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2012, Vol.22, No.4

  • 1.

    The Institutional Discursive Approach to Policy Controversy: The Probabilities of Consensus-building through Deliberation

    김창수 | 2012, 22(4) | pp.1~26 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to analyze the Jeju naval base construction controversy from the viewpoint of the institutional discursive approach and to review other controversial cases in order to generalize institutional discursive theory. The findings are as follows: First, the internal and situational conditions such as the historical and cultural traditions of the conservational and peaceful island had an effect on the controversy. Second, the unpredictable and unfair institutions for development also affected the controversy. Third, the policy approaches of the government and the navy were one-sided without deliberation and authentic discourse, which led to the failure of consensus-building between the developers and the conservationists. Fourth, mediation and arbitration were not used for resolution of the controversy, but three litigation cases are proceeding. Finally, the study attempts to generalize the institutional discursive approach through comparisons to cases both at home and abroad.
  • 2.

    Is Collaborative Governance Working?: A Case Study

    Cheol Ho Oh | 고숙희 | 2012, 22(4) | pp.27~49 | number of Cited : 31
    Abstract PDF
    As a way of resolving today's social problems and delivering public services, the close cooperation of several administrative institutions is more effective than keeping strict boundaries, and adhering to the notion of ‘a single consumer of a single institution.' As such, the cooperation of multiple institutions is increasingly in demand as a means of resolving problems common to several related projects. In Korea, this perspective has been driven by the ‘integrated administration’ approach since 2010. Against this background, this paper attempts to analyze one of the integrated administration programs, the job creation and placement program for ex-offenders, a program in which five institutions cooperate; the Ministry of Public Administration and Security, the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Employment and Labor, the Rural Development Administration, and the Small and Medium Business Administration. The analysis results reveal considerable achievement of the main goals of the program. Yet the role of the Ministry of Public Administration and Security seemed to be vague, and the support of the political community (i.e., the National Assembly and political parties) as well as the President was not properly secured. Consequently, it is recommended that the Ministry of Public Administration and Security play a more positive role in the cooperation process as a mediator, and the political community including the President offer more support to this type of program.
  • 3.

    An Exploratory Study of the Alternative National Policy Formulation Process

    Songho Lee | 2012, 22(4) | pp.51~77 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Many policy formulation theories have been developed separately in diverse fields of study. It is necessary to build a framework which can connect these theories in a meaningful way in order to view these separate theories as a whole, and check if they are adequate to understand and improve national policy formulation in the real world. For this purpose, this study explores a new policy formulation process as a framework which can combine the existing behavioral, normative and empirical theories. This study reconstructs a four-stage process of policy formulation (agenda setting, position taking, position coordination, policy legitimation) that reflects the government power structure and institutions, and then reviews how this process could combine existing theories. This new framework can show which aspects of existing theories are useful in explaining and improving national policy formulation, which kind of theories and logics ought to be employed from other academic areas, and in which aspects further theoretical elaboration is required in the future. More specifically, while a majority of existing theories can be used to explain the position-taking stage and some of them can explain the agenda-setting and policy legitimation stage, few of them could cover the position-coordination stage. The study concludes that as existing theories are not enough to understand the national policy making process, more theories are required on the analytic agenda-setting process, analytic position-coordination and criteria of policy legitimation.
  • 4.

    Reliability and Validity of Performance Measurement in the Public Sector: The Case of the National Emergency Management Agency’s 'Battle Against Fire'

    MUNSEOK CHO | Jeon, Joo Sang | Chang-Won Lee | 2012, 22(4) | pp.79~106 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    This research explores the reliability and validity of performance measurement of 'The Battle against Fire' policy of the National Emergency Management Agency. Despite the importance of performance measurement in public management, few studies have focused on performance measurement error. This research empirically analyzes the effectiveness of the policy and reliability and validity of its measurement system. The findings are as follows: First, the effects of 'The Battle against Fire' are unclear, as the threats to internal validity such as the effects of regression, maturation, and history cannot be rejected. Similarly, the inconsistent outcomes within the frontline sub-units of the National Emergency Management Agency also suggest that the effects of the policy are unclear. Second, present performance depends on past outcomes because of endogeneity problems in relation to the outcome indicator. Finally, the causal effects of the process indicator on the outcome were restricted. These findings raise the necessity both of controllability in performance measurement and of redesigning the performance measurement system based on testing the relationship between the outcome and the process.
  • 5.

    Analysing the Impact of Social Support Policy on Crime Rates in Korean Regional Governments

    Gyeonghoan Kwon | 2012, 22(4) | pp.107~128 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This study empirically analyzes the impacts of social support policies(1996-2005) on crime rates(1997-2006) by using panel data of 13 Korean regional governments in which police agencies are located. In this paper, the construct "social support policies" was operationalized into the four policy variables which were "hodevpp"(Housing and Community Development Policy), "helifepp"(Health and Living Environment Policy), "educclpp"(Educational and Cultural Policy), and "welfarpp"(Welfare Policy) through the scale composed of regional public expenditures. Some other variables(the third variables or control variables) except four policy variables associated with social support policies that are expected to affect regional crime rates were included in the model as independent variables, and the crime rates related to specific crimes against persons(murder, robbery, rape and aggravated assault) and larceny were operationalized into dependent variables on the basis of the literature review, the theories that explain the changes of crime rates, and the annual regional expenditure items. The empirical results based on the two-way, fixed-effect panel data method of statistical analysis indicated that social support policies(1996-2005) didn't seem to have significantly suppressive effects on crime rates(1997-2006) in Korean regional governments.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Network Structure of the Public Administration Academic Community Using the Coauthor Network from 1998 to 2009

    Chisung Park | 2012, 22(4) | pp.129~153 | number of Cited : 36
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is 1) to explore hidden patterns of network structures in the public administration academic community through social network analysis, and 2) to explain the influences of the structural properties of authors on their academic performance through regression analysis. This study gathers coauthor relation data from 24 public administration journals as well as author attribute data from various sources. The analysis results can be summarized into three main findings. First, the Public Administration academic community displays a high level of academic collaboration. In other words, the coauthor network in public administration is relatively well connected compared to other academic collaboration networks. Second, academicians who participate in small and fragmented components of the network are socially more reputable, but show a lower level of performance than members in the main component of the network. Finally, while degree and betweenness centrality are positively associated with academic performance, closeness centrality is negatively associated with the academic performance of authors.
  • 7.

    An Explorative Meta-analysis on Community Research in Korea with Implications for Public Administration: With a Focus on Field, Method, Purpose and Topic

    Jaeho Seo | 2012, 22(4) | pp.155~182 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    Many researchers have turned to communities for solutions to new problems caused by the radical industrialization and informatization of our society. However, previous community research according to academic discipline (i.e., sociology, geology, local development and engineering), and as such was not based on common conceptual and theoretical foundations, instead focusing on different aspects of communities. In the field of public administration in particular, community research did not gain momentum, despite the increasing importance of community as a tool for solving social problems. This paper makes recommendations for community research in the field of public administration, through explorative meta-analysis on the community studies. The analysis results reveal that papers focusing on community are still rare in public administration compared to other fields, they used qualitative methods more than quantitative approaches to methodology, and more descriptive studies have been published rather than theoretical studies. These results imply that in order to vitalize community study in public administration, a theoretical approach is required, and quantitative research focusing on theoretically constructed variables should be conducted.
  • 8.

    Estimation of the Reasonable Supply of Funeral and Cemetery Facilities for the Efficient Formation of Funeral Policy

    Lee, Jae-Ho | 이태종 | 2012, 22(4) | pp.183~204 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This study aims to estimate the reasonable supply of funeral and cemetery facilities for the efficient formation of funeral policy, based on the progress of the cremation ratio. Adequate supply size is predicted by the demand trends of cremation-related facilities, especially charnel houses and natural burial plots, with a focus on Ulsan metropolitan city. In order to estimate the reasonable supply of charnel houses and natural burial plots, the number of cremations is calculated as a proportion of the mortality rate through analysis of the cremation ratio change, based on the questionnaire method and exponential smoothing. This study will contribute to estimating the supply sizes of cremation-related facilities in other local governments and further determining their rental fees.
  • 9.

    A Study of the Impact Factor and Importance Evaluation of Excessive Internet Use

    Hwan Seong Lee | Jinwoo Jeong | 2012, 22(4) | pp.205~236 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    The aim of this study is to find the impact factor and the order of priority of excessive Internet use. Data is collected and analyzed using the AHP method. There are three implications of this study. First, the impact factors of excessive Internet use are categorized into four higher rank factors and 14 lower rank factors. Second, the sequent order of priority of the four higher rank factors is the factor of surroundings, mentality, traits and function of Internet, individuality. Lastly, the major sequent order of priority of the 14 lower rank factors is home background, self-control and impulse, depression and loneliness. The results of this study will contribute to the reduction of the negative effects of computerization when deciding the policy agenda for excessive Internet use.
  • 10.

    A Study on construction Budget Institution Index

    Chunsoon Kim | Moon, Ji Eun | 2012, 22(4) | pp.237~263 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    The purpose of involving the legislative branch in the budget process is to promote good governance, control the executive's power, and improve the efficiency of fiscal management. The legislative arm should work to approve the budget, laws, and oversee the executive. The requirement for legislative approval of financial measures is a democratic foundation stone that is enshrined in constitutions around the world (Wehner 2010). Though the exact role and capacity may differ, each legislature has budgetary powers from budget laws or national constitution. While case studies have been conducted on budget institutions, few have included quantitative measures or compared legislative budget institutions. This study constructs a legislative budget institution index, using the 2007-2008 OECD World Bank survey of budget practices and procedures database, for the purpose of cross-national comparison and explaining differences. The index, constructed using the methods of Wehner and Alesina et al., arranges 48 countries according to two-sub indices; financial power and organization capacity. The results reveal the United States, with its presidential system, to have the highest score. Sweden, which has experience of budgetary and financial reform has the second highest score. On the other hand, England, Ireland, and Canada, which operate under the Westminster-system have low scores. Government system is found to have a significant impact on the legislative budget index, whether OECD membership is controlled for or not. Similarly, the financial power index is found to be significant, but the organization capacity index has less impact.
  • 11.

    An Exploratory Study of Organizational Politics and Conflicts, and their Effects on Conflict Management and Performance of Government Organizations

    Cheong, Jong One | 2012, 22(4) | pp.265~299 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract
    While many studies have focused on the performance of public organizations, relatively few have probed organizational politics, conflicts, conflict management, and their effects on organizational performance. Therefore, this research statistically explores the relationships among politics, conflict, and the performance of government organizations. The empirical evidence indicates that organizational politics and conflicts have negative effects on conflict management effectiveness and on organizational performance. This study also finds that public organizations with higher conflict management effectiveness have higher organizational performance.
  • 12.

    A Study on the Social Effect of Long-Term Care Insurance: The Theory-driven Perspective

    Lee Seok Min | Won Si Yeon | 2012, 22(4) | pp.301~329 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to analyze the legislative impact on society of long-term care insurance which was enacted in 2007 and implemented in 2008. For this purpose, this article applies a logic model for a systemic approach and evaluates the performance of inputs, outputs, and outcomes. In terms of results, this study found a positive performance in the phase of inputs and outputs. In addition, the performance of inputs and outputs has influenced the short-term outcomes which are improvement of physical conditions, care expenses, and a reduced burden on family caregivers. However, it has not been sufficient to increase the opportunity for socioeconomic activities, and improved quality of life. Consequently, comprehensive system redesign or legislative responses are required if the objectives of Long-Term Care Insurance are to be achieved.
  • 13.

    A Study on the Policy-Making of Food Safety Regulations Focused on Nutrition Signpost Labelling Case

    고효진 | Lee Hye Young | 2012, 22(4) | pp.331~354 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    This study analyzes policy-making process of food safety regulations focusing on Nutrition Signpost Labelling case. This study has been focused on the political and economic aspect of regulation. This study analyzes the benefit-cost structure and interest, the differences on political transaction costs, bureaucracy incentive and behavior. According to the analysis result, Nutrition Signpost Labelling was a typical case which had a disperse benefit and narrow-focused cost structure. The food industry has influenced effectively on the government policy-making, while the public has not, because the food industry paid a small amount of information cost and organization cost by using the aisles which has already been set. As a result, the food industry could reduce political transaction costs in the political market, and the low political transaction cost could be the major component which could change the Nutrition Signpost Labelling policy in the way the food industry wants. In addition, the absence of technical alternatives made the bureaucracy take part with the industry. In conclusion, it is suggested that the government should provide systematic tools with which the public communicate and make the risk analysis system more scientific and more open.
  • 14.

    (Exploring a Sustainable Development Model for Social Enterprises Based on the Grounded Theory: Focusing on Social Enterprises in Seoul)

    Young Bum Lee | 박성우 | Seung Yeon Nam and 1other persons | 2012, 22(4) | pp.355~388 | number of Cited : 41
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to suggest a model of sustainable development for Korean Social Enterprises. The literature on this field lacks a coherent and theory-based model only presenting several fragmentary analysis on the factors of success of social enterprises. Using the grounded theory, this study has built a model of sustainable development for social enterprises in Korea. This research has confirmed that the strong needs for sustainable development is core phenomenon for the social enterprises launched with the social and economic goals. These phenomena have appeared in the context of low competitiveness and profitability, a lack of skilled workers, an conservative inclination toward the non-profit sector, and inappropriate institutional support. Accordingly, the strategies for enhancing the market power of social enterprises could make achieved their dual goals and stabilized the organizational operation by intervening effects of network and leadership. In conclusion, it is important that social enterprises have to recognize the cycle appeared in the growth process and to create multifaceted measures for their sustainability.
  • 15.

    A Study on Policy Conflict and Negotiation between Government Agencies: Highway Construction between Guri and Pocheon

    Jin, Jongsoon | 2012, 22(4) | pp.389~410 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This study analyzes the possibility of dispute resolution of highway construction between Guri and Pocheon. I interviewed 36 related people such as residents, interest groups, construction firm, and civil servants to find key issues and their major interests. The possibility of dispute occurrence and dispute resolution concerning highway construction between Guri and Pocheon is analyzed based on the result of the interview. According to the analysis, the disputes related to the decision of the route of the highway construction made various conflict issues among the participants. The disputes also have different characteristics by the key issues. This study analyzes how the conflict negotiation has been achieved in this case by the four success factors of negotiation such as interdependence, perceived conflict, opportunistic interaction, and possibility of agreement. The result of this analysis can help to resolve future dispute among government agencies.
  • 16.

    Income Inequality and Support for Welfare Policy, Using Seoul Welfare Panel Survey Data (2008-2010)

    백승주 | Kum, Hyunsub | 2012, 22(4) | pp.411~440 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    This paper seeks empirical evidence to test whether the median voter theorem (MVT) (Meltzer and Richard, 1981) is applicable or a relevant explanatory framework in accounting for the relationship between income inequality and support for welfare policy in Korea. Towards this end, we review the MVT and alternative models including those of Moene and Wallerstein (2001), Husted (1989), and Benabou (2000), and suggest the relationship can be separated into two stages following Kelly and Enns (2010): First, the relationship between inequality and policy preferences, and second, the transformation of policy preferences into policy proposals. Using Seoul Welfare Panel survey data and various inequality measures, we focus upon and test the first stage of the relationship, firstly, through a cross regional comparison across 25 municipal governments in Seoul, and secondly, through a comparison of serial changes in inequality and policy preferences in each of the municipalities. The findings show that higher inequality tends to be coupled with higher support for welfare policy across regions as well as across time in Seoul and offer tentative support for the MVT.
  • 17.

    Comparison of the Traditional Bureaucracies of Korea and China from a Cultural Perspective: The Chosun and Ching Dynasties

    Ha-Young Choung | 2012, 22(4) | pp.441~471 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This study analyzes the bureaucracies of the Chosun and Ching dynasties from a cultural perspective. In particular, it attempts to locate continuities with the present through analyzing the social and cultural backdrops of the respective systems. The commonalities between the Chosun and Ching Dynasties are that they are centralized systems, and both emphasize compassion, maintaining ‘face’ and relationships, misalign authority with responsibility, and may lead to corruption through pulling strings for promotion and the use of gifts and bribes. However, differences do exist. First, the Ching dynasty was a system of centralization and equal shares. In order to consolidate the emperor’s power, Jun Ji Chu(軍機處) was established, secret messages sent to the emperor, functions of remonstrance and check were mitigated, Chinese Gentry(紳士) and scholars were controlled and a merit based civil service exam, and service checks and evasion policy were utilized. However, the principle of equal shares was upheld, and the authority of central and local bureaucrats was expanded. In particular, as local bureaucrats’(督撫) possessed intelligence, human resource and financial authority (including the military), the administration system became more distributed and independent. Secondly, the Ching Dynasty focused on capabilities. A large portion of those who passed the civil servant exam were commoners and a fixed portion were compulsorily allotted for the service check. Also candidates were selected to be trained as working bureaucrats and they were to compete with one another for promotion and in this process ‘guanxi’ took effect. Moreover, a degree of equality between the superior and the subordinate was visible. Third, processes of division and integration took place. The expansion of local authorities including the local bureaucracy, interest-seeking by Chinese Gentry, average culture, and corrupt officials prompted division and then integration under a new power. As for the Chosun Dynasty, first of all, the system of centralization and rank prevailed. Centralized power and order was established systematically and implemented through personnel administration including the civil exam, systems allowing officials to take multiple positions and banning officials to be stationed at a specific location or take positions that they were affiliated with, term of position, evaluation of merits, and praise and censure. However, actual authority was not concentrated around the king, but instead, mostly endowed upon bureaucrats. Also the bureaucrats themselves used their rights of remonstrance to check the king. However, it took power struggle and dispute in order to justify a system of checks and balances. Secondly, a rank system based on ancestry was established. The rank of yangban was passed down and people were segregated according to where they came from. Also the people who passed the civil exam were mostly the children of bureaucrats or belonged to specific clans. In addition, lineage and faction took effect in the recommendation of candidates, evaluation of merits, and promotion. Homogenization and segregation based on ancestry(출신) prevailed and office hunting took place, while there was a stringent system of rank between superiors and subordinates.
  • 18.

    A Study on the Relationship between Public Service Motivation and Exemplary Civil Servant: Focusing on the Senior Civil Servant in the Ministry of Health & Welfare

    KWI HEE BAE | 2012, 22(4) | pp.473~495 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Why do many people who graduated college become a public servant? Is there a difference between public sector and private sector? Such questions lie in the big question whether difference between public and private sector exists. It is said that public service motivation(PSM) theory came from this debate. This paper is to examine the relationship public service motivation(PSM) and individual performance using process- tracing case study. The subject of a case study is an exemplary senior civil servant in the Ministry of Health & Welfare. As a result of this study, PSM leads to individual performance, through such the mediating variable as leadership, person-organizational value fit, job satisfaction and organizational commitment
  • 19.

    The Impact of Police officials’ Emotional Labor on Job Stress and Job Satisfaction: Focused on J-Provincial Police Agency

    KIM GU | 한기민 | 2012, 22(4) | pp.497~523 | number of Cited : 54
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationships between police officials’ emotional labor, on-job stress and job satisfaction. A conceptual research model for empirical analysis is identified through theoretical discussion and review of previous studies. The model utilizes the emotional effort and emotional dissonance aspects of emotional labor as independent variables, job stress as the mediating variable, job satisfaction as the dependent variable, social support (of seniors and colleagues), and job autonomy as moderating variables. Each of the factors of the conceptual research model are included in the questionnaire, used to survey police officers of ‘J-province’ police agency. The results of this study are as follows: First, emotional dissonance is connected to increased job stress but emotional effort combined with social support and job autonomy reduces job stress. Second, each of the variables can impact upon the path relations of the research model, when applied both individually or in combination with the moderating variables. Third, while most previous studies have suggested that emotional labor has positive and negative consequences, this study has found that emotional labor has the positive effect of job satisfaction, and the negative effect of job stress, depending on the situation (degree of the moderating variables).
  • 20.

    A Study on Policies for Multi-Cultural Families and the Welfare Needs of Immigrants

    장현주 | 2012, 22(4) | pp.525~550 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    This study aims to provide evidence for customized multi-cultural family policies through analyzing factors affecting the welfare needs of immigrants. Hierarchical multiple regression models with four dependent variables are used, based on the following four needs; language education, cultural education, family counseling, and child support and education. Results show that the influence of writing skills on language education needs is greater than the influence of the length of a marriage and speaking skills. On needs for cultural education, writing skills, and speaking skills, along with the length of marriage are most influential. On needs for family counseling, the length of a marriage is most influential. While, the length of marriage, writing skills and household economic status have the most influence on needs for child support and education, the influence of family relationships is weak. The results suggest that programs for writing skills should begin with other language programs, but continue under customized policies in association with cultural education. In addition, it is recommended that the scope of contents for language education expand to culture, family, tradition, and etiquette lessons to induce the early building of solid family relations. Finally, tutors' professionalism through training programs and services for teenage children should be developed to meet the needs for child support and education.
  • 21.

    A Study on Local Government Public Servants’ Knowledge and Attitude toward the Elderly

    JaeKang Lim | 2012, 22(4) | pp.551~573 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to investigate public servants' knowledge and attitudes toward the elderly, and to identify the variables that influence their attitudes. A survey was conducted from February 2011 using a structured self-report questionnaire, and 178 responses were used for the analysis. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis. The research findings can be summarized as follows: First, while the mean score on attitudes toward the elderly is similar to previous studies, the mean score of knowledge about the elderly, at approximately 13.9, is higher than previous studies Second, the significant predictors to explain attitudes toward the elderly were knowledge about the elderly, gender, and age, with knowledge about the elderly proving most significant. The practical recommendations of the study include the development of education programs about the elderly, and efforts to change public servants' cognition and attitudes toward the elderly.