Korean Journal of Old Testament Studies 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.42

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2022, Vol.28, No.3

  • 1.

    Messages of Jeremiah 25-44: Focusing on the Three-step Construction

    Kim, Rae Yong | 2022, 28(3) | pp.10~42 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate that Jeremiah 25-44 can be tied up with a paragraph through the message of disobedience, and the message of this disobedience is developed through three stages. For this, Jeremiah 25:1-11 and Jeremiah 26-44 were used as the text of the study, and the texts were divided into three paragraphs, and the contents, structure, expressions and language of each paragraph were investigated. First, Jeremiah 25:1-8 depicts the disobedience of the people, similar to Jeremiah 26-33. However, this disobedience is replenished in Jeremiah 26-29 through false prophet motif, and in Jeremiah 30-33, the restoration emphasized in the debate of false prophets is mentioned in detail. In this regard, the theme of disobedience is developed in three stages. Second, Jeremiah 25:9-10 mentions the judgment from disobedience, similar to Jeremiah 34-39. However, the judgment due to this disobedience is supplemented with the judgment motif in Jeremiah 34-38, and Jeremiah 39 mentions that a warning of this judgment has been fulfilled. Third, Jeremiah 25:11 mentions disobedience through service, similar to Jeremiah 40-44. However, the disobedience through the service is supplemented through the service motif in Jeremiah 40:1-43:7, and Jeremiah 43:8-44:30 deals with the judgment of those who ran to Egypt after breaking the order of service. In this sense, Jeremiah 25:1-11 and Jeremiah 26-44 are developing disobedience in three stages. However, in that this paragraph deals with the fall and subsequent periods of Jerusalem, the message of disobedience plays a role in highlighting the legitimacy of YHWH's judgment, and the message about the judgment caused by disobedience is to highlight the sovereignty of YHWH. The analysis that Jeremiah 25-44 is tied through the theme of disobedience provides an idea that can weave this paragraph into a single paragraph. And this analysis reveals that Jeremiah 30-33 is not an indispensable text for the subject of disobedience, not the text that interferes with the flow of Jeremiah 25-44.
  • 2.

    A Reading of Hosea 1-3 from a Feminist Perspective

    Soon Young Kim | 2022, 28(3) | pp.43~71 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    A Reading of Hosea 1-3 from a Feminist Perspective This thesis is a reexamination of Hosea 1-3, focusing on Gomer whose voice is hidden for dramatic composition and it is a study of loosely applied feminism which critiques the crisis of the patriarchy where the husband controls his wife. For a long time Hosea was regarded as a victim of an unhappy marriage and Gomer as an assailant who trampled on her husband's love and dishonored her husband by scholars, but this is a problem from a feminist perspective. Hosea 1-3 is a prophetic drama rich in symbolism that intensely describes the relationship between God and Israel in chapters 4-14 through the metaphor of marriage and adultery but this metaphor contains a provocative aspect. It is that God's love and punishment for unfaithful Israel are intertwined with images of patriarchal and sadistic violence. However, this in effect criticizes and denounces the corrupt mainstream patriarchal society by placing Israel as the unfaithful Gomer. Israel is represented as an adulterous wife which then places the Jewish men representing Israel's mainstream society in the position of the opposite gender. It is a rhetorical strategy that trapped Israel into the image of adulterous wife, and it ultimately condemned the nature of obscenity in a male-dominated society which was shocking and provocative. The placement of the adulterous image on Israel poses a risk of damaging God’s honor to be in the husband's position, but this also reveals the extraordinary nature of God's love that takes on the shame. In God's plan for restoration there is no longer the regression of patriarchy for domination and subordination. God inscribed the ideal partnership between man and women in the Garden of Eden which is Israel’s ultimate goal for restoration. The verse, “In that day, you will call me ‘my husband’ (ishi), you will no longer call me ‘my lord’ (baali)” (2:16) shows this goal. Finally, the eternal marriage covenant has a cosmic impact that extends to universal restoration, and through the integration of the stories of Hosea-Gomer (3:1-3) and the descendants of Israel(3:4-5), YHWH's unconventional love is revealed even at the cost of human shame.
  • 3.

    An Analysis on the Ten Plagues of Egypt

    김영혜 | 2022, 28(3) | pp.72~101 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper introduces the researches of other academic fields on the ten plagues, and attempts to understand the sequence of the plagues by employing the documentary hypothesis. It is explained throughout the paper that the first four plagues are a series of natural phenomena caused by the flooding of the Nile in the summer, whereas the fifth and sixth plagues are disease plagues spread by insects whose numbers drastically increased due to the flooding of the Nile. As for the seventh to ninth plagues, the paper views it as climatic phenomena that occurs intermittently in Egypt from winter to early spring. Finally, the last plague, that is related to the Passover through the plague of the firstborn, is placed in its current location to be chronologically linked to the ninth plague. Through this analysis, the plague narrative of Exodus is interpreted as a product of understandings on Egypt of the time with regard to diseases, exemplified in Deuteronomy, in addition to natural phenomena unique to Egypt. It is evident that the number of plagues was not ten during the oral transition period. The present form of the text is the result of multiple redactional activities, particularly P. It is evidenced in the plague stories Psalms 78 and 105, which have only seven or eight plagues. Thus, the number of plagues was expanded to ten in Exodus by P, who regarded it as a significant number. In doing so, the insect plague was inflated as the plagues of kinnim and of arob, whereas the disease plague as the plagues of livestock pestilence and of boils. The paper concludes that the present form of the ten plague in Exodus manifests vestiges of P’s editing activities carried out by multiple hands in the course of a long period of time, rather than a single activity by a single hand.
  • 4.

    God's Judgment and Salvation in the Book of Amos - A Re-interpretation in Amos 9:1-15

    Zion Park | 2022, 28(3) | pp.102~128 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    God’s grace and salvation appear only marginally in the book of Amos. Except for the passage Amos 9:11-15, which is mostly classified as secondary, the main part of the Book of Amos proclaims God's judgment against Israel and the foreign peoples. Do we only encounter such dark images of God in the Book of Amos? In particular, do the five visions of Amos only show the judgment of God? Or are not only the judgment but also the salvific nature of God reflected in the vision reports? This study focuses on Am 9 and asks whether a positive God is also depicted here. In Am 9, a re-interpretation is possible. In Am 9:1-6, the omnipresence of YHWH is made explicit. In particular, the doxology can be interpreted as YHWH's readiness for salvation. In Am 9:8-10, YHWH clearly proclaims his calamity. However, with the new perspective in v.7 and the restrictive judgment of YHWH, a suggestive salvation is to be expected. Am 9:11-15 form the conclusion, whereby a view of a time of blessing and salvation created by YHWH is described. However, the time of salvation begins with the setting up of destruction (v.11). In the actions of YHWH in Am 9, there is a clear logic of the sequence: “After judgment comes the salvation of God.”
  • 5.

    A Study on the Theological Flow of the Early ‘golah’ Community in Post-Exilic Period

    So Hyeong-Geun | 2022, 28(3) | pp.129~153 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the situation and theological flow of the early ‘golah’ community in post-exilic period. Sheshbazzar was the center of the first ‘golah’ group that retured from Babylon to Jerusalem in Judah through the edict of Cyrus, and the second ‘golah’ group was a return group centered on Zerubbabel. It was revealed that Sheshbazzar and Zerubbabel could not be the same person, and neither Sheshbazzar nor Shenazzar(1 Chr 3;18) could be the same person. As a reseult, the retrunees from Babylon were at least four groups, centered around Sheshbazzar, Zerubbabel, Esra and Nehemiah. Those returning from Babylon enjoyed by nature considerable economic benefits through a feudal association called ‘hatru’ in the Babylonian region, and it is true that there were high expectations for the restoration of the Davidic dynasty through Sheshbazzar and Zerubbabel in the early days after the captivity. Namely, it is informed through the title of ‘nasi’ by Sheshbazzar and through the status of Zerubbabel in Haggai and Zechariah(Hag 2:23; Zech 6;13). However, as Zerubbabel did not finish the construction of the second Temple and disappeared, the genealogy of Zerubbabel in 1 Chr 3 also became unclear, and the lineage of David ends with the grandson of Zerubbabel(1 Chr 3:21). With Zerubbabel’s lineage cut off, the community of ‘golah’ could no longer have expectations for the restoration of the dynasty of David, and now it has made a ideological transition to theocracy, which must expect God’ reign, not to the human king. Afterwards, the ‘golah’ community faced a ideological change in seeking the kingdom of God. Thus ends the early period after the Babylonian captivity.
  • 6.

    Critiques and Response on the Study of the Northern Israelite Hebrew

    Yoo,YoonJong | 2022, 28(3) | pp.154~185 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    There are two major methodologies in explaining the variants of the biblical Hebrew. Firstly, it is the diachronic approach that tries to describe the variants with historical differences such as early, standard, late Hebrew. Second, it is the synchronic approach that illuminates the variants with geographical differences such as southern Judahite Hebrew and northern Israelite Hebrew. During last three decades, Rendsburg and some scholars conducted the systematic and comprehensive study on the northern Israelite Hebrew, thus it becomes enough to reach the entity of northern Israelite Hebrew. On the contrary, several scholars joined to review critically on the researches in the northern Israelite Hebrew. This paper pursues to introduce a history of research and methodology on the northern Israelite Hebrew, examine the issue of northern Israelite Hebrew(i.e, Israelian Hebrew) with focusing on the problems and issues raised by Fredericks, Schniederwind and Sivan, Young, and Pat-El, and finally tries to make a response to the issues raised by above scholars. According to Rendsburg, linguistic features of the northern Israelite Hebrew appear in the following books and texts which are considered to be origniated from the north Israel: Hosea, Amos, Job, Proverbs, Qoheleth, Song of Songs, Deuteronomy 32, Genesis 49 and Deuteronomy 33 dealing the northern tribes, judges from the northern territories, Psalms of Korah and Asap, Nehemiah 9, and so on. Its linguistic and geographical boundary is neighboring with Ugaritic, Phoenician, Aramaic, Moabite, Ammonite, Deir ʿAlla, and so on. It is also notable that the northern Israelite Hebrew shares its linguistic features with surrounding countries, not with Judah. There are some scholars who criticized the researches on the northern Israelite Hebrew. Fredericks, Schniederwind and Sivan, Young, Pat-El reviewed critically the issues such as definition, methodology, texts and so on. After summarizing disputed points of critical reviews, I try to make a response to the critiques. Though some points raised by scholars are reasonable and acceptable, its general directions are not so different from reaching the northern biblical Hebrew. However, Pat-El evaluates very negatively the reality of the northern Israelite Hebrew. I maintain that Pat-El is overstating her opinion and are considered to be not reasonable and acceptable. She starts with strong presupposition that the Bible has only literary forms shared by the same scribal tradition between the North and the South, so she insists that it is not distinguishable between the standard biblical Hebrew and the northern biblical Hebrew. She maintains that variants in standard biblical Hebrew could be explained in other ways, but she does not demonstrate clearly what they are. In sum, it is concluded that the critical reviews done by scholars are mostly not so reasonable, thus not enough to disprove the reality of the northern Israelite Hebrew.
  • 7.

    The Role and Function of Huldah as a Royal Prophet

    Dong-Young Yoon | 2022, 28(3) | pp.186~216 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Huldah was not a professionally trained religious specialist like Hilkiah the priest, but she received royal order to ask God about the contents of the book of the law found in the temple. Huldah, on the one hand, verified the priestly divination presided over by Hilkiah, confirming that the book of the law foretells the destruction of Judah. In this process, she is acting as a diviner who asks God for the king’s request and gets the answer. However, it is not clear whether Huldah’s answer is the result of the oracle. Huldah only proclaimed the prophecies received from God. Huldah also proclaimed a prophecy about the fate of King Josiah who is destined to be similar to Judah, but Huldah declares that King Josiah will enter the tomb in peace when he returns to his ancestors. The prophecy concerning King Josiah is different from the divination taken by Hilkiah which foretold the tragic death of King Josiah, but Huldah’s prophecy promotes the stability of the king’s authority and sovereignty by declaring a peaceful funeral after his death. In this respect, Huldah’s prophecy is similar to the royal oracles of Mari in the 18th century and the Neo-Assyria in the 7th century. Mari and the Neo-Assyrian royal oracles were essentially salvation prophecies because of their great interest in the security of the king and the stability of the empire, and the prophet was a critical supporter of the king. Although Huldah did not operate within the royal palace like Mari and Neo-Assyrian prophets or female prophets, the focus of the prophecy was the king. Huldah, like professional diviner of ancient, verified the divination, while supporting the reforms implemented by King Josiah by proclaiming royal oracles.
  • 8.

    The Translation of 'I Love You, Lord' of the Psalms 18:2 and Its Theological Meaning - Focusing on Its Comparison with the 2 Samuel 22

    이광형 | 2022, 28(3) | pp.217~245 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this study is to explore what theological meaning Psalms 18:2 has in the main body of the Psalms by doing comparative analysis of it with its parallel text, 2 Samuel 22. The Psalms 18 and 2 Samuel 22 apparently are not very different. But, when the two texts are compared linguistically, they reveal various differences and problems. Such differences can be summarized into three kinds: differences in orthography, revision of words and grammar, and addition and deletion of words and sentences. Scholars have paid attention to defects of 'yod' and 'waw' which appear in two texts. While it is not consistent, the writings in the Psalms tend to adopt plene spelling more than those in the 2 Samuel. Meanwhile, there are various problems in the Psalms 18:2. The line itself is not shown in the 2 Samuel. The verb 'rhm' used in the phrase is 'qal' form, and it is peculiar to observe that the form is used only here in the whole Old Testament. This study examined the phrases which can be regarded as Aramaism phenomenon, one of the effects of Late Biblical Hebrew, and checked the understanding of 'rhm' mentioned in the Psalms 18:2 in light of the Aramaism phenomenon. It found out that the text of the Psalms was more modernized than that of the 2 Samuel. And, this study compared 'rhm' in the Masoretic Text (MT) with the 'peal' form and 'pael' form shown in Targum, ancient Aramaic translation of the Old Testament, In addition, through intertextuality of the Psalms 18 and 116, we can observe that rhm of the Psalms 18 can be exchangeable with 'ahab'. The final editor of the Psalms revises 2 Samuel in various aspects. Above all, the editor made clearer some ambiguous sentences in 2 Samuel, and modernized the text of the Psalms for contemporary readers.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Formation History of the Gibeonites’Narrative (Josh. 9:1-27)

    Eunwoo Lee | 2022, 28(3) | pp.246~270 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to trace the formation process of the text in order to solve the various problems that appear in Joshua 9, find the early tradition of this text, and trace the editing process up to the final form. Various problems appear in this text, such as the flow of the story is awkward, the content being repeated, or being logically disconnected. To solve this problem, scholars paid attention to the etiologies in this text, tried to find the sources of the Pentateuch, tried to find various editorial layers, and conducted archaeological research. In this thesis, the author pays attention to various issues appearing in this text, and tries to trace, in consideration of recent research trends, what the original form of the etiologies appearing in this text is, and what kind of editorial layers were incorporated whilst keeping in mind the historical background. Through this study, the author reveals that this text was formed through the following process: First, the story developed from an early oral tradition that the Gibeonites made a treaty with the chieftains of Israel. Second, a Deuteronomic editor in Josiah's era, who wanted to achieve national unity by absorbing neighbouring powers and expanding the territory through a treaty with the Gibeonites, formed a basic documentary narrative (Joshua 9:3, 6, 11-13, 15a). Third, the editorial layer of the Babylonian exile (Joshua 9:1-2, 9b-10), which emphasizes the restoration of lost territory and Yahweh's honour, was combined with this basic story to connect the entire story of Joshua with the Deuteronomic history. Fourth, after the Babylonian captivity, reflecting the attitude of the Yehud community toward the Gentiles, a Deuteronomic layer evaluated the treaty with Gibeon as a negative one made by deceiving them by their schemes (Joshua 9:4-5, 7-9a, 14, 16- 17, 22-24) is added to emphasize that they were demoted to temple slavery. Fifth, the post-exilic priestly editor felt uncomfortable with the representation of the Gentiles as servants in the temple, and in order to uphold the holiness of the temple in Jerusalem, modified them to be those who worked for the congregations rather than the temple. It states that it was not Joshua but the chieftains of Israel who were responsible for the treaty with the Gibeonites (Joshua 9:15b, 18-21). Sixth, the final Deuteronomic editorial layer, negotiating and synthesizing the conflict between the priestly edition and the Deuteronomic edition, stating that the Gibeonites were servants not only for the congregation of the people but also for the altars of the temple, forbidding the Israelites from killing the Gibeonites by applying the Herem, and emphasizing to them to accept them as part of the community, was added (Joshua 9:25-27). Through this, it can be confirmed that the Deuteronomic editing was continuously made not only in the time of Josiah but also in the Babylonian exile and after the exile. The priestly group also tried to add a redactional layer to refute this Deuteronomic editorial layer for their theological purpose. Of course, it can be seen that the final editing attempt to compromise and harmonize the differences between the two groups is reflected in the text.
  • 10.

    The Relationship Between Jeroboam’s Religious Reformation of Northern Israelization and the Idolatry of Mushite Priests

    주은평 | 2022, 28(3) | pp.271~303 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Jeroboam banded together with the Mushite priests who agreed with idolatry. It is the northern Israelite theology which accepted idol worship. Aaronite priests were against this theology. The main theological differences were whether to comply with the law or to heed the voice of people. The religious reformation of Jeroboam was associated with the popular ideology rather than the law. According to Realpolitik, therefore, it was popular rule which led to the northern Israelization of YHWH religion. In conclusion, the reason of the destruction of northern Israel was not only Jeroboam’s religious policy but also spiritual leadership of Mushite Priests.
  • 11.

    The Reasons Why David Could Not Build a Temple of Yahweh

    Ha Kyungji | 2022, 28(3) | pp.304~338 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The present paper is to research the reasons why David could not build a temple of Yahweh. The majority of scholars have said that it was because he poured too much blood in battles based on Chronicles 22 and 28. However, there is a scholarly debate whether the Chronicler, who typically prefers David, really supported this opposition. The present researcher maintains that the Chronicler uses the expression ‘shedding much blood’ to depict David as a man of war without pointing out his moral or ethical issues. To prove my argument, I will investigate passages having the expression ‘shedding blood’ and then discuss the concepts and thoughts of war (also known as ‘Holy War’) in the Old Testament. Then, I will introduce related passages to figure out some features of the two histories’ messages (Deuteronomistic perspective vs. Chronicler’s perspective). According to my research, there is no occurrence of the expression ‘shedding blood’ in the context of battle outside Chronicles. Yet, with regard to the battle in the Old Testament, the wars are Holy War, which was initiated and managed by Yahweh, not by human beings. In this view, David participated in Yahweh’s battles. It is noteworthy that even the Deuteronomistic perspective, which mentions David’s negative aspects without hesitation, does not deal with his failure of the temple building plan in a negative way. Rather, it was impossible for him to build a temple because he was engaged in Yahweh’s wars. Chronicles portrays David as a ‘man of war’. This expression is to compliment David who was faithful to Yahweh by participating the Holy War throughout his entire life.
  • 12.

    A Consideration on the Directions of Old Testament Studies in the Times of the New Normal

    Myung Soo Suh | 2022, 28(3) | pp.340~371 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Along with the development of the 4th Industrial Revolution represented by artificial intelligence, the outbreak of the coronavirus(COVID-19) is causing breakthrough changes in existing living norms and rules, and real life of modern society. Efforts to explain these changes and adapt to changing life situations are being developed in each field. In line with this trend, this paper discusses the directions that Old Testament studies should pursue. For this task, we first summarize the history of interpretation of the Ols Testament led mainly by Western scholars from the late 19th century, and then look at the deficiencies. On the basis of this reflection, I examine the some directions that Old Testament studies should pursue and strengthen in the times of the new normal. Firstly, ‘ESG’(Environment, Society, Governance) as a spirit of the times and ecological studies should be strengthened. Secondly, ethical and social philosophical issues should be strengthened. Thirdly, public theological consideration should be strengthened. Fourthly, ‘applied biblical studies’ should be developed. In conclusion, methodology refers to exploration along the path. It may be anachronistic or methodological retardation for a 21st-century scholar to follow the path of the 19th century. What we should learn from the history of interpretation is the importance of human agenda in our times. However, the history of biblical interpretation in the West lacks the anguish of the times. Even if there is, it does not fully reflect the issues of the era. Macroscopically, the time is now entering a phase of revolutionary change. As a field of humanities, biblical studies is at a point where it is necessary to renew the reorientation that responds to these changes of the times. Even microscopically, the real Christian church is shrinking day by day due to population decline and image loss. The institutional foundation of theology is also shaking. In this times of great transformation, biblical scholars who are agonizing over methodological reflection, that is, the direction of interpretation, and the dimension of interpretation. The four directions presented above are summarized by collecting what I feel are most urgent today. Each has an inner connection with each other, but it is by no means a system that everyone can relate to. It's just a suggestion.
  • 13.

    Reading Scriptures in an Era of Ecological Crisis: The Day of Yahweh in Zephaniah

    Hyo Myong Lim | 2022, 28(3) | pp.372~401 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    It has been pointed out that the anthropocentric worldview of Christianity is culpable for the ecological crisis. Diverse biblical and theological responses have been made to address ecological issues, one of which is the development of ecological hermeneutics. In this article, after giving an overview of the emergence of ecological readings of the Bible, I apply the hermeneutics, which is formulated by the Earth Bible Project, to the book of Zephaniah. I approach the text with suspicion (of anthropocentric bias), identification (with Earth) and an effort to retrieve the voice of Earth from the text. I measure the text against the ecojustice principles proposed by the Earth Bible Project. My reading of the Day of Yahweh as doomsday, which is the main message of the prophetic book, reveals its anthropocentric bias. Earth and Earth community become innocent victims of human-caused calamity. Apostasy and injustices on the part of the human bring divine wrath upon the whole creation, resulting in a reversal of creation. Prophetic justice does not include Earth and Earth community in the underprivileged (orphans, widows and sojourners) who are traditionally patronized by God. This picture of total destruction runs the risk of devaluing this world’s intrinsic worth. Moreover, the prophet’s descriptions and imagery of desolation of the neighboring countries after divine judgment epitomize anthropocentric pragmatism. Such an imagery may promote and legitimize the abuse of Earth and the destruction of the life-web of Earth community. I suggest that readers’ awareness of anthropocentrism embedded in biblical texts and their interpretations contributes to a better appreciation of Earth and a reformulation of more just relationship with Earth.