A Human being is the one who runs towards death. He lives in sadness and depression, contemplating life and death in his daily life. Depression in this sense is a pathological phenomenon that we commonly experience, and melancholia, which encompasses sad sentiments, is inseparable from the essence of human existence. Depression sometimes drives a person to death, but works created by artists suffering from depression give strength and comfort to us and show a new world and order that ordinary people cannot discover. Depression also has the creative power in art and literature.
Melancholia is a subject that is widely discussed in many areas including philosophy, psychology, aesthetics, medicine, and counseling. However, in the field of the biblical studies, little research on utilization of this subject has been made. It is very important and necessary for the Old Testament theologian to accept Melancholia's theory, which is deeply involved in the nature of human existence but has not been dealt with as a major subject.
The first purpose of this study is to promote understanding of human beings from the view of Melancholia, which has not been noticed in the anthropology of the Old Testament. It analyzes the dark side of suffering and sorrow that man, who is created in God's image, and examines the phenomenon in which the world created by God laments with pain. The second purpose is to understand the causes and phenomena of depression experienced by modern people in an etiologic manner in light of people of the Old Testament who show depression. The third purpose is to understand the lament in the Old Testament from a modern perspective and language. By analyzing Job from the perspective of Melancholia, this study attempts to understand the dark side behind Job's religious genius and to gain a more three-dimensional understanding of the theology in the Book of Job. This is also to reveal Job's anthropology. As an individual, it is possible to derive a universal human form through the appearance of Job in the biblical annotations in that he is not only a single individual, but also the Israelite community.