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2005, Vol.15, No.4

  • 1.

    The Study on the Evaluation of the Korean Government Reform Performance : focusing to the introduction of New Management Programs in the Dae Jung Kim's Administratio

    김 경 한 | 2005, 15(4) | pp.1~21 | number of Cited : 16
    Abstract
    For the past ten years, Korean government have drove the government reform but many questions on the performance of the reform are raised by many researchers. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the performance of various government reform measures, to find out the obstacle factors to make those reform measures fail and to suggest the desirable methods and strategy of government reform.In order to achieve those research objectives, I did evaluation synthesis through content analysis on ten theses analysing the performance and the operation realities of the performance-based management programs such as Performance-based reward system, Management by objectives(MBO) and Open-system in higher civil service, which were introduced to Korean government as the tools of government reform during the period of Dae Jung Kim's administration.In conclusion, the performance-based management programs including Performance-based reward system, MBO and Open-system in higher civil service have no effectiveness because those programs are failing to accomplish the introduction objectives of each programs. The major reasons why those programs don't have effectiveness are identified as the cultural restraint, which occur by cultural inconsistency between the culture of public organization and the reform measures and cause government reform not to success. In addition, it is found out that symbolic politics is the main cause to push on with the introduction of performance-based management programs in spite of their incongruity to public culture and the probability to have no effectiveness.
  • 2.

    선거공보물을 이용한 환경과 지역개발 의제의 경향 분석

    Hwang Kyung-soo | 고태호 | 2005, 15(4) | pp.~ | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    After operation of local self-government system, lots of public commitments were suggested during election process. So, that kinds of public commitments are very difficult to induce some guarantee for actual suitability I think. In this points, this study tried to contents analysis about public commitments, because that will be a real policy through the election. It means public commitments are very important to the local. Finally, I grasp some tendency from public commitment and I tried to interpret philosophy of candidates that about environment and regional development for Jeju centering around tendency. The results of the analysis are five things briefly. First, the candidates of governor had a tendency that suggested development oriented public commitments than candidates of mayor in 6․27 election(1st local self-governmen election), but, in 2nd and 3rd, they suggested environment oriented public commitments. Secondly, by the view of political party, the government party candidates had more development oriented public commitments Thirdly, by the point of education, the candidates who have very high education or very low education were more development oriented and in 3rd election, candidates who has master degree or more suggested environment oriented public commitments. Fourth, in case of ages, in 3rd election, younger candidates were more development oriented and it reflected that bad economical situation. Lastly, elected persons were more environmental preservation oriented than defeated candidates. And this kinds of tendency will keep up in the future. [Key Words : 환경과 지역개발 의제, 선거공보물, 공약, 공약의 경향분석, 내용분석]
  • 3.

    An Empirical Survey on the Korean Model for Local Government Chief Executive Officers

    Cho,Im Gon | 2005, 15(4) | pp.~ | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Traditionally, local government chief executive officers in Korea have been presumably thought to be a powerful leader in local government public decision. However, a primary issue in the future of local government is that of involving community and providing leadership where citizens are participating partners in governmental decision making. This study first refers to the situation approach in leadership theory and then develops a model where citizens' evalution for local government chief executive officers depends on five factors; local political, public financial, traits of local government chief executive officers, public service delivery performance, and individual characteristics of citizens. This study finds that the most important factor affecting citizens evaluation is public service delivery performance in local government with some variation across individual characteristics of citizens though the other factors are also related with citizens evaluation. Therefore, local government chief executive officers in Korea should do their best to enhance public service delivery performance while they should deal with citizens with speicial needs.
  • 4.

    The Antecedents and Consequences of Social Capital in Public Organizations

    Bae Byung Ryong | 2005, 15(4) | pp.~ | number of Cited : 50
    Abstract
    This article attempts to test empirically the antecedents and consequences of social capital in public organizations. Social capital is defined as features of social organizations, such as trust, norms, and ties. And social capital is characterized by structural relationship, generalized reciprocity and goodwill. The antecedents of social capital were supposed as conflicts, competition and fairness of personnel management, and the consequences of social capital were supposed as personal and sectional performance. The followings are the results of testing hypotheses empirically. Firstly, conflicts have negative influences on ties, but don't have influences on trust and norms. Secondly, competition have positive influences on norms and ties, but don't have influences on trust. Thirdly, fairness of personnel management has positive influences on all the forms of social capital, trust, norms, and ties. Fourthly, norms and ties have positive influences on personal and sectional performance. Finally, it is necessary to manage personnel affairs fairly for increasing social capital, and to enhance norms and ties for increasing personal and sectional performance.
  • 5.

    Mentee's Mentoring Relationship Structure and Experience and his Perception of Mentorship Effectiveness in Local Governmental Organizations

    Kim,Woo-Shik | 2005, 15(4) | pp.~ | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract
    Researches and studies about mentorship effectiveness in private organizations have filed up. But investigations into mentoring in governmental organizations are starting now in academic arena. The present study focused on the influence of mentor-protégé relationship structure and experience factors on perceptions of mentoring functions from the perspective of protégé(or mentee). It was examined for 294 samples of public officers in three local governmental organizations(Chungbuk Province, Chongju City, and Chungjoo City) in Chungbuk Area. The mentoring relationship structure(mentor's cognition of protégé's mentorship) and experience with mentor (maintaining relationship and number of relationships of protégé) significantly affected reports of the amount of career developmental function and psychosocial function which were perceived by protégés.
  • 6.

    Measuring the Difference in Mean WTP: Ordering Effects When CV Responses Are Not Independent

    Yong-Chie Park | 2005, 15(4) | pp.~ | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Dichotomous choice contingent valuation surveys frequently elicit multiple values in a single questionnaire. There are methodological issues that need to be resolved before the potential of willingness-to-pay can be fully exploited as a tools for the economic evaluation of health care programs. Of particular methodological interest are the consequences of varying tie order which willingness-to-pay questions are presented to respondents in contingent valuation studies. This paper examines the possibility of ordering effects in willingness-to-pay studies in health care. That is, when asking willingness-to-pay questions about three health care programs within a singe survey, the order the program are presented have an impact on the reported willingness-to-pay. Ordering effects are observed in the ranking of the programs, when using data from three separate dichotomous choice contingent valuation studies. The results suggest that the best explanation for the ordering effects is one or the mixture of the additional goods, fading glow, starting point bias, response set.
  • 7.

    A typology of tactics for uncertainty in policy analysis

    Suktae Han | 2005, 15(4) | pp.~ | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This study discussed the strategy and tactics of coping with uncertainty in policy analysis. Forecasting the results of policy alternatives are central activity in policy process. Whatever form or rationale the forecasting takes, it is very difficult task because of uncertainty due to the dynamics and complexities of policy environment. The main objective of this paper is to construct a typology of tactics for uncertainty in policy analysis. We use two elements for classification, the one is decision-maker's strategical attitude, and the other is approaches of tactics. Excluding, reducing and acknowledging strategies are used as categories for the former; and scientific, managerial and political approaches are also used as categories for the latter. This study has some major implications. First, we have constructed two dimensional typology for the first time in this subject. Secondly, the managerial and political approaches are so much important as traditional scientific one to cope with uncertainty.
  • 8.

    Job Satisfaction and Customer-Oriented Service of a Provincial Government Officials - focused on the Gyeong-Buk area -

    이상철 | 유근환 | 장우진 and 1other persons | 2005, 15(4) | pp.~ | number of Cited : 39
    Abstract
    The aim of this study were to estimate the correlations with job satisfaction and customer oriented service of provincial government officials in Gyeong-Buk area. For the purpose, the previous studies and theories concerning the Job Satisfaction and Customer-Oriented service were reviewed. And the questionnaire was made for the consciousness of the Gyeong-Buk officers. The questionnaires were given to 190 government officials of 6 provincial government that are Gyeong-Buk, Gu-Mi, Gyeong-ju, Gim-cheon, Mun-Gyeong, Chil-gok. And the major statistical methods used for this research were ANOVA, Correlation Analysis, Multiple Regression Analysis. The Regression analysis results from determinative factors of customer-orientated service are as Follows; The ranks of importance effect are reward(β=.495, p<.000), control(β=.425, p<.000), duty(β=.357, p<.000), fellow officer(β=.229, p<.001), duty career(β=.174, p<.030). But the effect between customer oriented service and a promotion(β=.056, NS), and a sex(β=.071, NS), age(β=0.028, NS), academic career(β=-.007, NS), status(β=.076, NS) is not significant.
  • 9.

    The Study of Conflict Management Strategyin Cheonggye Stream Restoration Project

    성지은 | 2005, 15(4) | pp.~ | number of Cited : 22
    Abstract
    This study analysed conflict management strategies in the case of the Cheonggye stream restoration project. In order to smooth or manage policy conflict, Seoul government made use of diverse conflict management mechanisms. This study found conflict management mechanisms as follows. First, positive PR about policy and affirmative goal presentation were used to sympathize the majority of citizens in the early stage of project. Second, conflict management mechanisms used for sellers and interest groups in preparing project such as procedural justice for participation, substantive compensations, and symbolic strategy to build policy executor's confidence and fidelity. Third, conflicts of interests that risen as cultural assets restoration or development absorbed as postponement or shirking strategy through various committees organization.
  • 10.

    Does the re-established local autonomy influence the budget execution of Korean local government?

    MOO SUP SHIN | 2005, 15(4) | pp.~ | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The Korean local autonomy re-established in 1990s is expected to positively influence the budgetary execution of local government. This paper exams following three questions: Does re-established local autonomy influence the change in the amount of budget during a fiscal year? Does the local legislative body reduce the amount of supplemental budget submitted by the executive body? Is there any difference in balance carried forward to next year between the before and after period of re-established local autonomy? Using the data of Chullabukdo(Province), Jeonjusi(City) and Wanjukun(County), this paper maintains that there is no influence of re-establishing the local autonomy to the budgetary execution of local government. It seems that there is no difference in the budget execution of local government between the before and after period of re-established local autonomy.
  • 11.

    Short trip and new journey on the actual conditions of the local governance

    So, Soon-Chang | Yoo, Jae-Won | 2005, 15(4) | pp.~ | number of Cited : 29
    Abstract
    The purpose of this article is to analyse the extent of shift in governing mode from ‘government’ to ‘governance’ in Korean local governments by dissecting the nature of networks among governments, citizens(NGO/NPO), and private enterprises in various policy actors. According to our analysis, central government and mayors are very influential in comparison to citizens(NGO/NPO) and private enterprises. Networks among various policy actors are less cooperative. Rather the governing mode of Korean local governments is vertical, hierarchical, and indeed centralized. In the era of governance, various policy actors are expected to participate in policy-making, solve local problems, and be responsible for various local policies. In actuality, however, only a few policy actors participate in local policy-making process. We suggest the following as the recipe for meeting the various requirements of governance: the policy-making process of local governments need to be transformed to networks of horizontal relationships from those of vertical relationships. It is to be noted, however, that this achievement has not yet fulfilled. This study is analyzed only by aggregate data, so it needs be supplemented by various case study, especially from a comparative perspective
  • 12.

    A study of the small-scale industries activation of rural women: Using analysis the method of AHP

    LeeJongyeol | Kim Bok Kyu | 김옥일 and 1other persons | 2005, 15(4) | pp.~ | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    It is a vital task for Korea's agriculture and its development to know the fact that woman labor in agriculture occupies more than half and it results in some problems. It is also important to make policy to improve women's role in farming and to support them. Without understanding the problems and support of women in farming we cannot provide useful suggestions and desirable options. Within the context of women's role in farming, it is very important to provide additional source of income for them in order to help them to stay in farming and build self-sustaining base. This policy may contribute to enhancing two important roles: strengthening the women's position in life and community building. The rate of dependency on farming in agriculture is higher in Korea than in developed countries. In order to transform the income structure in agriculture, it is appropriate to support small-scale business for women mostly based on agricultural products. Within this context, this study reviews institutional arrangements to support small-scale business for woman farmers and provides some alternatives to utilizing them. In order to get the best options this study employes AHP method for the analysis. The analytical results show that: first, the primary goal of the small-scale business is to improve the farmers' additional income and then to enhance the women farmers' social position. The problems of this policy are narrow scope of business items, the lack of business mind of business women, and the lack of continuing marketing and advertizing. Therefore, further policies are needed to remedy these operational obstacles of small-scale business for women farmers.
  • 13.

    A Development of Evaluation Index and A Performance Management of Local Public Enterprise: Measurement of Efficiency by DEA(Data Envelopment Analysis)

    LEE, HWAN-BEOM | Song Keon-Sup | Kim, Byung-moon | 2005, 15(4) | pp.~ | number of Cited : 79
    Abstract
    The purpose of this research is to comprehensively evaluate the performance based on the efficiency by DEA(data envelopment analysis) and their internal customer satisfaction from the case of public enterprises for development construction in 11 cities. To measure of efficiency, this study used DEA according to the research data related to organizational input factors(like number of employee, total cost) and output factors (like own capital, revenue). In addition, this research employs a survey questionnaire to evaluate the performance of local public enterprise for development construction both theoretically and statistically. That is, to evaluate the satisfaction of internal customer and the satisfaction of management, this study is analyzed using six major elements like managerial responsibility, business management, business operation, customer satisfaction, job satisfaction, and employee participation. The significance of this study is that we can grasp the degree of inefficiency from public enterprises of development construction through the DEA and have some guidelines that can increase their efficiency.
  • 14.

    A Study on a Way of Public Participating Energy Governance:Based on an Evaluation of the Citizens' Consensus Conference on Electricity Policies in Korea

    윤순진 | 2005, 15(4) | pp.~ | number of Cited : 31
    Abstract
    In a period of governance, one of the most important elements in decision-making processes is citizens' participation, which has been relatively excluded. Based on various reasons like that general citizens are exposed at consequences of policy enforcement as well as that legitimacy of decision-making and effectiveness of policy performance increase through public participation, public participation is currently regarded as a necessary element. However, citizens' participation in decision-making for energy policies, which involve specialized scientific and technological aspects as shown in the case of nuclear power technology, requires special institutional arrangement. This paper reviews and evaluates citizens' consensus conference on electricity policies, which was held recently by the Center for Citizens' Science, in order to explore how to apply the consensus conference model to decision-making processes of energy policy arena. Recent citizens' consensus conference reveals not only possibilities but also limits. In spite of some limits, it shows that Korean civil society has a great potential to participate in democratic decision-making processes and can activate the potential if balanced scientific and technologic knowledge is provided and deliberation processes are guaranteed.
  • 15.

    Rhetoric Public Administration Reform and Cultural Conflict.

    Cho Sung Han | 2005, 15(4) | pp.~ | number of Cited : 18
    Abstract
    Administrative reform policies normally have a strong rhetoric flavour. The increased globalization of reform ideas and measures also enhances the rhetoric aspect of reforms. NPM-related reforms are said to be technical global remedies for the inefficiency of the public sector. However, reforms that are compatible with an cultural traditions are more often furthered or accepted than those that are incompatible. Korean society has been centered on hierarchical collectivism which contrasts with the egalitarian individualism of Western culture. NPM bases its ideological background on neo-libertarianism which has strong individualistic culture context while Korean tend to be collectivistic. It is not possible to change organizational culture that is strongly connected to national culture. Therefore, reformers must conduct a culture and structure diagnosis first. Then, they will get the idea about what kind of administrative reform model fits the culture.
  • 16.

    How to establish and operate local government police in Korea.

    Yang, Young Chul | 2005, 15(4) | pp.~ | number of Cited : 24
    Abstract
    Regardless of local government, National Police has monopolized the public security as the actual law enforcement authority in Korea since the Liberation. However, there are more demerits than merits for the national security which is monopolized by the National Police. Especially, there are big problems in correspondence and democracy of National Police, resulted from local government excluding both the responsibility and the right for security of the region without any control of its residents. Many generations of the government had tried to execute the system of local government police but it was not successful under self-interested departments and divisions. Roh Moo-hyun government has promoting the execution of local government police as the main policy. On September 16th of 2004, the government measure was confirmed after many meetings with the parties concerned. It has entered the new phase of executing local government police for the first time in its history. Local government police will be starting by focusing on the basic local government. The main affairs are local traffic service, basic crime prevention for safety and consolidation of law enforcement for each department. The police officers will enter local public service and the cooperation with national police will be carried out by secondary local government(shi, do)security administration committee. National police, local residents and local government will participate together to operate and evaluate local government police, drawing up a plan for exemplary local community police. It will be first pretested from October, 2005 for a year and will be executed in full-scale from the second half of 2006 after problems complemented.
  • 17.

    The Effect of Regulatory Control Processes on Optimism in Food Safety Regulation - On the focus of Food in School -

    Hwie- Seo, Park | 2005, 15(4) | pp.~ | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This study use social control theory to develop a research model that addresses the effectiveness of food safety regulatory agencies. In this study, control processes are classified into formal control(ex. rigid enforcement) and informal control(social instruction). The research model identifies the relative effectiveness of control forms in reducing opportunism. The results of this study shows that agreement with regulation is an important factor concerned with the effectiveness of regulatory control. This study suggests directions of further study as well as policy and theoretical implications.
  • 18.

    The Roles of the National Assembly Budget Office for Reinforcing the Evaluating Function of National Assembly : focused on principal-agent theory

    Park, Byoung-sik | Jun-Ho Lee | 2005, 15(4) | pp.~ | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract
    In a democratic country, parliamentary control over the government is seen as an important prerequisite for ensuring parliamentary accountability. But this function of parliament is not performed effectively because of the information asymmetry between parliament and government. To address this issue, the National Assembly Budget Office(NABO) was recently established in Korean Parliament. This study analyzes the function of the Congressional Budget Office(CBO) and surveys the perceptions of the officers of the agencies related to the National Assembly. Based on the findings, this study attempts to reconstruct the roles and function of the NABO using the analytical framework of the principal-agent theory. This study recommends that the NABO has to have more specialty and independence in supporting the evaluation function of National Assembly to national policies.
  • 19.

    한국 기업집단의 지배구조 개선방안/소유?지배구조 개선방안을 중심으로

    박상용 | 2005, 15(4) | pp.~ | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    Why is the issue of corporate governance so important today? Simply but, one only needs to look at the IMF crisis of 1997 for the answer. Until that point, the large Korean conglomerates, often referred to as "chaebol", were mostly interested in simply expanding the size of their empires as opposed to improving profitability and efficiency. The key to the improvement of corporate governance structures in Korean companies is in the enhancement of corporate ownership structure, which has been limiting the proper functioning of well established regulatory fundamentals. In contrast to the British or American corporate governance models where the most common issues are those involving principal-agent problem, the most serious types of Korean corporate governance issues usually involve conflicts between minority shareholders and powerful majority shareholders who generally exercise management powers in excess of those afforded them by standard corporate cash flow controlling rights. In this regard, limits on total amount of shareholdings and the regulations on financial institutions’ voting rights are also important issues to consider. The second most important factor in improving Korean corporate governance structures is the expansion of the institutional investor’s role. This is especially necessary for many Korean corporations where the management executives are also the major shareholders thereby resulting in a lack of management supervision and transparency. The third solution factor is strengthening the power of independent outside directors so that the director system is more than merely a formality.
  • 20.

    Public Management Orientation and Administrative Accountability in Local Government

    Kim,Jong-Hoo | 2005, 15(4) | pp.~ | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The matter of accountability and responsibility in the public administration is extremely complex. Indeed, public officers are called upon to be responsive to all the competing norms, values, and preferences of our democratic system. The priority about accountability has been changed according to the public management orientation. This article explores accountability types which public officers rely on to conduct their works. To conduct this research, the author interviewed local administrative officers, asking them to indicate the importance of the sources of accountability as they define their responsibilities. It is founded that while political rhetoric and management reform efforts encouraged initiative behavior recently, the local administrative reality still emphasized rules-oriented approach to accountability. Some of the reasons are the local government and their officers have no enough discretionary authorities worthy of local autonomy.