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2012, Vol.23, No.2

  • 1.

    An Analysis of Factors Influencing Successful Mediation of Public Policy Related Conflicts: Comparing Hantangang Dam Project and the National Mental Hospital

    Jeong, Jeong Hwa | 2012, 23(2) | pp.1~24 | number of Cited : 19
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to explore the factors which influence successful mediation of public policy related conflicts by comparing two contrasting cases; Hantangang Dam Project and the National Mental Hospital. According to the analysis results, in the case of the Hantangang Dam Project, mediators are considered to have had an intermediate or high level of influence. However, attempts to reach consensus were not successful due to the low levels of autonomy and stakeholder representation, and communication failures. On the other hand, the National Mental Hospital was able to overcome limitations in the process of adjustment. Despite some problems regarding stakeholder representation and the professionalism of the mediator, the effectiveness of other factors remained high, so efforts to reach an agreement were successful. Based on comparative analysis of the cases, the following points should be noted for successful mediation and resolution of public conflicts. First, consensus building is likely to be difficult when the autonomy and representativeness of the stakeholders is neglected. Second, the impartiality of the mediator is a top priority in the resolution of policy related conflicts. Third, it is important to ensure the impartiality of experts consulted in the mediation process. Fourth, it is advantageous for the negotiation of value conflicts to run parallel with a deliberative consensus-building approach. Lastly, the intervention of third parties like politicians or non-governmental organizations is useful when they take on the role of neutral mediators rather than stakeholders.
  • 2.

    An empirical analysis to the structure of policy conflicts

    Sung-Bok Park | 2012, 23(2) | pp.25~51 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study purports to positively analyze and recover the structure or ideological dimensions of policy conflicts, which can be seen in citizens' policy preferences and inferred preferences by citizens of major political figures and institutions. Here, the structure or ideological dimension is composed of a small amount of dimensions that compress and summarize policy issue conflicts. For this, I recover positively the structure of policy conflicts composed a small amount of ideological dimensions from the multidimensional policy space which is composed of a variety of policy issues, and identify citizens' preferred points and inferred preferences of major political figures and institutions in a simplified space made by the structure. Here, ideology can be understood as merely such political labels as conservatism, reformism, new liberalism, neo-conservatism, etc., or inner predictive dimensions related to policy conflicts. Herein, this study, first, modifies and utilized the models from the perspective of modern spatical theory of voting among the public choice theories to the purpose of this research. Secondly, it positively analyzes and recovers the structure of policy conflicts by the utilization of such modified models. Thirdly, it identifies citizens' preferred ideological points and inferred ideological preferences of major political figures and institutions in a simplified space made by the ideological structure.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Legal Characteristics of the Inner Organizations of National Universities

    Jong Sung Kim | 2012, 23(2) | pp.53~83 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    The inner organizations of national universities are composed of educational units (colleges and graduate schools), administrative units (offices, bureaus and administrative headquarters) and attached organizations. In comparison, generally an administrative agency has subsidiary units,assisting agencies and attached organizations. However, there is no university that observes the extensive criteria of the Decree on the Establishment of National Schools. This study analyzes acts and regulations on the inner organizational units of national universities (Government Organization Act, Decree on the Organization and Staff of Administrative Organs, Decree on the Establishment of National Schools, Regulations on the Establishment and Operations of Universities and Colleges, and school regulations of national universities). The results reveal that educational units,which are actually subsidiary units, are treated as attached organizations. Meanwhile,administrative units, which are actually assisting agencies, are treated as subsidiary units. Moreover, lots of attached organizations are treated as administrative units. This study recommends that colleges and graduate schools should be at the center of national universities. As such, administrative headquarters should be the assisting agency of the president, and attached organizations should be run separately from administrative headquarters. Most of all, the articles concerning the range and function of each organizational unit should be determined in the Decree on the Establishment of National Schools and the Regulations on the Establishment and Operations of Universities and Colleges.
  • 4.

    Administrative Reorganization and its Types: An Empirical Analysis of Government Organizations in Korea, 1948-2010

    Yoon, Joochul | 2012, 23(2) | pp.85~109 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    This study defines several types of administrative reorganization and examines the factors empirically to determine each type by multinomial logit model. In Korea, between 1948 and 2010, a total of 159 central government organizations were established, of which 118 agencies have been reorganized. This study classifies these processes of reorganization into five types; complete abolition, separation, replacement, merger, and absorption. The political-administrative environment and organizational characteristics lead to different types of restructuring in central government. The results of this study reveal that, when the entire number of administrative organizations increases, government agencies tend to be merged rather than absorbed, and reorganization should be expected at the beginning of the presidential term. Following democratization (1988-), reorganization has been more merger-oriented. Meanwhile, in terms of organizational characteristics, organizations that have enjoyed longevity have not usually been separated, and larger organizations tend not to have been absorbed by other agencies. Above all, those organizations which have been reorganized are subsequently more like to be absorbed.
  • 5.

    정부경쟁력 제고를 위한 차기정부 조직개편에 관한 연구

    Im, Tobin | hyunkuklee | 2012, 23(2) | pp.111~139 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to suggest directivity of government reorganization and detail reorganization plan to enhance government competitiveness. First, this study looks over at the purpose, cause, and history of government reorganization, and examines characteristics of erstwhile reorganizations using Crozier’s strategical analysis. The result shows that administrative effectiveness that had been claimed as a logic behind government reorganization was nothing more than a superficial objective. Instead, it is noticeable that reorganizations were result of strategic games in which each main actors(President, bureaucrats, political parties) trying to maximize their own interest. Governmental reorganization in President Lee Myung Bak’s administration in particular is proven to have produced many side effects as a result of President dominated authoritative game. Hence this study tries to suggest rational principles and plans for governmental reorganization before it turns more into political game in the next administration. The reorganization plan suggested is one of preliminary plans seeking for optimal governmental reorganization plan to enhance government competitiveness, and is expected to develop further through reasonable and rational discussions of many scholars.
  • 6.

    학교장의 관리적 행태가 조직성과에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구:‘Does Management Matter?’ 명제에 대한 검증을 중심으로

    Hyejin Kang | 2012, 23(2) | pp.141~168 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    This study analyzes the factors influencing the organizational performance of schools in Korea, using the 'governance model'. In recent years, the importance of managerial factors in the public sector has been emphasized. To examine whether this emphasis is justified, this study analyzes data collected from the Korean Educational Panel Study wave II and III. The results of the analysis demonstrate that school leaders' managerial actions are important influential factors, as are parental factors such as social economic status. Among the managerial actions, networking behavior and managerial stability have positive effects on school performance. These findings suggest that managerial factors are important in the running of schools and indicate that the recent trend of stressing the managerial efforts of principals continues to be relevant.
  • 7.

    공무원 보수체계에 대한 공무원의 인식

    Choi, Soon-Young | 2012, 23(2) | pp.169~194 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    The pay system for government employees features seniority based pay by every grade, reflecting the rank in person system. However, in order to conform to general civil service reforms which seek increased openness and competitiveness as well as job specialty and competency, it is necessary to restructure the current pay system. The main purpose of this study is to investigate government employees' views of public service, and perceptions on directions of civil service reform and the current pay system. Design of the survey questionnaire involved not only a review of the pay related literature, but also expert seminars. Subsequently, government employees from departments and agencies of central government were surveyed. The results reveal that government employees regard public service as worthwhile but acknowledge a need for mobility in order to increase flexibility. In addition, the majority of respondents believe that it is necessary to enhance the expertise of government employees and openness in the civil service. Along with performance based pay, respondents strongly support pay based on the degree of difficulty and responsibility that their duties involve. Moreover, they support the separataion of pay grade increases from rank in person promotion as an alternative to the current pay system. Based on these findings, the study makes suggestions to improve the current pay system for government employees.
  • 8.

    위험사회론과 사회적 위험의 역동성: 사회적 위험의 거시적 연구를 위한 비판적 검토

    Moo-kwon Chung | 2012, 23(2) | pp.195~224 | number of Cited : 20
    Abstract PDF
    Recently, the theories of risk society have emerged as a new perspective to explain social changes to the late modernity, based on the uncertainties and fears of the widespread artificial risks that the first modernization had created. This paper aims at critically exploring the contributions and limitations of those theories of risk society to understand the dynamics of social risks in terms of their causalities and impacts, which have been major research objects in the fields of the welfare state and social policy. For this goal, this paper focuses on the following three issues. First, it discusses with the epistemological and ontological debates on the conceptualizing risks. Second, it critically examines the theoretical and empirical implications that the reflexive modernization and individualization to understand the dynamics of social risks. And third, based on these critical reviews, it suggests the changing roles of the welfare state and new governance issues in the adaptation to the dynamic changes of social risks and their new impacts on society.
  • 9.

    A Post-NPM Era in Social Services? A Comparison of the UK and Korea

    마크윌딩 | 2012, 23(2) | pp.225~248 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    최근 몇 년간 신공공관리의 한계를 극복하기 위한 이론적 혹은 실질적 시도가 이루어지고 있지만, 이에 따른 실질적 변화의 정도에 대한 논의는 아직까지 부족한 상황이다. 다시 말하면, 일부에서는 탈신공공관리라 칭할 만한 근거가 거의 전무하다고 보는 반면, 이미 탈신공공관리 시대가 도래했음을 주장하는 시각도 있다. 또한 탈신공공관리의 원칙으로 국가간 수렴 또한 일정 부분 이루어지고 있다는 입장도 있다. 본 연구는 정부 보고서 및 여러 자료를 활용하여 1990년대 후반 영국 및 한국의 성인 대상 사회복지 서비스에 대한 사례 비교를 통해 이러한 논의에 기여하고자 한다. 특히 통합의 수준, 경쟁 및 서비스 이용자의 수요 충족도, 인센티브 제도의 유형을 중점적으로 비교분석하였다. 분석결과, 양국 모두 탈신공공관리제도를 도입하려는 시도는 있었으나 사회서비스가 탈신공공관리적 성격을 띈다고 보기는 어렵다. 왜냐하면 신공공관리의 지속적 영향과 지금까지 줄곧 이어온 조직관리 방식으로 인한 분리, 경쟁, 인센티브화가 앞으로도 지속될 것으로 예측되기 때문이다. 비록 양국간 차이는 존재하지만 영국 및 한국 사회서비스는 신공공관리적 성격을 지니며, 이는 관리 개혁에 있어서 해당 국가의 현실에 알맞은 형태로 형성되어야 함을 의미한다. 따라서 정부가 탈신공공관리제도를 적극 추진하기 위해서는 공공관리 측면에서의 여러 요소가 상호작용할 수 있는 다양한 방안을 마련해야 할 것이다.
  • 10.

    사회적 기업이 창출하는 가치의 SROI 기법에 의한 측정:경남 지역의 ‘A 간병 기업’ 사례를 중심으로

    김혜란 | 2012, 23(2) | pp.249~278 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract
    Searching for ‘sustainable’ growth, many modern governments turned concerns from the traditional nonprofit organization to SE(social enterprise). SE has been regarded as new attractive alternative for the job creation and social services provision under the economic depression, and, also became one of main programs in social policies of Korea. Despite the increasing resource inputs, there have been limited efforts to quantify and monetize the social values created by SE, which raises controversies on result of gov’t policy. The measurement of values by SE can’t be done appropriately by traditional CBA covering economic analysis. Rather, it requires financial analysis like SROI(social return on investment). SROI covers the whole values going to all interested parties. Using the method of SROI, values created by one case SE were measured. It creates not only tangible but intangible values. So CVM(contingent valuation method) was employed to grasp the intangible. Values measured were classified according to two dimension(owners, visibility): entrepreneur value - social value, and tangible value - intangible value. Almost all the previous measurements omitted the intangible values created by SE, which fails to measure true values creation by SE. The SROI value (2.81~7.22 for tangible values, 4.22~10.85 for intangible values) proves the SE in study is very efficiently working. Sensitivity test shows the result is stable. It turned out that SE created social values far more than entrepreneur values, and intangible values were almost half of the tangible values. It suggests if the gov’t evaluate the effectiveness or efficiency of SE on the basis of B/S(Balance Sheet) and P/L(Profit Loss) documents as up to now has done, it never is valid. The final performance result of SE should be evaluated by SROI context. It’s highly recommended gov’t should change the evaluation criteria for SE. For the expansion of SROI in SE policy evaluation, formation of policy community is necessary.
  • 11.

    An Empirical Study to Explain the effects of Social Capital on Local Government Performance

    장석준 | 2012, 23(2) | pp.279~303 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to explicate the links between social capital and local government performance. The effects of social capital have been subject to fierce debate in previous studies, mainly as a result of the ambiguity of the concept and subjective measurement. As such, this study not only utilizes objective indicators, but also considers three items in the measurement of social capital; reciprocal norms, bonding networks, and bridging networks. In addition, local government performance is composed of policy activism and administrative efficiency. This study uses data from South Korean subnational governments to test the following hypotheses. Firstly, reciprocal norms and bridging networks have a positive effect, and secondly the effects of bonding networks on local government performance are negative. The results verify these hypotheses, and reveal that the relationship between reciprocal norms and local government performance is consistently positive. While bridging networks have a positive effect on local government performance, the effect of bonding networks is negative. The results imply that it is necessary not only to distinguish bonding networks from bridging networks, but also to utilize objective measures to explain the effects of social capital on government performance.
  • 12.

    A Study on the definition and improvement task of local government's self-inspection system

    Oh, Young Kyun | 2012, 23(2) | pp.305~327 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    Recently, The local self-governing inspection system is magnifying the autonomy and independence of the local government legally from the central government. But the real effect is less than that of our expectation. Serious moral hazard events have been often reported continuously by the press etc. It is the resident who must endure final damage of such results. Actually, the self-inspection organization of the local authority takes charge of the role which prevent occurrence of corruption. But there is a basic limitation where the self-inspection organization of the local government implements it mission because of the problem of independence and expert and relationship with BAI(the board of audit and inspection of korea). Therefore in order to overcome above problems, we suggest the redefinition of the local self governing inspection and modification of the public audit law. Finally building the proper relationship between the local self inspection organization and BAI. Especially improving the capacity of the local self inspection organizatio is very important. To add, the reform of the public audit law would be necessary in order to promote the performance of audit system of the local government.
  • 13.

    The Impact of Government Technology Development Assistance Policy on the Innovation of SMEs: Focusing on the Gyeongbuk Region, South Korea

    SangJi Kim | Doh, Soogwan | Kim, Byung-kyu | 2012, 23(2) | pp.329~357 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    This study explores the impact of government technology development assistance policy on the innovation of SMEs in the regional industries of South Korea. We use the technology development assistance fund as a proxy of the Korean government policy for supporting SMEs in regional industries. The innovation of SMEs is measured by technological innovations including the number of patents, utility models, trade mark registrations, new design registrations, as well as annual R&D expenditure. The results from the empirical models, which control for factors that are theorized to affect the innovation of SMEs, indicate that a positive relationship exists between government technology development assistance and patent acquisitions/new design registrations of regional SMEs in the Gyeongbuk region. Network links to universities also have a positive relationship with patent acquisition and new design registrations of regional SMEs. The results of the study imply that government needs to continuously increase investment in R&D for regional SMEs, and that regional SMEs need to establish networks with local universities through industry-university collaboration to promote technology innovation.