This study is to identify influential factors on membership and participation in community (neighborhood) organizations, and assess their effect on residents' collective efficacy. As influential factors, this study focuses on six general categories such as socio-demography, individual residential characteristic, neighborhood attachment, neighborhood disorder, organizational climate, and decentralization. The logistic regression and hierarchical linear models were applied to 617 questionnaire data collected from 8 neighborhoods in Cheongwon-Gun, Chungcheongbuk-Do. The result shows that in terms of membership, sex, age, educational level, marital status, home ownership, number of moving, and social attachment appear to be consistently statistically significant. On the other hand, age, educational level, marital status, length of stay, number of moving, routine attachment, leadership, and members' cohesion have statistically significant influence on neighborhood organization participation. The degree of participation appears to have statistically significant effect on collective efficacy. The conclusion provides some research implications and future research directions.