Korean Journal of Old Testament Studies 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.42

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pISSN : 1229-0521 / eISSN : 2799-9890

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2020, Vol.26, No.4

  • 1.

    Job and Melancholia

    Kim, Sun-Jong | 2020, 26(4) | pp.8~36 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    A Human being is the one who runs towards death. He lives in sadness and depression, contemplating life and death in his daily life. Depression in this sense is a pathological phenomenon that we commonly experience, and melancholia, which encompasses sad sentiments, is inseparable from the essence of human existence. Depression sometimes drives a person to death, but works created by artists suffering from depression give strength and comfort to us and show a new world and order that ordinary people cannot discover. Depression also has the creative power in art and literature. Melancholia is a subject that is widely discussed in many areas including philosophy, psychology, aesthetics, medicine, and counseling. However, in the field of the biblical studies, little research on utilization of this subject has been made. It is very important and necessary for the Old Testament theologian to accept Melancholia's theory, which is deeply involved in the nature of human existence but has not been dealt with as a major subject. The first purpose of this study is to promote understanding of human beings from the view of Melancholia, which has not been noticed in the anthropology of the Old Testament. It analyzes the dark side of suffering and sorrow that man, who is created in God's image, and examines the phenomenon in which the world created by God laments with pain. The second purpose is to understand the causes and phenomena of depression experienced by modern people in an etiologic manner in light of people of the Old Testament who show depression. The third purpose is to understand the lament in the Old Testament from a modern perspective and language. By analyzing Job from the perspective of Melancholia, this study attempts to understand the dark side behind Job's religious genius and to gain a more three-dimensional understanding of the theology in the Book of Job. This is also to reveal Job's anthropology. As an individual, it is possible to derive a universal human form through the appearance of Job in the biblical annotations in that he is not only a single individual, but also the Israelite community.
  • 2.

    Obed the Son of Boaz: Is the Marriage of Ruth and Boaz a Levirate Marriage?

    Jun Kim | 2020, 26(4) | pp.38~65 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    According to the law of a levirate marriage in Deuteronomy 25:5-10, a levirate marriage aims to “succeed to the name of the deceased brother, so that his name may not be blotted out of Israel”(v. 6). The marriage of Ruth and Boaz in the book of Ruth is often considered a levirate marriage. If Boaz’s marriage is a levirate marriage, Obed should be the child who will succeed to the name of Ruth’s deceased husband, Malone. However, Obed is included in Boaz’s genealogy, not in Malone’s (4:21; cf. Matt 1:5). It can be assumed that Obed’s inclusion in Boaz’s genealogy caused no issues in the minds of readers at the time of the writing of Ruth. Given that the book of Ruth does not give any explanation of Obed’s inclusion in Boaz’s genealogy, the inclusion of Obed in Boaz’s genealogy can be understood as a generally acceptable case at the time of the writing of Ruth. Through the study of a levirate marriage in Deuteronomy 25:5-10 and Genesis 38, I propose that the marriage of Boaz and Ruth cannot be seen as a levirate marriage. First, Naomi and Ruth recognized that they could not expect a levirate marriage from the land of Moab. Even after returning to Bethlehem, they had no one to ask for a levirate marriage. Second, Boaz had no obligation to fulfill the duty of husband’s brother (yābām), since he was a close relative, that is, gō’ēl, not a brother who lived with the deceased Elimelech or Malone. Third, Obed, the first son born of the marriage of Ruth and Boaz, is included in Boaz’s genealogy, not in the genealogy of the deceased Malone’s, contrary to the main purpose of a levirate marriage. It can be understood, therefore, that the marriage of Ruth and Boaz is not a levirate marriage. We can understand that the marriage of Ruth and Boaz is based on Boaz’s high-level of moral obligation beyond his duty as gō’ēl or his genuine love for Ruth.
  • 3.

    Judge’s Selection Criteria and Code of Ethics in Ancient Israel

    So Hyeong-Geun | 2020, 26(4) | pp.66~93 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this thesis is to study the aspects of ancient Israeli judicial organizations by examining the criteria for selection of judges and their code of ethics in the Old Testament. There were three types of judges in ancient Israeli society; First, there were judges as representatives of the community(pater familias, judge, king, elder), second, there were judges as religious leaders(priests, levites), and third, there were judges as appointed officials(high officials and shopheṭ as professional judge). When these judges were selected, a standard draft was provided with specific informations in Ex 18 and Deu 1. According to Ex 18 Moses, the first judge in the wilderness era, must conduct legal education, and select capable persons as judges. In Ex 18 capable persons must firstly fear God, secondly must be sincere, and thirdly must hate unrighteous interests. They even delegated the duties of commanders of the army to these judges. The criteria for the selection of judges in Deu 1 were delegated to each tribe to select the recognized and knowledgeable persons, unlike the mention of legal education in Ex 18. They were first appointed as heads and among these the heads of thousands, hundreds, fifties and tens were selected, and shared the roles as judges and administrators in the court. For these appointed judges, the codes of ethics appear in Deu 1 and 16 and 2 Ch 19. Deu 1 is the code of ethics proposed by Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses, and presupposes that the judgment of the Israeli brothers and the Gentiles should be conducted equally for a fair judgment(v. 16). The code of ethics presented in Deu 1 is firstly not to look at appearance, secondly to listen to the small and the great alike, thirdly to be afraid of the face of any. By the code of ethics for the judges suggested by Moses in order to judge the people with justice (v. 18) in Deu 16, judge must not turn aside judgment, discern faces, take a bribe. According to the code of ethics presented by Jehoshaphat king of Judah in 2 Ch 19, consider firstly that judgment must be not on behalf of human beings, but on the Yahwe’s behalf, secondly let the fear of Yahweh be upon you and take care what you do, thirdly do in the fear of Yahweh with faithfulness and a perfect heart, and fourthly act with courage. Through these criteria for selection of judges and the code of ethics, the ancient Israeli community sought the practices of fair and justice.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Conflict and Reconciliation between Edom and Israel

    Dong-Young Yoon | 2020, 26(4) | pp.94~125 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper deals with conflicts and reconciliation between Edom and Israel. Edom and Israel have historically had many conflicts. The Genesis saw the cause of the conflict as a struggle for leadership, the Books of Prophecy as evil activities between Edom and Israel, and the Books of History as a matter of land and resources. In particular, the prophecy shows extreme hostility toward Edom, whose main cause is a sense of betrayal toward Edom rather than the fault it committed against Israel. In order to resolve these conflicts between the neighboring countries, the prophecy summons memories of brotherhood and continues its desire for reconciliation. Meanwhile, Genesis tells the story of Esau and Jacob’s meeting that unconditional forgiveness must precede reconciliation. Also, the story of the reunion tells us that recognizing each other’s territory is the way to sustain reconciliation. Reconciliation can continue when you stop fighting for leadership and recognize your opponent’s territory. From this point of view, it can be said that this paper can present the Old Testament principle of achieving reconciliation between conflicting communities.
  • 5.

    A variation of Holiness, Love

    Jungho, Cho | 2020, 26(4) | pp.126~154 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to reveal that holiness in Leviticus 19 is transformed as its variation into love in 10:12-11:1. The study of the structure, language, subject, and thought of the two texts shows that their intertextuality is multi-layered. The results are theologically interpreted on the premise of canonical unfolding. In Leviticus 19, God’s holiness appears as His choice of Israel, the salvation of Israel through the Exodus, His protection and provision for the poor and the weak, and His righteousness, and Israel’s holiness must be accomplished through their worship of God and their practice of love and righteousness. God’s holiness commands Israel’s holiness. In Deuteronomy 10:12-11:1, God’s love for Israel is expressed by His choice of Israel and the salvation of Israel through the Exodus and their practice of righteousness and justice toward the weak, Israel’s love for God is to be expressed in their worship of God and their justice and righteousness toward the weak. God’s love for Israel requires Israel’s love for God. Based on these findings, this study suggests that holiness is very similar to love in the Old Testament, and that holiness in Leviticus 19 is transformed as its variation into love in Deuteronomy 10:12:11. This variation is mainly due to the expansion of the concept of love when Leviticus 19 was developed into Deuteronomy 10:12:11. This study shows that the important theological concepts of the Old Testament are not fixed but change, and that, as the final text unfolds, they are transformed into the concepts that seem to be different.
  • 6.

    The Meaning of Hosea 9:13 and Suggestions for Its Translation: In the Context of Hosea 9:10-17

    Hong, Seong Hyuk | 2020, 26(4) | pp.155~186 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to suggest an appropriate translation of Hosea 9:13 after examining its meaning. Hosea 9:13 (MT) is hard to translate and understand. This is because it is difficult to find a meaning suitable for the context due to the lack of syntactical or grammatical regularity or the omission of words as well as limited understanding of socio-cultural background behind Hosea 9:13. To solve this problem, various translations have been attempted through spelling changes, corrections, and estimations based on textual criticism. However, there is a limit to a solution based on textual criticism alone. Thus, I tried to investigate the three issues raised in connection with the translation of Hosea 9:13 based on Hosea 9:10-17, which is the literary unit to which Hosea 9:13 belongs. First, I tried to show by the literary structure of the text that the act of leading out the children to the slayer in Hosea 9:13b is not a future event but a past event. This is because Hosea 9:13 shows that it is not a judgment that will take place in the future of Israel, but a charge of the past rebellion of serving Baal. Second, I argued that Tyre mentioned in Hosea 9:13a needs to be left as it is, instead of trying to find a different meaning through a change of spelling and syntax. In doing so, it was argued that it has the advantage of not only being well connected with the context of Yahweh's deprivation of life, but also revealing additional meanings in socio-cultural terms as an accusation against child sacrifices in Hosea 9:13. Third, from a grammatical point of view, Hosea 9:13b makes it clear through comparison what problem Tyre expressed in Hosea 9:13a relates to. In addition, it was argued that infinitive construct in Hosea 9:13b can be translated into a perfect form when viewed as emphatic lamed. This study shows the importance of not only grasping the verse to be translated in the literary context and structure, but also confirming the significance of the expressed words through socio-cultural background research. In addition, this study draws attention to the importance of clarifying the grammatical ambiguity of the verse itself through a grammatical explanation.
  • 7.

    Queering Genesis 1-3

    Yoo,YeonHee(Yani) | 2020, 26(4) | pp.188~218 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This essay reads Genesis 1-3 with a symbolic word, ‘trans’ and queer criticism. The goal is to demonstrate that since the texts contain ambiguity, inconsistence, disharmony, they do not have a stable, fixed view about sexuality, marriage, reproduction, and relationship unlike traditional heterosexist interpretations. The author of the essay sees two creations of humans in Genesis 1:27bc, “In the image of God he created him male and female he created them.” It can be said that one human being is first made because the last word, ‘him(אֹת֑וֹ)’ in “He-created him” has atnaḥ, a disjunctive accent separating the logic. Then, male and female are created. Although this interpretation might sound strange, the ambiguous text does not exclude the possibility. The Bible is open to many interpretations because of its inherent ambiguity, resilience, polyphony, and opacity. There are many transformations in Genesis 2. The dust is transformed to earth creature(adam), the first human being sexually undifferentiated. Then the ‘side’ of adam is transformed to woman and the earth creature is transformed to man. Now the two become one (2:24). God desires to find ezer knegdo, a saving partner for the earth creature. Ezer is masculine in grammar and so the reader imagines a male partner. But it turns out to be a woman, offering a transgender case in the reader’s mind. Genesis 3 is also a story of transformation: From the ‘abundant’ Eden to the real life full of challenges, from utopia to dystopia. In Genesis 3 the celebration of sexuality and companionship of Genesis 2 are parodied and the roles of the woman and the man are reversed in contemplation and humor. Genesis 3:16 can be most hilarious because the woman’s punishment is to desire the man sexually as to she is willing to endure the pain of pregnancy and childbirth. And the desire is greater than the desire not to be ruled by the man! The reader notices a moment of crossdressing in the text. When both the two people and God make clothes they use the same material and design for both the woman and the man. Our reading of Genesis 1-3 from ‘trans’ and queer perspectives affirms complicate and varigated creation phenomena, challenges the reader’s fixed idea, and offers the reader broad viewpoints.
  • 8.

    Biblical Alternative Research on Mobbing and Conflict Resolution based on Psalm 109 and Genesis Chapter 16

    Lee Il Rye | 2020, 26(4) | pp.219~251 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study reads Psalm 109 together with Genesis 16 through methodology of intertextuality and aims for a biblical alternative to resolve group harassment and conflicts. In Genesis 16, Sarah and Abraham form a group and abuse Hagar. In order to protect herself from the ‘group harassment’, Hara runs away. In Psalm 109, the poet faces collective cursing and accuses, discloses and supplicates the verbal violence of the group to God. The escape of Hagar is compared to the poet’s supplication. Here, the form of group harassment of Sarah and Abraham can be specified as verbal violence. The theological work, to read the story of Hagar along with the poem of supplication of a private person, sheds light on the trauma of the victim who has suffered group harassment once again. At the same time, the active resistance of a person not to remain silent about group harassment is an important fact. The messenger of Yahweh who met Hagar in the desert commands her to "go back to your mistress and submit to her". Hagar's ‘flee’ is modified to ‘go back’. This event summons an important theological motif in Psalm 109 through intertextuality. In Psalm 109, Yahweh stands on the right side of the poet and works for him which summons the poet’s desire for social acceptance. The poet wants 'the enemies to perceive and know it'. He stresses on the importance of the intervention of a third person in ‘group harassment’ between the perpetrators and victims. As such, the demand of God for Hagar to ‘go back’ means that God directly intervenes in Hagar's social reacceptance in connection with the ‘group harassment’ incident.