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2011, Vol.22, No.2

  • 1.

    The Logic for Analyzing the Ideological Structure of Policy Conflicts in a Korean Society

    Sung-Bok Park | 2011, 22(2) | pp.1~22 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    This study aims to introduce the analytical logic for positively analyzing and recovering the ideological structure of policy conflicts, which can be seen in citizens’ policy preferences and inferred preferences by citizens of major political figures and parties, as well as social institutions. Here, the ideological structure of policy conflicts is composed of small variations that compress and summarize the policy conflicts. I present models for recovering the ideological structure of policy conflicts from the multidimensional policy space which is composed of a variety of policy issues. Similarly, models are presented for identifying the points of citizens' policy preferences and inferred preferences of major political figures, parties, and social institutions in the simplified space created by ideological structures. I present some core models of modern spatial theory and some modifications, along with a method for interpreting the meaning of the recovered underlying ideological structure or dimensions. To empirically recover and identify the ideological structural space of policy conflicts, I detail the research subjects, scale construction, and logic of data analysis.
  • 2.

    Strategies for Developing Citizen Ombudsman of Korean Local Government: the Case of Bucheon City

    Won-Ho Chai | KYUNGJIN CHAE | 2011, 22(2) | pp.23~48 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    This study suggests some options to develop citizen ombudsman of Korean local government by literature review and in depth interview with members of citizen ombudsman advisory committee. And the article also aims to analyze priorities among 2 primary options and 6 secondary options by AHP method. Major findings of the AHP analysis are as follows. The first priority among options is to assure the effectiveness of advice and investigation right of citizen ombudsman. The support of city mayor is the second important option. And the third priority option is to activate the citizen ombudsman advisory committee.
  • 3.

    An Empirical Analysis of the Sustainability of Fiscal Deficits in Korea: A Cointegration Test for Consolidated Primary Fiscal Balance and Government Debt

    유금록 | 2011, 22(2) | pp.49~68 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    This study reviewed previous research on fiscal sustainability, formulated a model for analyzing the sustainability of fiscal deficits, explained estimation methods, and performed unit root and cointegration tests for government debt and consolidated primary fiscal balance in Korea from 1980 through 2009. The empirical results show that while there is a cointegrating relationship between consolidated primary fiscal balance and government debt from 1980 through 2009, which implies that fiscal balance is sustainable, there is not a cointegrating relationship between these two fiscal variables from 1997 through 2009 after the exchange currency and global financial crises, which indicates that fiscal balance is not sustainable.
  • 4.

    An Empirical Test on Imitation and Competition of Regional Festival: Applying Spatial Regression to Korean Local Governments, 2006~2009

    Yoon, Joochul | MOON, KWAGNMIN | 2011, 22(2) | pp.69~91 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    This study aims to analyze whether spatially contiguous or remote local governments are more likely to affect other local governments in deciding how much they spend on their regional festivals by applying spatial regression with panel data, 2006~2009. In the past 20 years, regional festivals have widely diffused and it has been argued that many local governments have imitated successful festivals, thereby increasing competition among local governments. This raises the question, which governments do they mimic? We suggest four hypotheses; pioneer (or reference), contiguous, similar (by the criteria of population and financial self-sufficiency), and sisterhood-networked group. Our results show that in fact local governments do not always imitate others. Key findings are that, first, the portion of festival budget increases in the pioneer group, and second, the portion is negatively related to the contiguous governments and sisterhood-networked governments. So local governments hold festivals imitating the pioneer group, but avoid competition with neighborhood or sisterhood governments. Also this study examines the usefulness of spatial regression by reporting different results from the OLS without the spatial effects.
  • 5.

    A Study on Climate Change Vulnerability Types and Adaptation of Local Governments: With the Case of Gyeonggi-Do

    Koh Jaekyung | 2011, 22(2) | pp.93~118 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    The objective of this paper is to classify climate change vulnerability types among local governments and outline adaptive actions. The definition of vulnerability developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is utilized to create the vulnerability indices of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Vulnerability characteristics are divided into 4 types according to potential impact, which is a function of exposure and sensitivity, together with the adaptive capacity axis. The results show that Gimpo, Yeoncheon, Pocheon, Yeoju and Yangpyeong belong to Type 1 which is the most vulnerable with high climate change impact and low adaptive capacity. Type 2 includes areas such as Uiwang, Dongducheon, Hanam, Gwangmyeong where the impact of climate change is not high, but adaptive capacity is low. These areas are exposed to residual risk, and in some cases become more vulnerable due to ineffective policies. Type 3 indicates the areas that are endogenously influenced by climate change, but where risks caused by exposure to climate change can be overcome to some extent because of high adaptive capacity. Yangju. Pyeongtaek, Gapyeong, Paju, Osan and Goyang belong to Type 3. Finally the Type 4 areas of Gwacheon, Suwon, Anyang, Sungnam and Ansan are the areas where vulnerability is lowest. Although the types of vulnerability displayed are similar, variations occur based on system characteristics and adaptive strategies. Consequently it is necessary to differentiate the adaptation strategies and approaches according to geographic characteristics, land use, demographic characteristics, economic capability, and institutional capacity of each specific region.
  • 6.

    A Study on place marketing by marketing mix strategy in Gwangju Biennale

    김지현 | Seo Sun-Bok | 2011, 22(2) | pp.119~147 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    The 21st century is a time of culture, and the pertinence of culture is reflected in regional culture and art festivities and biennales. However some biennales have been discontinued despite being located in famous cities. In contrast, a number of biennales have survived through maintaining a regional focus, while others have attempted to improve their status through the manufacturing of culture. Identity as a strategy of differentiation is effective if local residents feel a sense of ownership. The Gwangju biennale is representative of Korea and can be considered as one of the best biennales in Asia in terms of identity awareness. This study concerns the mix of marketing strategies which enable biennales to both retain public affection and maintain awareness of local identity.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Effect of Multi-faced Rating System on Organizational Performance in Public Corporations

    박석희 | 김민웅 | 2011, 22(2) | pp.149~173 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    Since the late 1990s, a multi-faced rating system has been rolled out in public organizations, as the emphasis has shifted to performance-oriented personnel management and away from seniority based or nepotistic management. However, critiques concerning the fairness and objectivity of the system have continued to emerge from the time it was enacted in most organizations. Thus, a multi-faced rating system which can be operated more fairly and objectively is required so as to enhance organizational performance via the effectiveness of evaluation. Against this background, this article empirically analyzes the benefits and problems of multi-faced rating systems through the case of a public corporation, utilizing a survey of 100 staff along with employee interviews. Firstly, it analyzes, via hierarchical regression analysis, the effect of four features of the rating system on the effectiveness of evaluation; evaluation criteria, reliability of evaluators, pre-training, and CEO support. Secondly, it analyzes the intervening effect of evaluation efficacy on three variables for organizational performance; organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and self-development opportunity.
  • 8.

    An Empirical Research on institutionalization of center for supporting multi-cultural families at the local government

    장석준 | 2011, 22(2) | pp.175~200 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    The purpose of this research is to examine the institutionalization of Multicultural Family Support Centers through the new institutional perspective. For the empirical analysis, I rely on event history analysis(EHA). In recent years, multiculturalism has become taken-for-granted and Multicultural Family Support Centers have been rapidly diffused in a standardized way at the local level. According to new institutional theory, institutionalism is viewed as the social process by which individuals or organizations come to accept a shared definition of social reality for maintaining organizational legitimacy or survival. In particular, DiMaggio and Powell (1983) suggest three forms of institutional isomorphism which may operate in the process of obtaining organizational legitimacy; coercive isomorphism, mimetic isomorphism, and normative isomorphism. Thus, this article assumes that institutional isomorphism has served to expedite the institutionalization and legitimization of Multicultural Family Support Centers. Additionally, internal sources within the organization also positively affect institutionalization through maintaining functional efficiency. The major findings of this study are as follows: Firstly, coercive and normative isomorphism primarily influence institutionalization. Secondly, internal sources of organization partly affect institutional diffusion. The implication of these findings is that institutionalization occurs as a consequence of both the institutional environment and strategic action of the agency itself.
  • 9.

    An Exploratory Study on the Perception of Public Service from Citizen Perspective in the Context of Public Value Management

    Kwak, Hyon Kun | 2011, 22(2) | pp.201~228 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to introduce normatively the citizen perspective of Public Value Management as contrasted with the customer oriented New Public Management. In addition, it tries to empirically identify the existence of citizen perspective at an exploratory level. For the latter, it carries out an analysis of whether the recognition of a particular public value as program goal has influence on citizen attitudes to the program legitimacy and acceptability as well as on the level of satisfaction with the program. Specifically it focuses on the 2008 bus route reform at Daejeon Metropolitan City, carried out for the first time since the introduction of a public bus service 56 years ago. Based on survey data collected from 497 bus service users, statistical analyses were conducted to identify whether citizens' recognition of universal service as a reform goal had an effect on their perception of the legitimacy and acceptability of the reform as well as their satisfaction level. The result shows a high positive correlation between the recognition of universal service goal and the program satisfaction level. In addition it appears that the recognition has a positive influence on the legitimacy and acceptability of the reform. The conclusion emphasizes the need for public managers to seriously consider citizen perspective beyond customer one.
  • 10.

    A Comparative Study on Refugee Policies of South Korea and West Germany

    Taesoo Kim | 2011, 22(2) | pp.229~248 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    The German experience of political reunification and social integration can be a model for the divided Korean Peninsula in that the two Germanies achieved reunification while the two Koreas have yet to do so. This paper aims to explicate implications of the West German alien policy for South Korea. Similarly to West Germany, there are several kinds of aliens in South Korea: migrants (or refugees) from the counter-regime, immigrated brethren, foreign workers and multicultural people. West Germany, the second most economically powerful nation in the Western world has been consistent in its advanced policy toward East-German-migrants according to the related clauses of the constitution (Grundgesetz), and has implemented lasting programs. As such, this paper highlights the implications of the West German case for South Korea, such as consistency of the policy in spite of political instability.
  • 11.

    The impact of intergovernmental relationships on social welfare expenditures in OECD countries

    현하영 | CHOI, HEUNGSUK | 2011, 22(2) | pp.249~272 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The study of welfare state and welfare policy has generally focused on the role of the central government, with which the state is often equated. However, it is not only the central, but the local government that frequently determine the level of welfare spending, and design and deliver welfare services. With the phenomenon of so called globalization, many parts of public services have been transferred to subnational governments. It highlights the relevance of intergovernmental relations in analyzing the changes in welfare policies. In this paper, we focus on the fiscal and political characteristics of intergovernmental relationships and whether the state is unitary or federal, and analyze the impact of such intergovernmental relationships on the welfare expenditures in OECD countries. We hypotheses that with more fiscal and political decentralization, the local government would spend more on welfare because the heads of local governments, who are concerned with their reelection, would try to reflect citizens’ welfare needs on budget priorities. Also we hypotheses that federal states would spend more on welfare than unitary states because they have more autonomy in public expenditure. We conducted pooled time-series analyses to confirm our hypotheses using the data from OECD, World Bank, and Quality of Government Institute for the period of 1995 to 2005. The test results indeed show that characteristics of intergovernmental relationships influence the level of welfare expenditures.
  • 12.

    A Study on the Effectiveness of Public Education Expenditure in Developing Countries

    이정희 | 2011, 22(2) | pp.273~306 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The theoretical development of public expenditure is an issue which has received less attention than its theoretical and practical importance justifies. This study tries to fill this gap by exploring the relationship between public education expenditure and school enrollment in developing countries. The author integrates the diverse perspectives of causality between public education expenditure and school enrollment rates, produces a comprehensive conceptual framework, and derives and tests hypotheses from it. It is hoped that the conceptual framework and theory will contribute to understanding the effects of public education spending in developing countries and be instrumental to the analysis of public expenditures in other areas such as welfare.
  • 13.

    A Study on the Museum Policy Representing Cultural Needs of Local Residents

    Lee, Jae-Ho | 편상훈 | 2011, 22(2) | pp.307~327 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    The museum is one of the cultural facilities provided as a public service which has multicultural characteristics. It provides cultural diversity, cultural exchange within society, educational experience, and a place for local residents to rest. Regional museums make an effort to differentiate themselves from other existing museums by providing the citizens with an image of a culturally familiar city. In order to create such an image, they rigorously search for solutions for effective management of museums. This study focuses on factors considered for effective management of the museum that respond to the cultural needs of local residents. For example, we investigate the priorities for effective management of a museum which is opened in 2011, such as appropriate admission fees, opinions on extending operating hours, cultural experience programs, and the creation of a positive city image. As a result, an updated program and contents, level of exhibition, accessibility of the museum, and size and type of exhibition are suggested as significant factors for effective management of the museum. Our study proposed that 1,803 won would be a reasonable admission fee for adults, and it could be a guideline for both newly opening and existing museums considering charging admission fees. The study results emphasize the importance of families visiting the museum during the weekends and the likelihood of having extended opening hours. Thus, the study found that the regional museum could play a crucial role in improving the overall city image.
  • 14.

    An Exploratory Study on Emotionally-Intelligent Social Marketing As a New Approach For Public Administration Study

    Yoonseuk Woo | 2011, 22(2) | pp.329~357 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Apart from the various new approaches emerging to explain the New Normal after the US financial crisis, which criticize traditional beliefs on rationality and balance theory, few debates are found in the realm of public administration studies. It is necessary for public administration academia to probe another approach to adapt to the changing policy environment, where the desire to achieve small government and more efficiency has been in full swing due to the common ground shared with neo-classical economics. We scrutinize behavioral economics and the adaptive market hypothesis in the search for a new paradigm of policy orientation, and thus induce policy implications which suggest that human-beings and markets are irrational, complex, and evolve through mutual interaction. From that point of view, we highlight the necessity of emotional intelligence as a new approach. In addition, we employ the social marketing approach to explain why the public movement in Korea to change people’s subway escalator usage was not successful in terms of emotional intelligence. We believe this study could contribute to expanding our conceptual horizon from a rational and linear perspective to emotional and non-linear perspective in order to bring about change and guarantee people’s compliance.