This study is based upon a meta-analysis of Korean policy implementation cases, in order to overcome a limitation of existing policy implementation studies: A focus on single case studies. The purpose of this study is to explore theory building possibilities for implementation research, and to investigate factors and characteristics which influenced policy implementation. A total of 55 articles, published in Korea from 1990 to 2015, were selected. Based on the theoretical and case surveys, 47 detailed factors are identified that can influence the policy implementation process.
The analysis results are as follows: First, key high frequency factors are policy clarity, policy consistency, bureaucratic expertise, capacity and leadership, executive resources such as budget, collaboration among organizations, target group behavior and interest, and environmental support. Second, there were relative differences among significant variables according to policy type or level of government. Based on these results, policy consistency, collaboration among organizations, and target group characteristics need to be explored further in future implementation studies. Lastly, this study has important implications concerning the considerations of policy practitioners at the early-design stage in order to increase policy feasibility.