This study aims to deeply analyze the development process, the theoretical background, and theoretical issues of Q methodology. Since 1935 when Q methodology was initially introduced, Q methodology has continued to develop on the basis of a quantum theory in physic and the concourse theory in communication. Despited of severe criticisms against Q methodology it has obtained its own sphere and has been used in many academic and practical fields. At this present many questions are raised from quantitative methodological and qualitative methodological perspectives. It seems persuasive that Q methodology functions as a bridge connecting quantitative methodology and qualitative methodology. As methodologies have their own limits, Q methodology has its own restraints to be used under the certain conditions. Q methodology, however, may be a powerful tool in certain cases where the research intends to measure human subjectivity.
Human life consists of communication which is based on language, and Public Administration Scientists engage in study using language. However, there has been no study on it.
This paper aims to study on the encoding aspects of language written by Korean Public Administration Scientists focusing on Korean Public Administration Review (Spring 2007), try to suggest some alternatives and lead them to be a good guide to write their papers. Though it is a tentative work to contribute to better writing, this paper also seems to have the same mistakes as pointed out in this paper.
Under the assumption that writing should be correct and that information should be fully furnished to readers, this paper analyses the articles in Korean Public Administration Review, from paragraphs to sentences, to words, and from suitable expressions to mistakes, to errors in the articles. The writers want this paper to be a response to the assertion that there has been no recommendable writing in Public Administration Science.
The concept of representative bureaucracy or representation is essential to understanding contemporary democracy. Many studies on representative bureaucracy or quota program for employment of female public servant have been conducted based on empiricism or logical positivism. However, such efforts do not provide clear explanation of missing link in the relationship between passive and active representation or policy effect in the perspective of gender. In order to overcome these limitation of prior studies this paper is to suggest alternative way of studying representative bureaucracy by employing a case study method based on the social constructivism. This research may contribute to understanding representative bureaucracy in terms of collaborative or positive sum games, not conflictual or zero-sum games.
Many writers and researchers have proposed all kind of legitimacy bases after Max Weber suggested tradition, charisma, and law. They evolved in accordance with social change. Though considering that kind of circumstances, recent models are not enough for the relevancy of the Korean society.
This paper tries to reexamine the relevancy in the context of Korean society. The results tell us that still traditional values are very important and the normativity of law is more important than the clauses of law.
And also this paper tries to find out the mechanisms of legitimacy value. The researcher suggests a new mechanism which is drastically different from his antecedentes.
Most predecessors have insisted that values initiate organizational members' behaviors. The researcher proposes that legitimacy value operate on the behavior's output/input calculation. Namely, rationality operates on the behaviors in the context of balanced exchange, legitimacy operates on the behaviors in the context of imbalanced(power) exchange.
This paper aims to analyze the factors that determine the satisfaction level of administrative redemption services. These factors include types, results, trust in the results, and convenience of the processes of the administrative redemption services as well as socio-demographic characteristics of the customers and monthly effects. The data empolyed in the paper are survey data collected by the Anti-Corruption and Civil Rights Commission. The regression analyses show that trust in the results of the services (a substantial aspect of redemption services) is far more influential than convenience of the process (the procedural aspect of services). In addition, when we control different legal effects of the decisions by administrative appeals and complaints handling, the satisfaction level is higher in administrative appeal, which may be explained by SERVQUAL Expectation Gap Theory.
Korean society is now on the horns of a dilemma over the degree of development and conservation. The Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs promises to administrate our territory creatively and flexibly so that more spaces are available for needs. The conservers also agree that the size of our territory is quite limited compared to our population and volume of the economy, so we should maximize the productivity of our territory including the use of 4 major rivers in the current society of unlimited global competition. But the conservers criticize the overdevelopment and lack of democratic procedures of the developers. The purpose of this paper is to determine the causes of the policy dilemma between the developers and the conservers for sustainable development over 4 major river restoration project. The efficient or redundant structure and the frame conflict of the governmental departments were examined for policy coordination through check-and-balance system. The disharmony of the surface and deep frame, the conflict of the fast and slow frame and the framing process of the developers and the conservers were also anatomized. The findings were as follows. First, the different structure but same frame between Ministry of Environment and Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs was important cause of the dilemma and unsatisfactory policy result. So the autonomy-based check-and-balance system of governmental structure is good for excluding policy errors and arriving at a consensus. Second, the dilemma between the development-oriented coalition (government and ruling party) and the conservation-oriented coalition(civil society and opposition party) was caused by the government’s top-down and authoritarian policy approach style and the frame difference on the 4 major river restoration project. In conclusion, I suggest that the balanced governmental structure based on redundancy and authentic discourse based on procedural rationality be needed for the consensus building.
The purpose of this study is to explore the regional characteristics for the effective social service marketization. To achieve the purpose, it compares 226 local governments which are implementing the Community Social Service Investment(CSI) program, and examines the relationship between the regional characteristics and the degree of social service marketization.
Using cluster analysis and relational mapping method, the results show that the social service voucher systems are working as a substitute for the traditional, in-person service delivery system. Also, the regions with good environmental conditions show the higher level of social service marketization. Based on these findings, we suggest that the design of social service marketization policy should reflect the differential conditions of the targeting regions. This strategy will in part contribute to solve the current controversy over the social service marketization.
A farmland reverse mortgage system will be established in 2011 for the first time in the world. It is implemented by the liquidation, like the housing reverse mortgage, of farmland assets of the rural elderly landowners in order to improve their living conditions and monthly incomes. This paper aims at estimating the subjective minimum living costs for the rural elderly in order to give the guideline for deciding the amount of monthly payment through the liquidation of farmland assets. It measures the poverty line of the rural elderly by Leyden method and builds its extension model including education and physical condition variables for explaining the subjective minimum living costs more specifically. The basic model suggests that the minimum living costs in rural areas are lower than those in the urban areas. Its poverty line of the aged under 50 also is higher than that of the aged above 51. An education variable in an extended model is significant in both the rural areas and the urban areas, but physical condition variables are not significant in rural areas. Therefore, this study concludes that an extended model in Leyden method is more useful in measuring subjective minimum living costs and reflecting sociological and psychological aspects as well as demographic and regional aspects.
To date, there has been minimal research regarding the role of politics or “party policy ideas” in the study of policy determination and formation because most researchers have been depending on the positivism approach. For this reason, this paper employed the Social constructivism and comparative historical analysis. This article also aimed to analyze the role of the party policy ideas by dwelling upon the study of science and technology (S&T) policy in the United States and Germany. To be concrete, this study explored how the party policy ideas has an effect on the formation of party S&T policy, and how ruling party policy ideas influences government S&T policy determination.
The result of this study suggested that party policy ideas played a certain role in the course of the formation of party’s S&T goals and strategies. Ruling party policy ideas, moreover, affected S&T policy determination of each country, and also accidental political, economic, and social factors in history made an impact on the success, weakening, and failure of the party policy ideas. As a result, the study recommends that political factors be included in studying the government S&T policy.
The objective of the research is to observe the patterns of welfare development in Southern Europe: Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. Recently, there exist adequate data to analyze the pattern of the welfare state development. To accomplish the objective, the study focuses on the unique cultural characteristics in Southern Europe compared with those of other Europe. Political economic, social and cultural characteristics in these countries differ from those of other european countries. The distinction may deviate patterns of welfare state development from Esping-Andersen's welfare regime types. The research, therefore, pursues to explain what factors influence peculiar patterns of welfare development in Southern Europe. Also, the study tries to examine the relations of people's perception concerning welfare policy and welfare expenditures. Welfare policies of Southern European countries have developed less than those of other European ones have because of their cultural background. The research finds that people in Southern Europe emphasize the expansion of the role of a central government in terms of welfare policy. This may result from two causes. First, people need the expansion of welfare expenditures charged from a central government because the level of welfare state may not meet the level of people' s expectation. Second, characteristics of political economy and declination of traditional familism makes people depend the role of a central government.
This study explores receptiveness to performance appraisal system based on BSC among public employees at the local level governments. With the focus of two dimensions (appraisal system factors and internal motivation factors), this study examines what should be done to increase the level of receptiveness and to successfully implant the system in an organization. Dividing public employees into two levels(managerial level and lower level), this study suggests managerial implications based on findings.
Since the International society confronted the issue where cultural heritage, which is also common property of mankind, was being damaged and destroyed in large volume during wartime, they have been putting much effort in devising numerous legal safety devices for the protection of the cultural heritage. The Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the event of armed conflict, <The Hague Convention(1954)> is a specific example of the efforts that are being made for the protection of the cultural heritage. Furthermore, due to the efforts made by UNESCO to supplement the First and Second Protocol of The Hague Convention, the principles and regulations devised by the International treaty tp protect cultural heritage during armed clashes between nations have been completed. Since the cultural heritage of Korea is exposed to much danger of being damaged during wartime, the ROK should take into account joining the Hague Convention in a positive way. Moreover, ROK soldiers who are dispatched overseas should take caution whilst carrying out their duties, being careful not to damage or destroy International common cultural heritage, whether it is intentional or unintentional. The ROK is in a situation where they are not completely prepared to neither protect nor transport cultural heritage in cases of conflagration or war. Regarding the protection of cultural heritage during wartime, the cultural administration requires an earnest need to refine the system and regulations. In addition, the ROK should be more enthusiastic in finding solutions for retrieving cultural heritage that was looted during the colonial period.
The purpose of this study is to analyze factors influencing on public service satisfaction in Gwanakgu. Key findings are as follows. First, service quality in both child-care center and community center, is classified into 4 categories; facility environment, operational management, human resources, and programs. Second, the analysis result showed that public service satisfaction positively associated with each aspect of service quality. Third, child-care centers certified by the government showed significantly lower level of satisfaction than that of child-care centers without certification. There might be disparity between the evaluation by experts and citizen. Lastly, this study found that child-care service satisfaction affects voting behavior indicating that the higher satisfaction is related to more participation in vote.
결과중심적인 성과관리가 중요시되면서 공공서비스 제공에 있어서도 다양한 성과관리 기법이 도입되고 있다. 그 중에서도 BSC는 민간 부문에서 발전한 성과관리 기법이기는 하지만, 최근들어 공공 부문에서도 많이 도입되어 활용되고 있다. BSC는 재무적 관점 뿐 아니라 비재무적 관점을 포함하는 균형적 관점의 성과관리시스템으로서, 내부프로세스 관점, 고객관점, 성장 및 학습 관점의 비재무적 관점은 기존의 공공부문 성과측정 시스템에 비하여 매우 유용한 시각을 제공해 주고 있다.
그동안 공공부문 BSC에 관한 연구들은 BSC가 강조하는 4가지 균형된 관점이 어떻게 공공부문에 적용될 수 있고 또 적용되어야 하는지에 초점을 두고 연구가 이루어졌다. 그러나 이러한 공공부문 BSC 적용에 관한 선행 연구들은 BSC의 전략적 관리기법으로서의 의미를 도외시하고 있다는 한계성을 지닌다. BSC의 4가지 관점은 서로 인과적으로 연계되는 전략지도이다. 따라서 공공부문에 BSC를 적용할 경우에도 BSC의 4가지 관점이 서로 인과관계가 존재하는지에 대한 문제가 중요한 의미를 가지는바, 기존의 공공부문 BSC 연구에서는 이러한 전략적 관점에서 공공부문 BSC의 관점간 관계를 분석하는 실증적 연구는 거의 이루어지지 못하였다. 이에 본 연구에서는 서울시 여성인력개발센터의 BSC 4가지 관점에서 도출된 성과지표를 중심으로 과연 관점간 인과관계가 존재하는가를 살펴보고, 이를 기반으로 공공서비스 부문에 대한 BSC 적용상의 한계를 살펴보고자 하였다.
서울시 여성인력개발센터의 BSC는 평가지표 수준, 성과목표 수준, 관점 수준으로 계층화되는데, 분석결과 평가지표 수준에서는 어느 정도 인과관계가 인정될 수 있었다. 그리고 성과목표 수준에서는 인과관계성이 약화되었으며, 관점 수준에서는 인과관계가 인정되지 않았다. 즉 서울시 여성인력개발센터의 BSC는 각 지표들을 통합하는 과정에서 전략적 인과관계의 오류가 발생하고 있는바, 각각의 평가지표들이 상위 수준으로 통합될 경우 가중치 조정 및 통합 변수들간의 조정 등을 통하여 보다 신중한 관점별 평가지표 선정이 요구된다 하겠다. 결론적으로 공공부문의 BSC 구축에 있어서 전략지도 설정은 이론적인 인과관계는 있지만, 실제 지표 선정 및 적용에 있어서는 명확한 인과관계 검증 없이 이루어지고 있다고 보여진다. BSC 지표 및 관점간 인과관계에 대한 실증연구는 향후 공공부문 현실에 보다 타당한 BSC 전략지도 설정에 기여할 수 있을 것으로 본다.
English Abstract: There are over million of 'aliens' composed of foreigners, North Korean migrants, immigrated brethren in Korea. There used to be studied on exclusion phenomena against traditional alienated strata but little on new alienated strata such as North Korean migrants and immigrated brethren. The purpose of this paper is to develop a social exclusion indicator of aliens in Korea through applying social exclusion indicators developed in EU area and Korea.
This research aims to understand the relationship change between the ministry and the government supported research institutes(GSRIs) in the national R&D programme. For this purpose, the research used the principal-agent theory as one possible theoretical framework. Several theoretical propositions were drawn from the theory and applied to the description of the relationship change in the case of the national ICT programme. The research result showed the reason why the ministry has continuously strengthened the governance structure and R&D management to the R&D actors. However, in the ICT programme where the actors were interdependent on each other for survival and growth, they did not make a new relationship with other actors. This implied the policy network approach could be also useful for understanding the actor's relationship in some national R&D programmes. This research also mentioned the transaction cost burden to the R&D related actors because of the mistrust based management has been increased sharply in recent years. In relation to this, this research suggested that the introduction of network management which delegates the R&D management power to the research community should be seriously considered.
The concept of project budgetary fragmentation is a phenomenon or a trend that project budget cuts into small pieces by politically driven projects. Local legislators represent their own electoral districts needed to grant some benefit from the projects, because they want to win their competitors in next election. As a result of survey of local assembly legislators and local government bureaucrats, they agreed that a parochial interest and pork barrel politics of local legislators aggravated the project budgetary fragmentation. But, local bureaucrats and head of local government said that they have tried to prevent the degeneration of budgetary fragmentation.
The purpose of this paper is to find out a level of information security in terms of the information security culture. To examine the level of information security, we have conducted the survey targeting to public officials in a local government. According to the paradigm of information security, the paper analyzed an internalization of information security culture and a gap between the information security awareness and behavior.
The results of analysis are summarized as follows: (1) The level of information security phases as understanding-knowledge-behavior is measured. The level of information security behavior is low by comparison with that of awareness. (2) The paired sample t-test shows that the gap between the information security awareness and behavior for public officials is proved to be statistically significant.
This means that public officials perceive the importance of information security and have the knowledge of information security sufficiently, but they relatively have not done that much effort in the security behavior. To improve the level of information security, the public officials should recognize that the importance of information security is connected with the information security culture. Also, the evaluation of information security culture should be fed back to the local government periodically.
The increasing demand for welfare of the disabled requires elaborated policy design and adequate budget. This financial aspect of welfare for the disabled received unprecedented attention in recent years as authority and budget for welfare policy decentralized. However, the empirical analysis of welfare spending for the disabled remains understudied despite the increasing importance of the issue. The primary purpose of this article is to identity key variables in determining welfare budget for the disabled and its policy implications. This study explores what factors should affect welfare spending for the disabled with penal data comprising 30 local governments in Daegu metropolitan City and Gyeongsangbuk-Do. We find self-finance capacity negatively affects welfare spending for the disabled in contrast to its positive impacts on economic development. Female share in a local assembly influences welfare positively, and devolution tends to have positive relationship with welfare spending for the disabled.