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2014, Vol.24, No.4

  • 1.

    A Comprehensive Model-Building of Organizational Evaluation: Appling a Relative Comparison Method between Evaluative Factors

    Min, Jin | 2014, 24(4) | pp.1~28 | number of Cited : 7
    This article is aimed to develop a integrative model for organizational evaluation. To get this objective, comprehensive, systematic approach is adopted in this research. I suggested two evaluative dimensions, one is organizational capability and the other is organizational performance. And I suggested two evaluative areas in organizational capability dimension, one is about basic mission and the other is about organizational management.. Research method was a relative comparison method between evaluative elements. 60 professionals took part in question. The results are: Firstly, organizational performance and mission capability were perceived more important than management capability. Secondly, in a field of mission capability, special mission capability and mission leadership were perceived more important than others. Thirdly, in a field of management capability, management & support capability, managerial leadership, organizational person management capability were perceived more important than others. Fourthly, in a field of organizational performance, goal attainment, performance on the relationship of stake-holder and society, managerial efficiency in order were perceived. Fifthly, although there were some difference between organizational species, it was not significant statistically.
  • 2.

    A Comparative Study of Performance between Public Medical Organizations and Private Medical Centers

    Kim, Soon Eun , Choi Seonmi | 2014, 24(4) | pp.29~52 | number of Cited : 14
    While privatization of public medical centers has been under thoughtful consideration in Korea due to a lack of those profitability, empirical evidence is not sufficient enough to support that privation of medical institutions is supposed to promote profitability. The aim of this study is to analyze differences in medical performance between private medical centers and public medical institutions in an empirical way. Towards this end, on the basis of data of 321 general hospitals during the past five years between 2008 and 2012 empirical analyses with respect to medical performance were conducted in terms of output-input ratio. Indicators for input are the number of beds, doctors and the number of departments while those for output are the number of patients, income and the number of hospitalization. This study shows that the performance of public hospitals is better than that of private hospitals with respect to using facilities in terms of utilizing beds as well as using human resources in terms of utilizing doctors. However, private hospitals are better than public hospitals with respect to the level of income. In addition, performance comparison, controlled by the regional variable between the capital regions and the non-capital regions, turns out to be that there is difference in performance with respect to using facilities in terms of beds. That is, public hospitals in capital regions are better and private hospitals are better in non-capital regions. This result implies that the role of public hospital should be reconsidered in the process of delivering health and medical services.
  • 3.

    A Case Study on the Change Factor of the Military Structure Policy

    Im Wanjae , Oh, Young Kyun | 2014, 24(4) | pp.53~80 | number of Cited : 2
    As research regarding military structural policy has mainly focused on military science or the policy-making process, change factors and decision making processes have been relatively overlooked. The present study therefore offers a comprehensive examination of the policy making processes of the Republic of Korea army in relation to change factors at the institutional-structural-actor level, defined by system changes under historical institutionalism. The predominant change factor to influence the decision making process of military structure policy since the founding of the Korean armed forces is the army command structure, which has meant that the opportunity factors as well as motivation factors for policy change pass through the three governmental cabinet. In addition, reduction of the US armed forces in Korea, based on US military strategy, means that change in the security structure of the Korean peninsular is a realistic expectation, as is a re-evaluation of the Korean armed forces structure. The army focus of the Ministry of National Defense, along with the formal and informal influence of actors, also directly impacts upon the political decision making process, but without regard to political direction. The conclusion suggests that Korean military structure policy can be described as a periodical-sociological output influenced by the institutional limits and opportunity factors of the existing policy, external-internal security structure and domestic political structure, and formal and informal initiative actors. In order to put in place a proper decision making process for military structural policy, systematic measures, based on further analysis of change factors, are required.
  • 4.

    A Challenge for Making Public Administration a Social Science?: Time Study

    Im, Tobin , Jeong Jisu | 2014, 24(4) | pp.81~108 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    What is the best way to theorize researches of public administration, a study of enhancing government competitiveness? Public administration researches should go along with solid theories from a science point of view. In Korea, lacking of theoretical foundation on public sector researches, public administration is in the identity crisis. This study shed light on the possibility of upgrading Korean public administration to a normal social science in terms of T. Kuhn’s framework. Specifically, this paper mainly focus on the contribution of time study. Firstly, it will discuss about how time study can be regarded as a social science and analyze trends of time study researches since 2002. Four categories of classification will be explored; policy and policy procedure, organization and bureaucracy, administration environment and institution, public administration and society. Then, this paper will try to find contributions and implications, also indicate the future directions of time study.
  • 5.

    Public Officials’ Trust in Other Agencies and Citizens: The Role of Communication in Local Government in South Korea

    Park, Jungho , Se Yeong Cha , Im, Tobin | 2014, 24(4) | pp.109~131 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    As the concept of trust becomes a full-fledged theme in various social sciences, confusion regarding its definitions, dimensions, and usages has also surged. Despite the increasing attention paid to the importance of trust in public organizations for effective public-service delivery in the context of complex interplay of multiple agencies, relatively little attention has been paid to the conceptual components and antecedents of trust at the level of the public official. Bearing this point in mind, this research begins from a question about how public officials’ interactions with citizens and other agencies affect the level of trust at the individual level. Specifically, this research primarily aims to examine the effects of public officials’ communication with various types of actors and organizations on trust. For this purpose, this study employs ordinary least squares and random effect models in order to control unobserved effects resulting from the characteristics of 213 different offices at the local government level. The analysis indicates that the more opportunities that public officials have to communicate with citizens and other agencies, the more they are able to build trust. Specifically, enhanced communication, both between the various layers of government agencies, and between government and citizens tends to play a positive role in building trust among parties. The findings therefore have practical implications for the building of constructive interactions between central and local government and between local governments. Moreover, public officials’ interactions with citizens, as an antecedent of trust, can affect public officials’ general attitudes toward citizen participation in various areas of public administration based on mutual trust.
  • 6.

    An Analysis of the Perception Type of Improvement Policy for Contingent Workers in Seoul Metropolitan City: Focused on Q Methodology

    Jonghwan Eun , Lee, Jae-Wan , Jung, Kwangho and 1 other persons | 2014, 24(4) | pp.133~160 | number of Cited : 7
    The purpose of this study is to analyze perceptions of the policy for improving the treatment of contingent workers in Seoul metropolitan city. A policy for contingent workers was introduced in the capital in 2012, and the core provisions relate to their welfare, along with mechanisms to upgrade their status from irregular (indirect-hired) to regular (direct-hired) workers. However, several issues have arisen in the process: implications for the retirement system, policy cost, and the spread of policy. This study uses Q-methodology in order to analyze stakeholder perceptions. The Q-sample was based on a review of related academic literature and newspapers, as well as interviews, while the P-sample consisted of public servants, public firm employees, contingent workers, and experts. Analysis of the results reveals five categories of perceptions towards the policy: (1) policy-supporting, (2) policy-distrust, (3) society-distrust, (4) market-supporting, (5) worker-supporting. Types 2 and 4 are primarily concerned with efficiency, while on the other hand, types 3 and 5 seek fairness. Types 4 and 5 can be understood as representing more extreme positions. The highest degree of correlation was found between the (1) policy-supporting and (3) society-distrust types (0.3714), and the explanatory power of the analysis was 67 percent. The implications of the analysis are that the improvement policy for contingent workers in Seoul needs to achieve a balance between efficiency and fairness, the policy design needs to include mechanisms for the representation of various stakeholder perceptions, and that the introduction of a participation system will lead to a more successful policy result.
  • 7.

    An Analysis of Public Participation in South Korea: Degree and Contents in Policy-making Process

    JEONG, JEONG HWA , Eun Jaeho , Nam Jae-Geol | 2014, 24(4) | pp.161~185 | number of Cited : 18
    This research is an empirical study aimed at shedding light on the degree and contents of public participation currently in South Korea. In total, 631 cases of public participation are analyzed from 179 public institutions (38 central governments, 13 upper-level local governments, and 128 lower-level local governments). Empirical analysis of the cases reveals significant findings: Firstly, gaps between officers' cognition and the actual participation of citizens are commonly found in all three types of institution. Secondly, there are differences in the degree of public participation amongst the various institutions. Lastly, there are differences in the contents of citizen participation between central and local governments, but more similarities when the analysis is limited to local government institutions. Some policy implications can be drawn out from the findings. Firstly, there is a need for continuous efforts to change the cognition of public officials in regard to citizen participation: from a bureaucratic to a citizen oriented outlook. Secondly, each institution should design its participation policy to reflect not only its own identity but also the characteristics of target citizens and the policy environment. Thirdly, categorizing citizen participation primarily according to contents (i.e., the type of contribution to the public sector) may be useful to public officials.
  • 8.

    A Study on the Publicness Crisis of the Social Service Delivery System: Focused on the Legitimacy Crisis

    Kim Junhyun | 2014, 24(4) | pp.187~208 | number of Cited : 22
    This paper draws upon Habermas’ work on the legitimacy crisis of the modern welfare state and discursive democracy to suggest solutions to the publicness crisis of the social service delivery system. Following the financial crisis in 1997, Korean government has attempted to enlarge a range of social security programs, and introduced the neo-liberal market system to public administration and policy implementation. Subsequently, there has been controversy regarding the crisis of publicness, particularly in the social services and related delivery systems. Yet, the debate has not produced consensus about the meaning of publicness, which values the concept includes, nor policy alternatives as solutions to the crisis. This study suggests that Habermas’ writings on the crisis of legitimacy in the welfare state and discursive democracy can be used for guidance. In particular, Habermas’ work on legitimacy can aid the analysis of current Korean publicness issues from a broader perspective, which can help to find the causes and the nature of the crisis, while his theory of democracy offers an alternative way to solve the crisis of the Korean social service system.
  • 9.

    Public Opinion and Presidential Responsiveness: Focusing on the First Year of President Park Geun-hye

    Shin, Hyunki | 2014, 24(4) | pp.209~232 | number of Cited : 3
    The aim of this study is to examine the extent that the presidential agendas were congruent with the agendas of public opinion during the first year of president Park Geun-hye, considering the presidential responsiveness is the key issue for evaluating the representative system and state management of presidents. The agendas of public opinion were measured by using data set of survey question on ‘presidential priorities people think’, which was published monthly by Gallup Korea. And the presidential agendas were measured by analyzing president Park’s remarks at a regular cabinet meeting and a meeting of senior secretaries. It was found that the priorities of presidential agendas didn’t correlate with that of public opinion’s agendas. In addition, only in two of eight policy areas, that is, policy areas such as ‘politics’ and ‘inter-Korean relations’, attention congruence between the president and public opinion was found. In special, the probability of agenda congruence between the president and public opinion could be calculated as 16%, according to formula which Jones and Baumgartner had developed. These findings might suggest that it looked like president Park had rarely responded to public opinion during her first year. Meanwhile, there was possibility that the presidential responsiveness to public opinion would be under a bias toward a few specific groups, but such a result was not found.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Reform of Multi-level Regulation between the Central and Local Government: Focusing on the Regulation of Historic-Cultural Protection Zone

    Seo Jae ho | 2014, 24(4) | pp.233~259 | number of Cited : 5
    This study examines the problems of multi-level regulation between central and local government, which impacts on the lives of citizens, through a case study of the regulation of historic-cultural protection zones of regional government. Four problems relating to multi-level regulation and its reform are identified. First, there were serious problems concerning equity of regulation between different local governments. Second, the systems of regulatory reform between central and local government were not connected in a consistent manner. Third, the current regulation enrollment system did not manage multi-level regulation effectively. Fourth, the regulatory reform system did not reflect the need for changes at the level of local government. To respond to these problems, this study offers five policy recommendations: The development of standardized regulation criteria for cases when central government delegates the right to enact law to local government; the addition of multi-level regulation traits to the enrollment system; the consistency of central and local law must be ensured; support for organizational structures in the reform of multi-level regulations should be maintained; the organization and functions of the reform committee of local government should be strengthened.
  • 11.

    A Diffusion of Social Media and the Change of Policy Governance

    Seong Nam Kang | 2014, 24(4) | pp.261~287 | number of Cited : 4
    This paper investigates changes in policy governance arising from the proliferation of social media. The advent and diffusion of social media, along with its unique characteristics, has resulted in a changed policy environment. In turn, the transformation of the policy environment impacts upon policy governance. This study aims to describe the theoretical meanings, both of the change in policy environment with the spread of social media, and of the transformation of conventional policy governance. The relations between the attributes of social media and changes to the policy environment are described. Subsequently, a cognitive framework is detailed and applied to real cases to describe the logical structure in the series connection of the spread of social media, the change of policy environment, and policy governance. The conclusion emphasizes that conventional theoretical models and frameworks for analyzing the policy process require further examination and remedies for their theoretical shortcomings.
  • 12.

    A Review of Disciplinary Consilience in Policy Studies: An Example of Ecological Perspective in Policy Studies

    Hyunjoo Chang | 2014, 24(4) | pp.289~312 | number of Cited : 1
    This study explores the applicability of an ecological perspective to extend debates of consilience in policy studies and to transcend their current limits. With an ecological perspective, policy studies could provide new insights for explanation of government roles relating to resource provision, building policy environments, and public or private organizations responsible for providing services. For example, an analysis of social enterprise ecology reveals that we need to extend niche activity in regions with competitive exclusion through development of new services and resources, expansion of public-private collaboration, and public procurement. The analysis also implies that more collaboration and resource sharing among social enterprises is required in regions with competitive displacement, through building community clusters with similar resources. Despite logical and methodological limitations, an ecological perspective could revitalize debates about consilience in policy studies. More specifically, attempting to better understand the possibilities of consilience with natural sciences as well as other social sciences may help to overcome the instrumental rationality of policy studies and expand the boundaries outward.
  • 13.

    An Application of Fuzzy Set Theory to Policy Evaluation: The Case of Anti-corruption Policy

    Kim, Min Ju | 2014, 24(4) | pp.313~338 | number of Cited : 3
    Policy evaluation is one of the areas to which fuzzy set theory has not yet been applied extensively. However, application of fuzzy-set theory in the policy evaluation field reveals useful implications in terms of configurational thinking of the policy mechanism. This is due to the use of truth values between 0.0 and 1.0 to represent the degree of membership, along with the analysis of multiple conjunctural causal relation of factors. In particular, fuzzy-set/qualitative comparative analysis based on the theoretical and substantive knowledge of the evaluator or researcher is appropriate to assess government policies and programs. In this paper, the anti-corruption programs of 39 government agencies are analyzed. As such, this study not only discusses a fuzzy-set theory, but also actually applies a fuzzy-set model to the evaluation of anti-corruption policies and programs. The results suggest that fuzzy set theory can be used as a complementary method of policy evaluation.
  • 14.

    Promoting Financial Program Assessment System: The Case of International Migration Cooperation Program

    Jeon, Joo Sang , MUNSEOK CHO | 2014, 24(4) | pp.339~366 | number of Cited : 2
    This study diagnoses areas for improvement in the financial program assessment system and suggests plans for the promotion of the “International Migration Cooperation Program.” Particular attention is given to the problems that the “one size fits all” assessment tool has in reflecting specific characteristics of each financial program. Using a logic model, the performance structure of the “International Migration Cooperation Program” is analyzed as a double-looped learning system. The results and suggestions are as follows: First, environmental factors and interest groups should be considered in the goal-setting stages. Second, the logical relations between the factors that contribute to goal attainment should be provided in performance plans. Third, some performance indicators are outputs rather than outcomes. As such, it is necessary to develop outcome-oriented indicators, which includes improving existing output measures.
  • 15.

    Policy Tasks for Constructing the Link System between the Case Management of Community Mental Health Centers and the Total Care Service for Persons with Mental Illnesses: Focused on the System of Financial Management

    Lee Yong Pyo | 2014, 24(4) | pp.367~386 | number of Cited : 7
    The aim of this study is to draw out policy tasks for constructing a system to link the case management of community mental health centers with the total care service for people with mental illnesses, so as to increase efficiency in the use of public resources. The inefficiency of the Korean mental health system can be demonstrated by the average length of stay of psychiatric inpatients. In order to analyze this problem, the outcomes of community mental health centers are reviewed, with a focus on financial management systems. This study makes the following recommendations: First, the broker model of case management should be applied. Second, outcome management, focusing on medicaid finance for mentally ill inpatients should be introduced. Third, the cost of the total care service for mentally ill persons should be paid by medicaid finance.
  • 16.

    A Study on Risk Regulatory Governance: Focusing on the Food Safety Sector

    Lee Hye Young | 2014, 24(4) | pp.387~409 | number of Cited : 10
    The purpose of this study is to explore the approach of risk regulatory governance and to apply the approach to the food safety sector. The existing studies about risk policies have focused on partial aspects of risk management, so the perspective of risk regulatory governance is required for a more systematic and holistic approach. The analytical components of risk regulatory governance include hierarchical and horizontal structure, and public-private partnership at a structural level. They also include science-based decision, transparency, participation, consultation and communication at the level of process, and RIA and regulatory strategy at the level of output. The advantage of this perspective is that we can examine more comprehensively the structure and process where risk policy is made as well as the policy itself. And thereby we could consider science of regulation, procedural rationality, and the efficiency of regulatory enforcement at the same time. When applied to the food safety sector, risk regulatory governance approach illuminate distinctive characters of the sector: strengthening of risk-based management, institutionalization of stakeholder participation, progress of international multi-level governance, improvement of efficiency through management-based regulations. In addition, several policy recommendations are suggested in regard to Korea’s food safety management system: using risk analysis in regulatory decision making, improving transparency and participation, harmonizing precautious policies and efficiency of the implementation.
  • 17.

    Exploring an Alternative Approach to the Global Development: Theoretical Foundation and Policy Implications of Happiness Approach in the Context of Global Development

    WOO CHANGBIN | 2014, 24(4) | pp.411~434 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to explore the happiness approach as an alternative path to global development. The theoretical foundations of the happiness approach in the context of global development are analyzed, through comparison with other theoretical approaches to global development, including those of Rawls and Sen. Practical policy implications relating to the application of the happiness approach are also discussed. While the approaches of Rawls and Sen can be said to belong to the deontological dimension of ethics, the happiness approach qualifies as a teleological theory of ethics, referring to the good life. As good development requires the ethical qualities of both the ‘right’ and the ‘good’, (i.e., deontological and teleological contents), the acceptance of the newly emerging happiness approach in global development debates might contribute to achieving ‘better’ development in the sense that the teleological aspects of the happiness approach may complement the capabilities approach and provide more opportunities for the good life.