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2021, Vol.27, No.4

  • 1.

    A Study of Change of Personal Names in the Old Testament

    Hoo-Goo Kang | 2021, 27(4) | pp.8~45 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper explores personal names mentioned in the Bible which include divine elements (Yeho-, Yo-, -yah, -yahu, El-, -el). Comparing with the names known from the archaeological findings (seals, seal impressions, bullae, inscription etc.), it analyzes them to understand their general characteristics. In order to examine the change of biblical personal names with divine elements, all personal names in Torah, Deuteronomistic Books and Books of Ezra-Nehemiah are analyzed and the results are compared with 977 names known from archaeological finding in the Iron Age. It comes to conclude as follwing: 1) even though personal names with the general noun for god, Elohim element do not yield prominent characteristic changes, those with the proper noun, Yahweh element are few found in Torah and in Deuteronomistic Books, they become larger when it comes to late period. The fact that names with Yahweh element were widely used in post-exilic period negates the opinion of anachronic understanding of Torah that they reflects situations of the late periods. In the analysis of personal names in the Bible, Torah can be understood as the earlier phase in the process of development of names with divine element of Yahweh. 2) If we compare the results of analysis of characteristics and changes of biblical names of the Old Testament with those known from archaeological findings, it can be said that the Old Testament was described in the central role of the southern Judah. 3) The analysis of change of ratio of names with Yahweh elements and those with Elohim elements indicates that in Torah, names with Elohim elements outstandingly occupy more than those with Yahweh elements(28.5 times), in Deuteronomistic books, the ratio is conversed to (18.7%- names with Yahweh elements vs. 7.7%- names with Elohim elements) while in the book of Ezra-Nehemiah the latter is less than the former (3.8 times). To compare with names archaeologically known, it is said that the archaeological evidences of the Iron Age match not with names from Torah, nor those from the earlier books of Deuteronomistic History (Joshua-Judges-Samuel) but rather with names of the book of Kings and correspond with those of the book of Ezra-Nehemiah.
  • 2.

    Reform and Inclusive Language in 2 Chronicles 34-35(Josiah text)

    김윤식 | 2021, 27(4) | pp.46~83 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis analyzes 2 Chronicles 34-35(Josiah text) and examines the metonymic and functions in the text. The metonomies illustrate the Chronicler`s historical theology that visions the holy community of all Israel, embracing Judah, northern Kingdom, the remnant of Israel through inclusive language. The metonymy theory developed with the focus of linguistic research was examined, and the characteristics and hermeneutic meanings of metonymy expressions described by the Chronicler that 2 Chronicles 34-35 were focused on. The author of Chronicles rewrote the story of Josiah, a history of the past, in a metonymic way of the late Persian era, and presented a new ideology dialectically. The Chronicler emphasizes 'Temple', 'Levi', 'Jerusalem', and 'All Israel' through the repetition of metonymic expressions related to the body, place, and group. These metonymic expressions imply the context in the time of the chronicler, and the role of the Levites as mediator, specially emphasized has the hermeneutic effect of "democratization of the clergy". In particular, the paragraph containing Hulda's message at the center of the Josiah text in Chronicles(2 Chr 34:22-28) is also a metonymic expression, the second district of Jerusalem and region from which she came from, indicates an area where “refugees” live. In addition, the participation of the people's descendants(2 Chr 35:5, 7, 13) in the Passover which means “people(Min-jung)” as a metonymic expression indicates that Josiah's reform is a reform that includes all classes. It presents that Josiah`s reform is a progressive and inclusive reform that includes. The historical narrative of the author of the chronicles contains the past, reality, and ideal at the time.
  • 3.

    Sociological Analysis of “Those who were Driven Out of the Land(#r<a"h'-!mi WaK.nI)”: Centered on Job 30:1~8

    hangeuncho | 2021, 27(4) | pp.84~117 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Sociological Analysis of “Those who were Driven out of the Land(#r<a"h'-!mi WaK.nI)”: Centered on Job 30:1~8 Han-Geun Cho Ph.D Professor, Department of Christianity The Salvation Army Graduate University This paper examines the meaning of “those who were driven out of the land” through sociological analysis in Job 30:1~8. They forfeited the land they had cultivated, suffering from famine and starvation. Moreover, conditions of their dwelling places such as pits describe their situation as subhuman, making the text more miserable to portray the reality. The verse 8 “those who were driven out of the land” defines as follows: First, the extreme poverty of “those who were driven out of the land” was the result of the wicked’s greed who took the poor’s land. The text states that they were expelled from their society and “from the land(#r<a"h-!mi/min-ha'arez).” Therefore, the phrase “#r<a"h'-!mi WaK.nI(nikeu min-ha'arez)” can be said as an expression that well represents their socio-economic conditions. Second, “those who were driven out of the land” were people who were deprived opportunities to reintegrate into the community. This means that the existing society has exclusive tendencies. This background also reflects the factors of the times that justified exclusivity by emphasizing pedigree roots. Third, the text contains economic and social discrimination against special classes, suggesting that commandments and social norms which don’t represent the poor's right to live. Therefore, when “those who were driven out of the earth” tried to access to the society by hunger, people called them thieves and shouted them out. This means that the Hebrew code did not work at all to realize the social ethics. Therefore, the descriptions of “those who were driven out of the land” appearing in the text can be seen as a result of social discrimination.
  • 4.

    A literary and theological Function of Lamentations

    Han, Dong-Gu | 2021, 27(4) | pp.118~146 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    A literary and theological Function of Lamentations Recently, there has been a new tendency which binds punishment and salvation into one reasoning unit. Before this linkage is formed, there were diverse intermediate steps between the prophecy of punishment and the promise of salvation. On this research, while it would be inspected that there are diverse intermediate steps between punishment and salvation, it would also be pursued what their religious-historical functions and meanings are. Therefore, the researcher regards the 5 lamentations as one in same literature and analyzes their diverse themes here. The themes such as crime, wounds of punishment, confession of sin and repentance, waiting, intervention of God and petition, and promise of salvation seem to be a consecutive process of punishment into salvation. In the perspective of religious-history, the poet attributes the miserable situation to the punishment of God. The punishment simultaneously punished sin and forcibly disarm the presence. It is considered as a type of phenomenon of emptying oneself: abandoning a way of saving oneself and being eager to seek out the real way of the salvation of God. These types of theological reflection and revolution actually formed a belief waiting a measure from God, a theology of waiting. Waiting signifies a burden of suffering and measure imposed by God. Therefore, if one expect the mercy and righteousness of God, It is good that one should wait quietly for the salvation of the Lord(Lam 3:26). In the process of Israels self-reflection, they experienced God who punishes into God who is full of hope. It was finally developed into the dynamics of overcoming a tragical reality. This research is for carefully looking into the internal process of development: the rejection of God into the experience of God.
  • 5.

    A Community That Participates in the Healing of Stigma and Trauma: Listening to Miriam (Num. 12)

    Yoo,YeonHee(Yani) | 2021, 27(4) | pp.148~186 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This essay reads the Miriam story of Numbers 12 from the perspective of intersectionality on how disease stigma, gender, age-based hierarchy and patriarchy, and honor-shame culture intersect. It also interprets the story from the perspective of various discourses of scapegoat mechanisms, stigma, and trauma. It also introduces Jewish traditions and modern liturgies participating in Miriam’s healing while positively continuing her legacy, and reflects on how we can participate in the healing of our neighbors today. The Miriam incident can be observed in three ways from the viewpoint of intersectionality. First, the narrator and Aaron’s detailed description of her changed appearance reveals the intersection of disease stigma and gender, just like gaze rape. Second, in the culture of honor and shame, she is publicly disgraced, closed and excluded as implied by segira, a translation of tzara`at by Targum Ongkelos. Third, in the relationship between a daughter and a father illustrated in Yahweh’s speech (12:14) age, gender oppression, and domestic violence in patriarchal culture intersect. In addition, the Miriam story can be seen as an example of solving the crisis and conflict of the community through the scapegoat mechanism. Miriam has extreme characteristics and meets René Girard’s scapegoat conditions. She is one of the heroes of Exodus, who is exceptional because she is a woman, but also socially abnormal because she is unmarried. The stigma attached to her would have been a woman who challenged the supreme leader of the community but lost her honor, a woman who threatened the order of the community, a woman cursed by God, and an infectious disease holder, and so on. However, it can be thought that her stigma effect was insignificant. Unlike Aaron, she did not admit that he was ‘foolish’ or ‘sinned’ (Cf. 12:11-13). Her traumatic experiences would have been more severe due to the combination of the intersectionality of disease, gender, age, honor-shame culture, patriarchal culture, and the scapegoat mechanism, and stigma. Nevertheless, there have been readers who have kept Miriam’s legacy advocating her in their interpretative communities throughout generations. Midrash about Miriam’s Well, Miriam’s Cup, and poems and songs about her are ways of remembering her and participating in her healing and the readers’ own. I also include a poem here that remembers Miriam. In this essay, reading her traumatic incident from the perspectives of various discourses was a symbol of listening deeply to her and participating in her healing and readers’.
  • 6.

    Theodicy Apperaring in the Lament of the Poor: Centered on Psalm 10

    Lee Il Rye | 2021, 27(4) | pp.187~214 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This research recreates the lament of the poor in Psalm 10 and makes it possible to analyze the theological significance. The suffering of the poor in Psalm 10 goes beyond the situation of physical poverty. The other suffering is the experience of the hidden God. The poor experience the “hidden God” as confusion, pain and suffering. At the same time, they experience the evil deeds of the wicked as an unbearable suffering. In this way, the poor experience suffering which is intertwined in a multi-layered and multifaceted structure and pleads with God. The poet’s plea (verse 1-3) to the hidden God which begins with a “Why-question” signifies the firm faith toward God and can be understood as a statement of faith. The theological significance which is implied in the statement of faith can also be defined as theodicy. Here, the theodicy implied in the lament of the poor presupposes monotheistic faith. This is because the phenomenon of the poet asking God whether he is condoning the sufferings caused by the wicked, implies that he understands the suffering as a result of YHWH's neglect. Furthermore the accusation against God in the lament means the expectation of salvation from the one God, JHWH. The theodicy in the God-lament which has the function of the outburst of the sufferings, forms a relation with various inner elements of the enemy-lament. This develops the subject of lament. The poet in the enemy-lament (verse 4-13) exposes the understanding of the enemy and understanding of God. The wicked denies God in connection with the suffering of the poor and ridicule the absence of God. Therefore, it can be observed that theodicy cannot be discussed in the understanding of the sufferings caused by the wicked and the understanding of God. At this point, the contradicting understandings of the poet and the wicked about suffering and God can be recognized. The poet asks and entreats God whether God can neglect the persecution and oppression of the poor by the wicked in “denial of God”. The discussed theodicy in here functions together with the subject of revenge. In this way, the poor are persecuted and oppressed by the wicked and the pain of his life being exploited is expressed through the language of lament, the theodicy question. His language of lament makes it possible to lead to the experience of “salvation of God”. The laments of the poor who relies on God, the orphans who have no rights and the lonely are the exit to experience God. “The lonely”, “the orphans” and “the poor who are oppressed” experience a God who does not hide his face if they cry out loud. They experience that God is on their side, the side of his “people”. The lament of the poor in Psalm 10 functions as a theodicy which is discussed on the premise of monotheistic faith. This also functions as the outburst of pain of the sufferer and can be observed as a passage to experience God.
  • 7.

    코로나 위기 시대와 구약신학의 과제

    강성열 | 2021, 27(4) | pp.216~256 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to propose the task of Old Testament Theology in the face of Corona Crisis. Since December 2019, everyone in the world have experienced unexpected difficulties (i.e. new normal) caused by the attack of corona virus which came to human beings from the wild animals. Very large numbers of people received the definite diagnosis of corona19 and died from the attack of corona virus. The same thing happened, though to a lesser extent, in Korea. In this corona crisis, scholars of Old Testament Theology in Korea have to react quickly to this rapidly changing new normal situations. Firstly, Old Testament Theology of Korea should establish the theology of epidemic. Against the radical changes and destructive results caused by the epidemic disaster, there need to be theological reflections and interpretations about the corona virus and epidemic disaster. Secondly, in that corona19, having the characters of ecological disaster, is reawakening the coexistence and cohabitation of human beings and natural ecosystem. there comes up the necessity of reestablishment of ecological theology including the climate change or climate disaster. Thirdly, the running down of economic activity caused by the attack of corona virus and the production of the socio-economic weak people necessitate the task of reconstructing a safe and healthy community based on the protection of the weak. In addition, they call for a theological reflection on the right economic ethics about property and wealth. Lastly, increase in the number of melancholiac who attempt to commit suicide due to the Corona Blue also calls for a theological research on preventing Corona Blue and overcoming suicidal impulses.
  • 8.

    Yahweh, the Scatterer: An Interpretation of COVID-19 through the Story of the Tower of Babel(Gen 11:1-9)

    DAE JUN JEONG | 2021, 27(4) | pp.257~290 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    It is the aim of this study to interpret a great disaster such as COVID-19 by comparing it with an incident in the Old Testament and to draw its meaning. In general, we tent to understand disasters like COVID-19 as God’s judgment on humanity’s sins. Although there is no overlap between them in a disease standpoint, the story of the tower of Babel and COVID-19 distinctly share the ‘scattering’ of people. The general interpretation of the tower of Babel is negative just like the way people look at COVID-19. It seems like God’s punishment to human beings for their disobedience. However, this study focuses on the fact that the narrator does not describe the story of the tower of Babel in a negative way. In addition, it closely examines and analyzes the literary structure, the use of words, and its contents. In the story of the tower of Babel, Yahweh shows His grace and love by acting directly in those who build the city and the tower, rather than punishing them. It culminates in the scattering of the people. The word “scattering” seems to have negative meaning, however, the scattering in the story the tower of Babel does not demonstrate negative connotation. Therefore, there is no reason to see the COVID-19 situation that causes people to experience voluntary or mandatory scattering due to social distancing measures as negative. The study reveals that there is God’s concern and love to us even in incidents which are interpreted negatively. Moreover, by applying the results of the study to a tiring situation such as COVID-19, we can find a message of hope in the midst of despair.