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2004, Vol.15, No.2

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    A Study on the Effective Management of Performance Bonus Program in the Public Sector

    Mee Sung Ha | Kang, In Ho | Sung Won Hwang and 2other persons | 2004, 15(2) | pp.1~22 | number of Cited : 27
    Abstract
    Since 2000, performance bonus program has been applied to the Korean public sector as one of key strategies that enhance performance-based government competence. The program has been expected to improve public servants' job performance, justice and reliability in human resource management, the government's responsibility and accountability to the public demand, and so on. However, several researchers have often criticized that the program has failed to produce those expected effects due to several reasons, such as incompleteness of appraisal system and lack of performance-based organizational culture. This study suggested a theoretical review of performance bonus program and conducted statistical analyses to find drawbacks of the current program and key factors for the improvement of the program. As results, this study suggested policy alternatives in detail that lead the improvement of performance appraisal system, the increase of agencies' autonomous management, the increase of public servants' positive recognition on the performance based organizational culture.
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    An Empirical Analysis on U.S. President Evaluation: The Relationship between Presidential Approval Ratings and Historical Perspectives

    가상준 | Hyok Kim | 2004, 15(2) | pp.23~48 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Reviewing the evaluation jobs on Presidents up until now, we can find that there are two groups to work on them, that is, professionals and general public. The evaluations made by both subjects appear to have their own unique attributes: professional evaluation tends to be output-orientated and retrospective while the approval ratings made by the masses seems to be prospective as well as retrospective. This study aims to investigate empirically whether two approaches have any similarities or differences. The results show that there is no significant statistical correlation between them except the public persuasion category among the detail items of historical evaluation. In other words, professionals rate high the public persuasion skills of the Presidents who get high approval ratings, but not the rest of fields. At the same time, this study finds that a President with high popularity is not necessarily great one, which will influence the direction of Presidential governance in the future.
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    A Study on the operation of the Lower Level Local Government 360 Degree Feedback

    Seonil Cho | Eun-Kyu Park | 2004, 15(2) | pp.49~72 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to explore why the operation of the lower level local governments 360 degree feedback is not efficient, and find an implication to improve its operation. In this context, this paper explores some main problems in three phases of evaluation. The first one is the phase of preparation for the introduction of the 360 degree feedback(purpose of introduction, preparation for the evaluation, prepared training for evaluation), the second one is the phase of evaluation(selecting objects of evaluation, composition of evaluators, index for evaluation), and the third one is the phase of feedback(utilization of the result, open to the objects of evaluation). For a depth analysis, this study is based on the survey and interview with the lower level local government public servants. The results are as follows: among the many problems, the index of the evaluation is crucial for the improvement of operation in the lower level local government 360 degree feedback. Then this paper suggests several implications: full preparation for the introduction of 360 degree feedback, considerate selection in the objects of evaluation according to the appraisal purpose, adjustment of the range and number, proportion of appraisers, and improvement of evaluation index.
  • 4.

    Policy Measures for reforming culture in governmental organizations

    채원호 | CHO, KYUNG HO | 2004, 15(2) | pp.73~96 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract
    Korea's public sector is undergoing major government reforms in weakening traditionally pervaded autholitarianism in and out of public organizations. This study analyzed and assessed the level of authoritarianism in public organizations and tried to provide effective means to reform authoritarianism as a reinvention measure. This study's major premise was that lowering the degree of authoritarianism in public organizations should be accompanied by behavioral changes of individuals in organizations. One concern has been that while behavioral and culture changes have been achieved, there should be more structural flexibility applied in the operation of public organizations, in order to make the reinvention effort optimal. AHP resu! lts, collected data from managers from public organizations and labor organizations, also confirm the hypothesis that the most important factor in reforming authoritarianism is individual behavior in organizations, and changes in the individual behavior and attitude toward government and people is a prerequisite for the success of reform efforts.
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    The Comparative Study of Government Reform between Korea and U.S.A.: Emphasis on the Nho Government and Bush Government

    Tae-Ryong Kim | 2004, 15(2) | pp.97~126 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to compare the government reform of two countries, the Nho's government and Bush's government. In this paper, I attempt to direct future government reform based on results. According to analyses, two governments keep up the orientation of new public management in similarities. But the scope of Nho's government reform is wider and more systematic than Bush's in dissimilarites. From these results, we can tentatively conclude that Nho's government should reduce reform's scope and endeavor to elevate the compliance for successive reform.
  • 6.

    A Study on Transformations of Global Governance and Citizenship Caused by Globalization: Recent Debates in US and Europe

    Taesoo Kim | 2004, 15(2) | pp.127~142 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    We can not help admitting the speed and depth of globalization: FTA's everywhere, enlargement of regional organizations, wars of international scale, cultural spread of dominant ideologies, communicational development et. cet. Along with speedy and wide globalization, governance structure of internal and global concept is changing rapidly. The concept of citizenship is changing along with globalization and global governance structure. The direction and speed of globalization is decided by US; US-centered global hegemony structure seems tough now; and it is in the context with US where citizenship is important. So I am studying the meaning of globalization, formation and change of global governance structure, and the change of citizenship with focus on US
  • 7.

    An Institutional Approach to Britain’s Vocational Training Policy

    Hye Won Ko | 2004, 15(2) | pp.143~172 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This study examines Britain's vocational training policy in the period of Blair government from an institutional perspective. The results of this study are as follows. First, Britain's unique custom of corporate voluntarism left no room for government intervention in company's vocational training. Second, the market-principle was even more reinforced in vocational training policies of the Blair government. The outcome of Britain's vocational training policy indicated an evident weakness of low-skill equilibrium because companies were only interested in the technology good enough to be used immediately in their production. From Britain's experience, it can be implied that it is essential to foster the power of a stake-holder so that the key stake-holders of vocational training can fulfill their roles maintaining balance, and to come up with a system to guide participation in the vocational training.
  • 8.

    The Change and Direction of Food Safety System in the Major Advanced Countries: Constructing Food Safety System Based on Risk Analysis

    Yu Young-Chul | 2004, 15(2) | pp.173~198 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    It was a shock event, the problem of garbage 'mandu-so' occurred on june, 2004 that arouse citizen's concern about food safety. The multiple and complex food safety system of Korea was a cause of the problem. When the risk of food is found, it is often impossible to research scientific examination and to operate traceability system. In many advanced countries, after they experienced serious risk of food like a BSE and zoonosis in mid-1990th, restructuring new food safety system in 2000th. In Korea, food safety TFT were established in the office for Government Policy Coordination in August, 2003. However, it is likely to take much time to confirm a stable food safety organization, because 8 departments of central government are involved in the system. Although the related departments have reported the present situation of advanced nations, interpreting the result differently according to their own interest. This thesis focus on correcting biased explanation, summing fragmented foreign cases, and introducing new hygiene systems. This study also have two major standards to analyze food safety system of advanced countries. The one is the risk analysis that is composed of risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication. When the advanced countries designed recent food safety systems, the risk analysis has been used as an approach method. The another standard is governance level that is divided multiple agency, single agency, and integrated system. It is said to integration of scattered organizations in food safety.
  • 9.

    Long-run Efficiency of the Rent-seeking Expenditures

    Kim, Haeng-Bum | 2004, 15(2) | pp.199~224 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Whether or not the rent-seeking cost will fully dissipate the rent has formed an intellectual quagmire since the seminal study of efficient rent-seeking by Tullock(1980a). Different conclusions were derived from different studies. I thought one of the important variables for this inconsistent results is the time horizon. Whether it's long-term or short-term study might have caused different results and different prescriptions. The comparison of both studies is critical. Tullock(1980a)'s efficient rent seeking model was reviewed in terms of long-term equilibrium. Here I compared the results of the both Tullock's model and Corcoran & Karels(1988)'s long-term model. Then I proposed some prescriptive alternatives to decrease rent-seeking expenditure. The size of (parameter of marginal cost of rent-seeking) and the type of competition are critical to the full rent dissipation. Both the case of <1 and ≥1 were reviewed. Two types of competition were analyzed : the ordinary competition (latent entrants enter the rent seeking market only when they see positive payoffs) and the hardball competition(latent entrants force the incumbents to accept them by threatening to incur potential loss for all of them). From the implications of the study, some prescriptive alternatives were suggested to decrease rent seeking cost : limitation of excessive rent competition, limiting of the development of hardball competition, raising the marginal cost of rent seeking, imposing high transaction costs to rent seeking activities, increasing opportunity cost discount rate of return.
  • 10.

    An analysis on the growth of the Fair Trade Commission

    HA TAE SOO | 2004, 15(2) | pp.225~254 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract
    This paper analyzes the growth of the Fair Trade Commission (FTC), which was established in 1981. Public choice theorists such as Downs and Niskanen focus on the internal factors of a focal organization, i.e. instrumentally rational bureaucrats. However, this research adds environmental factors to the internal aspects. Thus total ten factors are used to explain the growth of the FTC. Of them, the expansion of the organizational goal, entrepreneurial bureaucrats, the ruling ideology and strategy of the government, triggering events, the size of the national economy and international cooperation are found to carry positive influences on FTC's growth. On the other hand, the checks by the related organizations and the hostile attitudes of the main newspapers are proved to have negative impacts.
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    Comparative Analysis of R&D Evaluation Systems of European Countries in Changing S&T Policy Environment

    Hong, HeungDeug | SungJo Hong | Keun-Bok Kang | 2004, 15(2) | pp.281~304 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    R&D evaluation system is important and is increasingly viewed as essential in most European countries during recent years. The main aim of this paper is to draw a big picture of R&D evaluation systems including utilization of the result as one of the components of national innovation systems in European countries in changing science and technology policy environment. The representative 6 European countries(United Kingdom, Germany, France, Netherlands, Sweden and Finland) are selected for the comparative analysis. The basic policy implication drawn from the European countries' evaluation systems is that pragmatism and effective utilization of evaluation results are to be kinds of characteristics of R&D evaluation systems in European countries. The R&D evaluations in European countries have been usually integrated closely to the planning and management of R&D program. Therefore, the R&D evaluations normally provide the basis for better decision making, by highlighting problems and formulating recommendations.
  • 13.

    Developing the Framework for Evaluating Regional Cultural Industry Clusters

    임학순 | 2004, 15(2) | pp.305~324 | number of Cited : 19
    Abstract
    This article is focused on developing the framework for evaluating the regional cultural industry clusters. Since the late of the 1990s, there has been growing interest in cluster policy as a key tool for fostering the regional cultural industries. In this respect, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism has sought to develop the initial cultural industry clusters in the local level. However, the definitive framework to evaluate the competitiveness of regional cultural industry clusters has not established until now. Moreover, the most action plans associated with the cultural industry clusters have not included the concrete business strategies for the regional cultural industries in the future. The article develops three factors such as public policy, production infrastructure and innovative environment in terms of the framework for evaluating cluster competitiveness. In addition, three factors are divided into the eleven indicators. The weight of each indicator is established by the AHP(analytic hierarchy process) method. As a result, under the initial cluster development, the article places the priority on the production infrastructure factor in particular.
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    An Analysis of Accountability on Urban Disasters: A Case Study of Daegu Subway Accident

    모창환 | 2004, 15(2) | pp.369~394 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Romzek & Dubnick의 책무성이론을 활용한 책무성분석틀을 구축하여 시스템통제 측면에서 대구시 지하철사고를 분석하였다. 분석결과 대구지하철사고의 당사자인 대구시지하철공사는 전문적, 법적, 정치적 책무성을 충족시키지 못한 것으로 나타났으며, 특히 계층적 책무성에서 운전사령과 기관사간의 경직된 상하관계가 전문적, 법적, 정치적 책무관계보다 너무 강하였기 때문에 대구지하철사고가 확대되었다. 종합적으로 보면 대구시 지하철공사를 운영함에 있어 책무성 확보를 위한 내외부적 통제시스템과 인센티브체제가 제대로 작동하지 않았다. 따라서 향후 지하철 방화와 같은 예상하지 못한 도시재난사고가 발생할 경우 적절히 대응하기 위해서는 책무성통제체제의 정비가 절실히 요구된다.
  • 17.

    A Comparative Evaluation on the Educational Programs in Seoul Woman Development Center

    윤기찬 | 2004, 15(2) | pp.395~426 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the educational programs in Seoul Woman's Development Center. For this study, the author divides it into two parts; the quantitative aspect and the quality aspect. The author selects the input and output indicators as a standard to evaluate the quantitative aspect, the satisfaction and the influenced factors as a standard to evaluate the quality aspect, and derives a indicator. And this study compares the forms to be managed directly by public agency to make sure the evaluation of contracting-out. The major findings of this study could be summarized as follows; 1) As the quantitative aspect of the evaluation, the forms under direct management of Seoul Metropolitan City are more efficient than the contracting-out forms in the number of student, the ratio of completion, the qualification acquisition and the Adoption of a profession. Therefore, the service cost are less expensive in the forms under direct management of Seoul Metropolitan City. 2) As the quality aspect of evaluation, it is as follows the factor which has been influenced the educational programs in the forms under direct management of Seoul Metropolitan City; the education contents, the quality of lecturer and the cost. However, it is as follows the factor which has been influenced the educational programs in the contracting-out forms; the education contents and the cost. 3) There are differences of the mean between the two form in the quality of lecturer, the teaching method and the cost. That is to say, I can conclude that the forms under direct management of Seoul Metropolitan City is higher than the contracting-out forms in the mean.
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