Korean Journal of Old Testament Studies 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.42

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pISSN : 1229-0521 / eISSN : 2799-9890

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2022, Vol.28, No.2

  • 1.

    A Study of Personal Names in the Persian Period

    Hoo-Goo Kang | 2022, 28(2) | pp.10~42 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Based on the historical documents from three different areas-Babylonia, Palestine and Egypt in the Persian period, this paper examines personal names of the Judeans mentioned in MuraŠû archive, Samaria papyri and Elephantine papyri. Even though they are geographically and chronologically unhomogeneous, they provide substantial Judean names in the period to display some characteristics in them. First, all of them, irrespective of regional differences, mentioned the Persian emperors, indicating that those regions were politically sensitive to their authority and dominated by Persia. Second, the common personal names mentioned in three different documents are only two, Haggai and Hanan(i)ya, both of which appeared in the Old Testament, mostly in the periods of deportation and the Persian with rare cases before the Babylonian destruction. Third, as the biblical descriptions in the Persian period, women names are very rarely mentioned in historical documents. None of woman name is found in some of them. The only exception is the Elephantine papyri in Egypt mentioning 14 different women’s names indicating the proportion of 14.4%(14/97). Lastly, personal names with Yahweh element are characteristic common in three regions. In Babylonia, names with Yahweh element are composed of up to 81%(46-81%), while they are almost to 40%(38.6%) in Palestine and similar in Egypt(40.8%). Despite regional separation, all of them displayed more proportions than names with Yahweh element mentioned in the Old Testament(34.9%).
  • 2.

    The Book of Genesis and Its Narrative: the Themes of Familiarity and Ostraneniye

    Dohyung Kim | 2022, 28(2) | pp.43~76 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    It has been more than two years since the COVID 19 virus entered the world as a worldwide pandemic. In the meantime, Korea’s most popular K-Pop boy bands known as BTS (Bulletproof Boys) topped the Billboard Hot 100 for the first time as well as breaking a new record in the history of the music industry. In addition, the Korean culture has achieved breakthrough popularity and development in various fields such as dance, Parasite the movie, and Korean Netflix dramas, the Squid Game. This cultural syndrome-like phenomenon was never familiar in Korea until recently. However, the cultural phenomenon is no exaggeration to say that the most Korean thing has become a global phenomenon now. This means that the unfamiliar phenomenon in our society has become a familiar phenomenon. Genesis is a book familiar to readers who read the Bible. This contains numerous aspects of life, including God's creation of mankind as well as the creation of heaven and earth, sin and death, obedience and disobedience, betrayal and reconciliation, crisis and opportunity. However, the beauty of Genesis is that it can be fully conveyed from a modern perspective not only through discovering these parts, but also through the newly approaching literary device of “Ostraneniye.” The content of Genesis contains transcendence in addition to historicity and results in the question of how the reader understands that there are several complex elements such as anachronic expressions and materials. Therefore, it is discussed that Genesis was written as a story through a narrative methodology. It was constructed by a well-organized sequence. We feel that the book of Genesis overall rhythm was a meta-narrative when reading it in a form of macroscopic perspective in a Old Testament Primary Narrative(Genesis~2Kings). Genesis is a book suitable for narrative elements, which can be seen containing rich contents that are familiar to modern readers, but suitable for the upcoming Metaverse era.
  • 3.

    The meaning of Děrôr in Jeremiah 34:17

    김유기 | 2022, 28(2) | pp.77~104 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims at a better understanding of the meaning of the Hebrew noun děrôr in Jeremiah 34:17. It will begin by reviewing how ancient and modern translations have rendered the word and examine the context in which it is used. Then it will investigate the social context and meaning of andurāru, an Akkadian cognate of the Hebrew word, from which it is borrowed. It will also analyze some linguistic and literary features of Jeremiah 34:8-22 to determine the sense of the word in context. Děrôr has generally been understood to mean ‘release’ or ‘liberty’ and translated as such. The word must have been borrowed from Akkadian andurāru, probably in the Neo-Assyrian period. D. Charpin proposes that the word be understood as ‘return to the original situation’, based on its usage in Akkadian texts as well as the Sumerogram that corresponds to it, ama-ar-gi4, ‘return to the mother’. The event portrayed in Jeremiah 34 reminds us of the Mesopotamian royal edict in that it occurred unexpectedly by the king’s initiative. According to Jeremiah 34:17, since king Zedekiah and Judahites have not obeyed Yahweh by cancelling the děrôr they pronounced, Yahweh in turn proclaims for them děrôr to the sword, pestilence, and famine. Both the comparative study and structural analysis suggest that děrôr should be understood as ‘return to the original situation’ rather than ‘release’ or ‘liberty’. The alternation of děrôr with the verb šûb in Jeremiah 34:8-22 also suggests that the ‘return’ sense of děrôr best fits in the context. By resorting to both diachronic and synchronic analyses, this study offers a new insight into understanding děrôr in Jeremiah 34:17, which not only fits in the context but also better explains the other occurrences of the word in the Old Testament.
  • 4.

    The Ethics of Responsibility and Restoration Underlying Repentance in the Sacrificial Laws: The Meaning of אָשֵׁם and the reading of Leviticus 6:1–7

    Sun Bok Bae | 2022, 28(2) | pp.105~141 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this article is to find a moral value that underlies in the sacrificial laws. The Priestly document (P) and, especially, its sacrificial laws have been largely considered as having no ethical concern. This scholarly trend, at least partly, comes from the separation of the cultic laws including the sacrificial laws from the main narrative. Yet, a more recent trend stresses the unity of P’s law and narrative. This article begins with the acceptance of this newer trend and seriously takes the narrative context that the cultic laws were meant to serve him residing on the earth, rather than tracing the form or tradition-historical critical meanings beyond the text. Against this methodological background, the first part of this article seeks to figure out the true nuance of אָשֵׁם, while evaluating the three major opinions on the meaning of this Hebrew verb: “to feel guilt,” “to realize guilt,” and “to suffer guilt.” A better-nuanced translation is “to fear guilt” or “to suspect guilt.” This avoids both extremely subjective conviction and objective knowledge of committing sins. This conclusion denies Milgrom’s argument that forgiveness comes before presenting an offering by repentance in the sense of remorse and generates the question of where forgiveness locates. In the latter part of this article, Leviticus 6:1–7 (BHS 5:20–26) is analyzed as a test case because it is a rare instance in which the interpersonal compensation is mentioned in P’s cultic laws together with a sacrificial offering. This text suggests that the sacrificial offering works as compensation for the damage to the deity in the same way that monetary compensation does for the damage to the neighbors. The moral value underlying the sacrificial laws is repentance defined not as an internal feeling but as a responsible action to restore the damage either to God, to neighbors, or to both.
  • 5.

    Revisiting Ezra 1 (vv. 1‒4) with the Temple Building Inscriptions of Mesopotamia

    안한나 | 2022, 28(2) | pp.142~174 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    L. S. Fried and others have convincingly demonstrated that the book of Ezra foregrounds the ideology of temple destruction and reconstruction that was shared across the ancient Near East. This article offers further observations based on the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian building texts by tracing the ancient Near Eastern ideology that underlies Ezra 1:1‒4, especially with respect to the initiation of the temple rebuilding by a divinely ordained king who is styled as a royal shepherd. First, a careful examination of the building inscriptions provides further insights to the peculiar Hebrew idiom in Ezra 1:1 (i.e., hēʿîr, “stirred up”). In the Mesopotamian analogues, the Akkadian terms šudkû and šutbû are appropriated to indicate the divinely originated cause in the mytho-historical story of the destruction and restoration of the temple. In Nabonidus’s rebuilding account, both šudkû and šutbû are used interchangeably in a negative sense, as in “incite” or “arouse.” Remarkably, these verbs were distinctly deployed in the context of the deity’s abandonment of its own temple or the deity’s judgment of the enemy forces linked with the destruction of the temple. In the royal corpus of Nebuchadnezzar II, both šudkû and šutbû are attested. But the former usage predominates, conveying a positive connotation, as in “prompt” or “motivate.” Mesopotamian royal annals, inheriting the Sumerian legacy, describe the king as the shepherd of his people, often in combination with depiction of pastoral duties of gathering the scattered people. In the temple building texts of Mesopotamia, the shepherd metaphor is vividly woven into the monarch’s presentation of the renovation project. This idea is also evident in Cyrus’s royal rhetoric employing the Akkadian verb šeʾû, which showcases the sedulous attention of the Mesopotamian monarchs in rectifying cultic and civil aberrations. Rereading of the edict of Cyrus in Ezra 1 in light of such an ideological orientation yields a distinctive portrait of the Judean returnees, all of whom play an active role in rebuilding the temple in Jerusalem.
  • 6.

    Reading the Book of Isaiah as One Book from Queer-Feminist Perspectives

    Yoo,YeonHee(Yani) | 2022, 28(2) | pp.175~202 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This essay reads Isaiah as a unified book from queer-feminist perspectives. The relationship between feminist theory and queer theory is dealt with in the methodology section and biblical queer criticism and its strategies are introduced. In the main body of the essay metaphors of women and sexual violence against women and the problem of metaphors are discussed. Inclusio of women images in the first and last chapters and a woman’ life of Daughter Zion-Wife/Woman-Mother offers unity to the book. It is argued that Zion’s fluid and queer identity penetrates throughout the book of Isaiah. Ample gender fluid images in the book of Isaiah are observed. Gender reversals are found in the metaphors of ‘men in labor’ (13:8; 26:16-19; 37:3; 45:10; 21:3; 42:14). The marriage/couple metaphor (54:5; 62:5) feminizes Israel, which is assumed to be male. Daughter Zion (37:22-29; 52:1-2) like a man despises and laughs at Sennacherib, defying ‘feminine’ gender performance. ‘The suffering woman servant’ (chapters 49-54) can be seen as a gender reversal version of ‘the suffering man servant.’ Yahweh, a character constructed by the text, is a warrior, mother, and midwife who goes between the two poles of masculinity and femininity. Polyamory (5:1–11) among Isaiah, Yahweh, and Israel, homoeroticism and same-sex marriage (61:10) between the prophet and Yahweh, Yahweh’s fetishism (3:17–23), and the recognition of ambiguous sex (56:3-5) are observed. In addition, the family with two mothers (49:15, 21; 66:13), the celebration of the childless (54:1), the marriage of Yahweh and two wives (62:4), and the expression, ‘your marriage to your sons’ (62:5) break the ‘normal family’ frame. Although the book of Isaiah was completed through many years of writing and editing, it did not limit the relationship between God and Israel to heteronormative metaphors. The book’s elastic and complex gender images for characters help us read it as a unified one.
  • 7.

    The Meaning and the Function of the Serpent (Exod 7:8-13) in the Plagues Narrative

    DAE JUN JEONG | 2022, 28(2) | pp.203~236 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aim to discuss the incident of the serpent in the plagues narrative of Exod 7:8-13. In this paper, I would like to argue that the incident of the serpent is included as one of the plagues as a starting point that leads up to the God’s judgment. In order to prove my opinion, firstly, I analyze the Hebrew words that mean the serpent or the snake, and search their usages in cognate languages. Especially, by focusing on !yNIT; and vx'n" mentioned in Exod 7, I investigate that such words meaning a serpent could have a positive or negative meaning depending in the context. Secondly, by comparing the story of Eve and the serpent in Gen 3, which is a similar story with the incident of the serpent in Exod 7, I suggest a new interpretation for this incident. Finally, I explore the literary structure of the plagues narrative and the relationship between the plagues and the Egyptian gods. It reveals that the incident of the serpent is the starting point of the plagues narrative and at the same time, also one of the plagues in this narrative. This study highlights not only the importance of the incident of the serpent (which is easy to miss), but helps us to understand the delicate literary structure of the plagues narrative the narrator designs. In addition, it makes us understand that YHWH is clearly showing the Egyptians as well as to the Israelites and also to the reader, that the Egyptian gods worshiped by the Egyptians are worthless through the plagues (with the incident of the serpent) in this narrative.
  • 8.

    Expanding the church's inclusion through the study of the illegitimate children in the Old Testament

    Youmee Park | 2022, 28(2) | pp.238~268 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this thesis is to present the basis for the church to take an inclusive stance toward children out of wedlock through the study of children out of wedlock in the Old Testament texts. For this purpose, I dealt with ‘Mamzer’ in Deuteronomy 23:2, the narrative of Jephthah (Judges 11), the narrative of Tamar (Genesis 38), and Isaiah 56. In chapter 2, it was concluded that the mamzer of Deuteronomy 23:2 should be limited to a special term for a child born through incest. In Chapter 3, through the study of the Jephthah and Tamar narratives, it was found that male out-of-married men are viewed negatively by the family or community, but are not discriminated against legally or in terms of property with their legitimate children. In contrast, if a woman conceives a child out of wedlock, the law of Deuteronomy applies and she is sentenced to death. Due to the patriarchal culture of the Old Testament, there is a very big difference in the status, rights, and social perceptions of the husband's children out of wedlock and the wife's children out of wedlock. In chapter 4, I tried to read Deuteronomy 23 in the light of Isaiah 56. Here, the stranger symbolizes a group of people with innate limitations, and the eunuch symbolizes a group of people with limitations due to acquired actions or factors. The condition for their acceptance into the community of Jehovah is that they do justice and righteousness, and keep Jehovah's law, covenant, and sabbath. In other words, if you make a covenant with Jehovah and keep that covenant, you will be recognized as God's people and accepted into Jehovah's community. In conclusion, as the church is a New Testament community that has opened a new era, we should no longer view unwed mothers and children out of wedlock negatively, exclude them from the church, criticize them, or do anything that disadvantages them.
  • 9.

    A Search of Biblical Studies in Dialogue with Church: Life and Theology of Dr. Tai Il Wang

    Keun Jo Ahn | 2022, 28(2) | pp.269~293 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper attempts to discuss a dialogue between biblical studies and church from the perspective of a specific theologian whose scholarship has maintained the dialogue. Dr. Tai Il Wang is one of the leading scholars in South Korea who has dedicated all of his life in the Old Testament studies. Throughout his faculty career in the Methodist Theological University in Seoul for twenty nine years, he has never left pulpit in the church. He regards the Bible as the product of faith community. His biblical interpretation is not simply a scholarly work but a passionate encounter with the texts. After a short review of Dr. Wang’s life in which his consistent efforts in both scholarly and ministerial works are highlighted, three contact points of his biblical studies with practical settings of the church are portrayed. First, he has focused on canonical reading of the Bible, while he accepts the meaningful findings of the historical critical interpretation. His biblical studies demonstrates a strict objective procedure that employs both diachronic and synchronic interpretive methods. Yet, all of his exegetical works comes to an end with ecclesial applications. Second, it is a biblical theology in response to contemporary issues by which churches are surrounded. Dr. Wang tries to discover all the details of the human and social problems in the Bible and connect them with today’s circumstances. His creation-centered theology makes it easier in adaptation of biblical messages into practical issues of human life. Third, the biblical reading of Kyung Hak pioneers a new way of interpretation in Korean Christian churches. Dr. Wang has not been satisfied with the previous analytical methods of German or American scholars because they are different in nature from Korean approach to the Scriptures, the Canon of the church. That is why he has developed a Korean way of biblical reading by utilizing the traditional Kyung Hak. There are three theological attitudes we have to learn form Dr. Wang’s biblical studies. First, he has flexibility in doing theology. He would not stay within the dogmatic or scholarly stubbornness. Instead, he always examines his biblical works in the criterion of the canonical community. Second, he has sensitivity to social issues. Through his exegetical works of the Old Testament, he makes prophetic voices against all odds and ends in human society. Third, he has creativity by transforming western styled biblical criticism into Korean style canonical reading of Kyung Hak. Dr Wang has opened a new way of biblical studies in which both scholarly and pastoral interpretations meet together in the celebration of the Christian Canon.
  • 10.

    Creation of Human Being and Robot in Theological Aspect

    윤형 , Youn Hyung | 2022, 28(2) | pp.294~323 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article is a theological study of robots, which is concerned with work of human being. Three categories of ancient and modern world, old testament are arranged to analyse the correlation between man and robots. In them three themes of work, 'person' and mimesis are described in detail. As a result production of intelligent robots is similar to creation of human being in ancient world and old testament, and different from them. A common point of three parts is work, however its meaning is different from one another. In part of robots and ancient world its image is clearly negative, but its meaning is positive from the beginning of creation in canonical Bible. Secondly, it is analysed which identity worker have. Parts of robots and ancient world regarded man as a object that personality is removed. However in the old testament origin of his personality goes back to image and likeness of God. The third factor is mimesis(imitation). One who was created only to work in ancient world imitates nature of gods. The model of imitation of robots is a human being. Could he be a subject of imitation? Lastly a theological opinion about man and robots is expressed. It is important to think over again meaning of work and identity of worker. Values of man are subject to changes according to the model of imitation. In conclusion, a very close correlation of man and work, divineness of work, dignity of human being, freedom and order are emphasized in Bible. It is our task, how they are applied to robots as a new species.
  • 11.

    A Suggestion for Constructing the Biblicaverse as an Useful Hermeneutic Tool-The Virtual Experience Report in the Study of Song of Songs by ID drroma

    Lee, You-Mee | 2022, 28(2) | pp.324~354 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Due to COVID-19, humankind has experienced ‘isolation’ and ‘connection through digital’ since early 2020. It is ‘Metaverse’ that was under the spotlight in the untact pandemic period. This paper clearly shows the potential that Metaverse can be utilized as an useful hermeneutic tool in the biblical study. First, it proposes an accurate understanding of Metaverse. Understanding the new trend properly, we can get a clue to how to use it. Then, it explores the possibility of creating a specific virtual space related to biblical study (biblicaverse) and sets out to draw up a blueprint of it. It applies the format of game, which is one of typical genres in Metaverse, to biblicaverse for this purpose. ‘Digital Me’, called ID drroma, explores the biblicaverse and shows how to use this digital world for interpreting the Song of Songs. The existing Metaverse is not another world which replaces the reality, but a world of communication which newly expresses the real one. Metaverse consists of three indispensable elements (Avarta/Digital Me, World, and Millions of Experience) and three technical elements (degree of freedom, social, and monetization). These elements can apply for constructing the biblicaverse. Drroma 1) enters the biblicaverse, 2) participates the worlds embodied through the Bible, 3) chooses a quest among the subjects for discussion, 4) utilizes the data (items), provided in this world, for accomplishing the quest, 5) leads the social communication about own quest, and finally completes and publishes the quest in an affiliated academic journal. Then, the user can be a creator in the biblicaverse. Through the virtual experience by ID drroma, it shows that biblicaverse is a very effective, convenient and integrated tool. Metaverse is a tool, nothing more and nothing less. Considering how to use Metaverse as a tool, we can successfully handle other new trends which we may encounter in the future.