 23 implies the temple asylum that protects the poet’s life in desperate danger. At the same time, verse 1-3 is the song about hope of shelter sung by the Israeli refugee escaping from Egypt. Especially verse 1-3 is a detailed and practical model in relation to the refuge function for the protection of refugees. Here, in Psalm 23, we can see a close relation between the asylum function and the refuge function. If we focus on verse 6 and 1-3(AA’), which forms the outline of the complete Psalm, we can read through chiasmus that the Shepherd metaphor (1-3) and the ‘Party Host’-Metaphor (verse 6) can be considered identical. The important theological introspection takes Verse 1-3 can be read as the song of the Israeli people, and thus verse 6 can be read as the song of asylum protection from the Israeli people. The important theological observation takes verse 1-3 as a starting point to read the song of the Israeli, thus verse 6 can be read as the song of asylum protection from Israeli people. Function of refuge and function of asylum protection, those two topics are connected and imply a total a total life of salvation. The metaphor in Psalm 23 contains the necessity of a ‘spatial and geographic place’ for the refugees’ refuge and implies at the same time that there is an ‘asylum tradition’ which has to be protected through legal device. The metaphor in Psalm 23 shows that the function of asylum and refuge have a two-sided absolute value for the politics regarding refugees and the acceptance of refugees.
  • 7.

    Ben Sira's Use of the Adam Story in Gen 1-3

    박장훈 | 2020, 26(3) | pp.202~227 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    A wisdom writing in the Apocrypha, Ben Sira differs from the OT wisdom literature in explicitly identifying wisdom with the Torah. However, might it not be possible that Ben Sira was influenced by the Torah in a more comprehensive way? This question was not sufficiently explored especially in the Korean scholarship. The present article seeks to answer this question by exploring the ways in which Ben Sira uses the Genesis Adam story in the Torah. The findings of this exploration are threefold. First, Ben Sira interprets the Adam story in Gen 1-2 as revelatory of God’s creational intentions for humanity while representing Israel as specially embodying those creational intentions. Ben Sira does this by using the language and images of Gen 1-2 to depict Israel as an Adamic people and Jerusalem as an Edenic place. Second, Ben Sira interprets Gen 1-2 also as the story of Adam as the first human being and portrays Simon, Israel’s high priest at that time, as Adam’s counterpart. These two conclusions suggest that the Torah’s focus on the temple-centered Israel as Adamic in status and morally paradigmatic towards the world is similarly at work in Ben Sira. Third, Ben Sira interprets Gen 3 as the story of the primeval couple who, through their fall, brought about the epochal changes in the moral conditions of the world, not least the universalization of death. It is in this post-fall world of inevitable human mortality that Israel succeeds to Adam’s status and vocation. These findings show that the Genesis Adam story shaped Ben Sira’s understanding and portrayal of the vocation of the contemporary Israel and humanity and the state of the world.