Korean Journal of Old Testament Studies 2022 KCI Impact Factor : 0.4

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pISSN : 1229-0521 / eISSN : 2799-9890

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2023, Vol.29, No.1

  • 1.

    Salvation in the Exodus Narrative: Reading Exodus through a Compositional Strategy of the Pentateuch and Its Implication for Christian Understanding

    Kiyoung Kim | 2023, 29(1) | pp.11~44 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study explores the concept of salvation in the Exodus event and its implication for Christian belief based on the Pentateuch’s compositional strategy. The subject of salvation in Christian belief is often based on the New Testament or systematic theological agenda. Yet, the Old Testament, especially the Pentateuch, could contribute to shaping the Christian understanding of salvation. To discuss the suggested task, this study looks for the appropriate text, the Exodus story. Second, this research explains the contents of God’s salvific acts in the story and further discusses the meaning of salvation from the Pentateuch’s compositional strategy. Third, the essay synthesizes the study’s findings and compares them to the New Testament’s explanation of the subject of salvation. The study explains the meaning of salvation in the Pentateuch as follows: people who served other gods in the alien land are relocated to the land of Yhwh’s sanctuary by the grace of Yhwh and serve the Lord. Further, the Pentateuch’s compositional strategy persuades that one should perceive the event of Exodus as a part of God’s ultimate vision for the salvation of humanity and his passion for presiding over the lives of the saved people by requiring their holiness. This essay reveals that the outcome of the research is essentially no different from the New Testament’s message of salvation. The particular contribution of this essay is first to reveal the message of salvation from the Pentateuch’s own words and then confirm the echoes in the New Testament. Thus, concerning Christian understanding of the concept of salvation, this methodology could assist readers in understanding the Pentateuch’s own teaching without conflict.
  • 2.

    Violence in the Story of Joseph and His Master’s Wife

    Kim, Yoo-ki | 2023, 29(1) | pp.45~71 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article raises a question whether the advances of Potiphar’s wife to Joseph in Genesis 39 can be termed as a seduction. It aims at defining the interactions between Joseph and Potiphar’s wife in a way that reflects what the narrator thinks Joseph went through in the story. We begin by investigating the means of participant reference. We examine how Joseph, Potiphar, and his wife are referred to in the story. Then, we compare some expressions of Genesis 39 with those of 2 Samuel 13, the story of Tamar and Ammon. We also look into the story in Proverbs 7 that deals with the seduction of a young man by a married woman, to take a glimpse of what constitutes a seduction in the ancient world. Joseph is often mentioned by name by the narrator but in direct discourse his master’s wife refers to him with derogatory expressions. Potiphar is mentioned by name only once at the beginning of the story and afterwards referred to as Joseph’s master. His wife’s name never appears, while she is referred to as “his master’s wife”. The comparison of this story with the story of Tamar and Amnon shows that both Joseph and Tamar are portrayed as “beautiful” and that their counterparts order them to “lie with me” after seizing them while they themselves resist the violence with reasonable responses. The images of a seductive woman and a young man in the story of Proverbs 7 are also at odds with those of Potiphar’s wife and Joseph, respectively. The means of participant reference in the story portray Joseph as a powerless slave to his master. The words and actions of Potiphar’s wife are shown to be as violent as those of Amnon. Potiphar’s wife was certainly not a seductive woman the story in Proverbs 7 describes, while Joseph was not seduced but harassed by his master’s wife.
  • 3.

    Problems of the Translation “To Recite in a Low Voice” (Hagah/Siah) in the New Korean Revised Version (NKRV)

    Jinkyu Kim | 2023, 29(1) | pp.72~101 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine the validity of the translation of hagah/siah as “recite in a low voice” in the Psalms of NKRV. To achieve this purpose, we first looked at the examples of this type of translations in NKRV. Next, the dictionary meanings of hagah/siach registered in Hebrew dictionaries were reviewed. The translations of NKRV were compared with other translations. To confirm the meanings of these terms more clearly, the parallelisms of the phrases in which these terms are used were analyzed. In the final step, we considered whether modern readers can easily understand such a meaning. As a result of the study, it was found that Hagah/Siah hardly support the translation "to recite in a low voice" in NKRV, in light of its dictionary meaning, its usage, and the structure of its parallelism.
  • 4.

    The Correlation Between Material Evidence and Written Documents in the Light of Gezer in the Amarna Period.

    안윤이 | 2023, 29(1) | pp.102~126 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The object of this research is to examine the correlation between material evidence and ancient documents in the light of Gezer in the Amarna period. Some gaps appear between ancient documents and archaeological materials in reconstructing the ancient history. While some unearthed archaeological evidences are correctly identified with written texts, all the written records are not confirmed in the archaeological material evidence. In particular, the city state of Gezer was recorded as one of the key roles in the Amarna Period but the archaeological data can not support its significant role as recorded in the correspondence of the Amarna Letters. So this research tries to compare the archaeological date of Gezer with the written date of Amarna letters as well as the other seven city states mentioned in the twelve letters sent from Gezer. The Amarna Letters sent from the rulers of Gezer are EA 267-271 (Milkilu), EA 292-294 (Adda-danu or Ba'lu-šipți), EA 297-300 (Yapahu), and EA 378 (Yapahu). The Letters from other rulers mentioned the rulers of Gezer are EA 249-50 (Ba'lu-UR.SAG of Gitipadalla), EA 253-54 (Lab'ayu of Shechem), EA 273 (NIN-UR.MAḪ. MEŠ of Ṣapuma), EA 287, EA 289-290 (Abdi-heba of Jerusalem), and EA 369 (one letter from Pharaoh to the ruler of Gezer). The other seven city states are Gitipadalla (EA 249-50), Shechem (EA 253-54), Sapuma (EA 274), Jerusalem (EA 287, 289-300), Ginti-carmel (EA 249), Ashkelon (EA 287), and Lachish (EA 287). Among the researched eight city-states including Gezer, only two city-states, Lachish and Shechem, reveal ample material evidence. The rest of them give meager evidence or nothing. Archaeology might not yet find material remains, or archaeology might incorrectly interpret material remains.  conflicts within the Canaanite city-states seem to be not as severe as those drawn in the Amarna Archives because only the city of Shechem exposes the debris of destruction by fire in the Amarna period. In conclusion, Reconstruction of ancient history should not focus on one side. Archaeology recognizes that archaeological data would not be objective, while scholars respect that archaeological data is useful. It is necessary to carry out a valid interpretation of documents and archaeological data, as well as ancient documents and archaeological excavation materials.
  • 5.

    An Analysis of Judges 4-5 on the Basis of Mikhail Bakhtin’s Dialogism

    INCHOL YANG | 2023, 29(1) | pp.127~151 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzed Judges 4-5 based on Mikhail Bakhtin’s Dialogism. While analyzing François Rabelais's novel, Bakhtin found “the Upside-Down” and “Word play” in the carnival festival. He applied those concepts to understand Dostoevsky's novels. Bakhtin’s Dialogism includes “Polyphony,” “Heteroglossia,” “Double voice,” and “Unfinalized.” Rather than attempting to analyze Judges 4-5 with diachronic methods, this paper attempted to discover the “Polyphony” provided by the final text of Judges 4-5. Although the final editor (Deuteronomist) offers two different voices for Deborah and Yael against the commander of the Canaanite army, Sisera, he broadens the reader's understanding of God and humans, especially women. In Judges 4-5, God is understood as a cosmic God in the war for the Israelites beyond their boundaries. In Judges 4-5, beyond men who were trapped in patriarchal worldviews, women led the war to victory with superior leadership and determination. In particular, chapter 5 shows that women are no longer sex slaves in the war. They allow the reader to experience a new worldview beyond the patriarchal worldview.
  • 6.

    Son of Jesse? Son of Saul?: 1 Samuel 17:55-58 in a Conflict Narrative of Saul and David(1 Sam 16-26)

    Yoo,YoonJong | 2023, 29(1) | pp.152~183 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    It has well been known that 1 Samuel 17:55-58 are treated as one of the most difficult verses in the Bible, because the verses contradict with earlier verses(16:14-23; 17:15, 31-40) and later verses(24:11, 16; 26:17, 21, 25). There have been many solutions maintained, but they are far from satisfactory. Among many scholarly solutions, I will develop the interpretation of Polzin, Lawton, and Jae Gu Kim. They argue that Saul’s question ‘Whose son is’ expresses Saul’s wishing to take David as his son and David’s rejecting answer that ‘I am the son of your servant Jesse of Bethlehem’ functions a trigger of conflict between Saul and David. In this paper, I pursue to solve the contradictory matter contained in 1 Samuel 17:55-58 with illustrating the role of the verses by narrative criticism. In 1 Samuel 16-26, Saul’s promise of reward(17:25) to the man who kills Goliath plays a role of foreshadowing of conflict between Saul and David. Saul did not keep the promise, but everything that he promised is achieved. Saul’s frequent uses of ‘Son of Jesse’(20:27, 30, 31; 22:7, 8; 22:9) instead of ‘David’ reflect Saul’s taunting attitude to David’s confession of ‘son of Jesse.’ In final section of Saul and David’s conflict, David calls Saul as ‘my father’(24:11). In reply, Saul calls David ‘my son David’(24:16; 26:17, 21, 25). I analyzed the plot of conflict narrative of Saul and David as five stages: introduction(ch 16), struggle(17:55-58), development(chs 18-23), climax(24:1-26:25a), denouement(26:25b). This paper argues that the conflict formed in 17:55-58 has been dissolved in chapter 24 and 26 by David’s calling ‘my father’ and Saul’s calling ‘my son David.’ It is also noteworthy that Jonathan and Michal play an important role as mediators trying to soften Saul’s hostility to David. It would be said that David could confess Saul as ‘my father’ through Jonathan and Michal’s favor and love to David. In this narrative, the motif of ‘knowing who David is’ are very crucial in interpreting who YHWH approves. Saul do not know who David is at the beginning, but he could dissolve the conflict after knowing who David is and approving that YHWH is with David. While dissolving the conflict between Saul and David, it is revealed that David was supported by YHWH and David tries to keep ‘the principle of YHWH’s anointed as inviolate.’ In sum, it is notable that by YHWH’s support and David’s innocence to Saul’s death, David’s legitimacy to kingship could be vindicated.
  • 7.

    A Comparative Study of Political, Economic, and Religious Perspectives about the Fall of Southern Judah and the Destiny of Joseon: Centering on Jeremiah

    Youn Hyung | 2023, 29(1) | pp.184~212 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this study is theologically to look for the way to escape from trauma and grasp the cause of collapse of the Joseon Dynasty, comparing South Judah in Jeremiah with the Joseon Dynasty in 19th century in view of politic, economy and religion. The study is carried mainly in Bible and historical resources. In relation to its contents and range, the first factor is the political side. It makes a very important role in determining the direction of one country. It is tried which decisions both countries made in politics. As a result it is characteristic that their political leaders showed the divisive figure in crisis. Secondly, in the economic part the distributive justice can be seen. The prophets of Bible and the pioneers of Joseon deplored the reality that it would not be fulfilled in each country. As the result of study the entire economic system of both countries was under the collapse state that the normal economic activities could not be carried. The third factor is religion, for South Judah theology of Zion and for Joseon Confucianism. It is related to the mental direction of one community and decides its spiritual state. And the ideological ground of both countries was under the deterioration and its vitality was lost. In general the crisis which shook the nation came ab extra, however before then they had critical internal problems in politics, economy, religion and therefore lost their will that they could overcome a crisis.
  • 8.

    The Spirit of God and the Ethics of the Judges

    이사야 | 2023, 29(1) | pp.213~243 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines the characteristics of God’s Spirit in the Judges period, in which the judges in the book of Judges were symbols of God’s presence in the age of Judges, replacing the Ark of the Covenant. In the Old Testament, the representative method of acknowledging and announcing that God had chosen the leaders of Israel was anointing with oil. Samuel anointed Saul (1 Sam 10 : 1) and David (1 Sam 16 : 13) as leaders. However, in the book of Judges, Othniel (Judges 3 : 10), Gideon (Judges 6 : 34), Jephthah (Judges 11 : 29), and Samson (Judges 13 : 25; 14 : 6,19; 15 : 14) were not anointed by God. Through the presence of the spirit, they became the leaders of Israel and saved the Israelites from the oppression of the Gentiles. This was different from the traditional anointing. These leaders, clothed with the Spirit of God, have won wars and brought peace. Their extraordinary or supernatural powers were not innate, but due to the presence of the spirit. The period of the judges, which shows more convoluted dramas than any other part of the Old Testament, such as wars between nations, struggles for power, superhuman heroes, and tragic deaths, shows that God was with the people of Israel even in difficult situations. Obviously, the period of Judges was the time when the ark, which was the symbol of God’s presence, existed, but the author of the book of Judges did not mention the ark, but instead filled 242 「구약논단」 제29권 1호(통권 87집) the place with a small number of charismatic leaders. After all, the Spirit of God in Judges is showing another symbol of God’s presence, replacing the previous form of anointing to select people. Othniel, who was a stranger like his uncle Caleb, was the first charismatic leader who saved Israel during the period of the judges. The peace that came for a generation until his death was the period Jacob’s descendants owed to the Kenizzites. It was the Spirit of God that made the cowardly and timid Gideon into a mighty warrior. To Gideon seeking a sign of salvation, God showed the sign of the time of the Exodus, provided salvation that Israel could not boast of, and the ‘day of Midian’ was remembered as an event of liberation from foreign rule and slavery. Jephthah, who won the war against Ammon, was the protagonist of an incident that cannot be understood by general ethics and common sense. Jephthah, in whom the Spirit of God came upon him, did not fully trust God who gave him the Spirit and made the wrong vow. He won the war, but he followed the Gentile human sacrifice and caused the division and destruction of the community. Samson, who received the Spirit of God four times, used the Spirit that came upon him only for personal greed and revenge. The purpose of his birth was to save Israel from the Philistines, but the fight against the Philistines he made remained only on a personal level. Even his death in the temple of Dagon has nothing to do with God’s spirit. He is the only judge among the war heroes in the book of Judges who failed to complete his given mission. Judges with the Spirit of God are not only remembered as good leaders. The Spirit of God appearing in the book of Judges was only related to military achievements, yet the presence of the Spirit was not continuous but temporary, and it did not cause any ethical or internal changes to the person upon whom the Spirit came.
  • 9.

    Searching for a New Direction in Literary Criticism of the Pentateuch: Focusing on Exodus 13:17-14:31

    Eunwoo Lee | 2023, 29(1) | pp.244~266 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to find out the various source layers that appear in this text through a literary critical study of Exodus 13:17-14:31. Through this study, the writer tries to find answers to some fundamental questions about the recent literary criticism of Exodus and the Pentateuch. In particular, the writer tries to find a new way to classify and understand the traditional J and E sources, which have recently been classified as non-priestly layers by scholars. In this study, the writer reveals that the layer that leads the basic flow in this story of crossing the Red Sea is P. The P material in this text is mainly Yahweh's command and fulfillment, the persecution of Pharaoh whose heart was hardened by Yahweh, the pursuit of the Egyptian army, the miracle at sea and the role of Moses as a miracle performer, Yahweh helping Moses perform the miracle and the death of Egyptian armies in the sea and the glory of Yahweh. In this tale, the writer classifies 14:1-4, 8-10, 15-18, 22-23, 26-29 as the P layer. In this miracle story, it is not easy to read the text as a unified story except for the priestly material layer. However, it can be seen that this part is related to the dramatic events caused by Israel's flight. Therefore, this non-priestly layer consists of the pursuit of Pharaoh's army, Israel's fears and complaints, and God's miracles and acts of salvation to save Israel. The writer divides 13:17-19, 20-22, 14:5-7, 11-14, 19-20, 21, 24-25, 30-31 into the non-priestly layer of the text. This non-priestly layer is composed of the post-priestly editing layer (13:20-22; 14:5-7, 11-14, 19-20) and the post-priestly deuteronomistic redaction (Exodus 13:17-19; 14:21, 24-25, 30- 31). Through this study, we find that the texts that scholars previously claimed to be sources J and E through classical source criticism are editorial extensions added to the basic layer rather than independent sources, and they are all post-priestly or post-deuteronomistic layers. It can be confirmed that this is a post-deuteronomistic addition. And it can be seen that the addition of post-deuteronomistic layer was made later than the editorial work of the post-priestly layer.
  • 10.

    The Chronicler’s Intention Revealed in the Comparison of the Athaliah Accounts between Kings and Chronicles

    Hwang Sunwoo | 2023, 29(1) | pp.267~297 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Whereas the narrative of the non-Davidic Athaliah’s reign in Kings and Chronicles is short, both books narrate how Athaliah was expelled by the Davidic king, Joash, who was guided by the priest, Jehoiada in detail. The seven years reign of Athaliah and the murder of her is recorded in 2 Kings 11:1-20 and 2 Chronicles 22:10-23:21. Though the Chronicler followed his Vorlage, 2 Kings 11:1-20 in 2 Chronicles 22:10-23:21, he altered and added in many places. The aim of this article is to grasp the Chronicler’s intention reflected in the Chronicler’s alteration and supplementation through the comparison between the Athaliah texts in Kings and Chronicles. For the comparison, I divided the texts into five parts: 1) The enthronement of Athaliah and Joash’s survival (2 Kgs 11:1-3//2 Chr 22:10-12), 2) Jehoida’s revolution: the guard of the palace and the temple (2 Kgs 11:4-8//2 Chr 23:1-7), 3) Joash’s enthronement (2 Kgs 11:9-12//2 Chr 23:8-11), 4) The execution of Athaliah (2 Kgs 11:13-16//2 Chr 23:12-15), 5) covenant and reformation (2 Kgs 11:17-20//2 Chr 23:16-21). Having compared and analyzed the Athaliah texts of Kings and Chronicles, I proposed four intentions of the Chronicler. First, the Chronicler revealed that the Jehoiada’s revolution was not just implemented by the royal bodyguards but also supported by the Israelites on a large scale. Second, the Chronicler stressed the Levites’ and priests’ roles in the revolution, which reflected the leadership of the Levites and priests in the postexilic Israelites community. Third, as the Chronicler underscored the roles of the Levites and priests, he emphasized the holiness of the temple. Fourth, the Chronicler reminded the readers of the significance of David, the Davidic covenant, and the Davidic kingdom in the account of the restoration of the Davidic king, Joash.
  • 11.

    Theology and Church in the Post-Corona Era: Focusing on Laws on Ritual Purity (Leviticus 11-15)

    Kim, Sun-Jong | 2023, 29(1) | pp.301~328 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Since the WHO declared Pandemic on March 12, 2020, the hardships humanity experiences in the past three years are another example of a recurring epidemic in human history. Diagnosing the challenging reality of dealing with the pandemic in the post-corona era and trying to heal trauma in the process, this paper discusses what theology and the church should practice and proclaim in the light of the regulations of skin disease in Leviticus 13-14. First of all, this article reflects the priestly theology maintaining a creative order, and predicts that laws on ritual purity having relations with the current Pandemic functions to embody creative principles in history. In addition to the pain caused by the disease in the early stages of the COVID-19, this paper points out the cause of increasing pain through human negative cognitive bias and diagnoses that the additional pain occurred from the ignorance of the double dimension of ritual and moral impurity. Purity and impurity in Leviticus 11-15 is irrelevant to the problem of ethical and moral sin. In other words, there is no confession of sin in Leviticus 13-14 that deals with skin diseases belonging to ritual denial. Next, this article reveals the interests of the laws on ritual purity by analyzing the text of Leviticus 13-14. This laws focus not on scientific tracking of the cause of skin diseases, but on coping with their consequences and reality that these diseases have brought. In particular, the cause of skin disease is not specified as sin, and attention is focused not only on isolation but on the return of the recovered person to his or her original place of life. The goal of enacting the laws on purity is to recover from impurity to purity, and from disorder to order. In addition, this article points out the limitations of purity laws and presents a solution to overcome them based on Job’s case. Although the ultimate goal of the purity laws is to recover patients, in reality, they had no choice but to wait until the priest declares their purification. In other words, it is necessary to recognize and understand that there is a gap between the ideals (theological concept of impurity) presented in the Bible and the reality of the reader. Church and theology should overcome the boundaries of death and discrimination in society in relation to ritual impurity, recognize the gap between themselves and the created world in relation to ethical impurity, and fill it with the reality of God’s new creation. The laws on ritual purity convey the hope of God's healing under God’s creative order to those who are isolated from the camp and are in loneliness and despair, and present the church's mission to restore the health of human body and mind.
  • 12.

    Traces of birth, growth, and employment of children with disabilities - in the context of the Old Testament and ancient Orient culture

    Minsu Oh | 2023, 29(1) | pp.329~365 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to explore and shed light on the traces of the birth, growth and environment, and employment of children with disabilities based on records in Old Testament literature and cuneiform literature. To this end, the researcher uses cross-cultural research and a philological approach. Biblical writers were aware of the possibility of stillbirth or abortion (Isa 37:3; Num 12:12; Job 3:16; Eccl 6:3). The ‘compensation name’ reflects the family circumstances at the time of birth. ‘Gratitude name’ or ‘Wish name’ looks back on the difficult delivery during the delivery process. The prolonged process of childbirth causes cerebral damage due to lack of oxygen. These disorders secondary cause abnormalities in the nervous system or muscular system and cause physical or mental disabilities. Looking back through the study of statements, disability was an undeniable daily reality at the time. In 「The Epic of Gilgamesh」, discovered in 1700 BC, there is a character called Lillu/Lillatu who wears pieces of cloth and eats low-quality food. Lillu could mean both foolishness and mental handicap. The Old Testament kĕsîl (fool) is an equivalent concept (Prov. 17:2; Ps. 49:11). In wisdom literature aimed at education and discipline, the term ‘foolish’ appears frequently. Through this, it can be confirmed that for the people of the Old Testament era, disability was not an isolated thing, but a daily life. In Deir el-Medineh, a middle-class four-year-old boy and an Egyptian woman with cerebral palsy were buried as members of the upper class, befitting their status. In times of severe economic pressure, infanticide (「Mesopotamian Medical Manua」l) or infant abandonment (Sargon, Moses, Ishmael, naked Jerusalem) occurred. Among cuneiform names, names such as ‘the man from the street’ (Sulāia/Suqāia), ‘the man rescued from the dog’s snout’ (Ina-pi-kalbi-irich), and ‘the man from the city graveyard’ (Hariṣānu) appear frequently. All of them were slaves, people attached to temples, or laborers, and through adoption, it was possible to rise to a noble urban family. It is conceivable that the same may be true of children with disabilities. During the abandonment, there was a dedication to the shrine. Cuneiform texts record temple dedications of women and children from 3000 BC. From 2000-1000 BC, the dedication of land, animals and people was widespread. The genealogy of the “Nethanims” (Ezr. 2:42; Neh. 7:46-56) goes back to the royal court (HAE I, 383; Jos. 9:21-27; Deut. 29:10), and among the Nethanim patriarchs, ancestors are named. There were also people with this specific disability name (Qeros, Gachar, Paseah, Haqupa, Harscha). The tradition of temple dedication is also found in medieval monasteries (Bonifatius, Thomas Aquinas, Hermanus Contractus). Consecrated to the monasteries, they contributed to the formation of the medieval religious elite. In this context, Leviticus 19:13-14 recorded in the priestly confession of Leviticus can be reviewed. Verse 14 is not about ridicule of disabled people, but rather about the employer's request for special consideration. Looking at the phenomenon of temple dedication that encompasses the cultural sphere, this prohibition is home to the most influential place, the temple region, as an institution that can take care of and discipline disabled children of ordinary people.
  • 13.

    “Ein Gewinn der Erde bei Allem [sind], Ein König wird [nur] in Bezug auf das bebaute Land!”(Koh 5:8): Theologische Grundlagen des bedingungslosen Grundeinkommens im Buch Kohelet

    Cha-Yong Ku | 2023, 29(1) | pp.366~391 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Diese Studie geht von einem Gefühl der Verpflichtung aus, dass Theologie in die Diskussion über das bedingungslose Grundeinkommen einbezogen werden kann und sollte. Viele Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler aus verschiedenen theologischen Fächern sind bereits aktiv an derselben Diskussion beteiligt. Die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft ist dabei keine Ausnahme. Dieser Aufsatz beschäftigt sich vor allem intensiv mit dem Buch Kohelet, weil hier das bedingungslose Grundeinkommen noch weniger als in anderen Bereichen im AT zur Diskussion gestanden hat. Das Buch Kohelet beschreibt die ökonomischen Vorstellungen äußerst tiefgreifend - im Gegensatz zur oberflächlichen Erscheinung. Kohelet beobachtet das menschliche Leben und betrachtet es sorgfältig, danach lehrt er entsprechende Vorschriften. Dieser Aufsatz versucht durch eine Textanalyse in 5,8 und 18, die Begriffe von „Gewinn der Erde“ und „Anteil“ aufzudecken, die als Geschenk Gottes an den Menschen bezeichnet werden. Sie gehören zu den Schlüsselkonzepten des Buches Kohelet. In 5,8 wird der Gewinn der Erde allen Menschen gewährt, während der König nur ein Recht auf das bebaute Land hat, was die Bemühung vieler Arbeiter voraussetzt. In der Tat bedürfen beide Konzepte einer bestimmten Arbeit, aber Ersteres wird nicht auf den Rahmen und die Grenzen des Wirtschaftssystems beschränkt. Obwohl die Beschreibung von 5,7 nicht explizit das Misstrauen gegenüber dem Überwachungssystem unter der Herrschaft des Königs ausdrückt, scheint sie tatsächlich eine Art von Ironie zu sein. Ironie wird erst dann intensivert, wenn die Absicht der Kritik erkannt wird. Ferner spricht der „große Reichtum“ in 5,18, der jedem als Geschenk Gottes gegeben wird, nicht nur von Privateigentum, sondern von einer Erlaubnis für die Nutzung, die jeder erhalten und genießen kann. Dies wird durch den vorangehenden Text bestätigt. Durch den „Anteil“, der für alle erlaubt ist, kann man das wahre Glück genießen. Wenn er allen gegeben wird, um die Grundlage des Glücks zu werden, dann können der Gewinn und der Anteil des Landes, wie sie in 5,8 und 18 behandelt werden, die Grundlage des bedingungslosen Grundeinkommens sein. Diese beiden Konzepte implizieren das Recht, das Land zu genießen, das Gott allen Menschen gegeben und sie dazu berechtigt hat. Man kann also behaupten, dass der Begriff des bedingungslosen Grundeinkommens, wie uns Kohelet sagt, im Buch Kohelet eindeutig verankert ist. Daher müssen die Kirche und die Christen von heute die Diskussion über das bedingungslose Grundeinkommen aus biblischer Sicht neu überdenken und unterstützen. Das ist das erste Ziel und der primäre Nutzen dieses Aufsatzes.