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2016, Vol.26, No.4

  • 1.

    The Impacts of the Ethical Management System on Managerial Performance of Public Bodies in Korea

    Park, Sauk-Hee , Lee Sun Young | 2016, 26(4) | pp.1~26 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    Conceptualizing ethical management from both the wide-active and narrow-passive perspectives, this study examines the ethical management system and its impacts on the managerial performance of public bodies in Korea. Ethical management of public bodies has been narrowly viewed from a passive perspective (e.g., legislation for anti-corruption, compliance with the Acts, and revision of corporate governance). According to the literature, however, it can be defined as a broader concept from the view of corporate social responsibility and accountability. In this context, the present study explores the influence of ethical management on organizational and financial performance using annual performance evaluation data from government for 30 public corporations and 37 quasi-governmental agencies for the years 2011-2013. Based on the results, theoretical and policy implications for the ethical management of public bodies are discussed.
  • 2.

    Centralized Competition or Decentralized Cooperation?:A Study on Accountability in Governance of Public Employment Services

    Chang-Won Lee , MUNSEOK CHO | 2016, 26(4) | pp.27~52 | number of Cited : 1
    This research explores the types of governance to improve accountability in Korean public employment services(PES). There has been increasing pressure to restructure PES governance with the expansion of service participants including central ministries, local governments, and private agencies after the diffusion of new public management paradigm. We discussed four possible types of PES governance―centralized, cooperative, decentralized, market-oriented, and analyzed the PES service provision structure. The present Korean PES governance is the by-product of both ILO recommendation in 1920s and expanding participation of private employment services in accordance with the diffusion of decentralization and market-oriented managerialism. As a result, we suggest that it is required to change the mode of PES governance from monopolized centralization to centralized competition or decentralized cooperation.
  • 3.

    Empirical Analyses of Pro-Environmental Behavior: Focus on Interplay between Internal Resources and Trust

    김민경 , SEONGGIN MOON | 2016, 26(4) | pp.53~79 | number of Cited : 6
    This research examines the determinants of an individual’s proactive environmental behavior through a theoretical lens of resource mobilization, including consumption restraints, green consumption, willingness to pay for environmental costs, and environmental activism. Particularly, it focuses on the roles of internal resources that individuals can possess and external resources (i.e., trust) that they can garner from and accumulate through continuous interaction with others. Also, this research evaluates interactive relationships between internal resources and external resource such as trust. Using the 2012 Korean Environmental Survey, we construct a structural equation model. The empirical results show that internal resources such as education and income levels are effective to triggering individuals’ environmental behavior. Also, our results confirm interaction effects between internal resources and trust, meaning that trust can amplify the effects of internal resources on facilitating environmental behavior. This result suggests that different levels of internal resources by individuals can be overcome by trust accumulated through social and relational networks. Finally, this study implies that it is important for government to play a active role in establishing and promoting social trust through policy and institutional mechanisms suitable to different policy time dimensions.
  • 4.

    A Study of the Effects on Organizational Silence by Perception of Politics in a Public Organization-Focused on Self-efficacy Moderator Effect

    Dae-Yoo Go , Doyoon Kim | 2016, 26(4) | pp.81~109 | number of Cited : 32
    This study aims to find out the effects of the organizational silence on organizational politics perception with moderating effect of Self-efficacy through a survey that includes 379 workers at correctional organizations in South Korea. Three main findings as in the following. First, there are positive correlations between Organizational politics perception and acquiescent/defensive silence. Second, there are negative correlations between Self-efficacy and the acquiescent/defensive silence. Third, the relationship between Organizational politics perception and the acquiescent/ defensive silence has negative moderator effect by self-efficacy. This study provides three main implications. First, public organizations need to minimize political influence on organizational process or reward in order to prevent employees’ silent attitude. Second, several solutions to enhance employees’ self-efficacy are required. Third, this study has significance in that it verifies the causes of organizational silence and its specific path, which has been not yet studied in public sector in South Korea.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Improvements of the Administrative Management Capacity Evaluation Indicators

    Kwanghee Lee , Lee, Seog-Min | 2016, 26(4) | pp.111~136 | number of Cited : 0
    The purpose of this study is to suggest the improvements of the administrative managements capacity evaluation indicators. The data for this study were collected from literature materials, in-depth interviews and surveys of public servants, and Delphi surveys of experts panel. As a result, this study found that experts stressed the leadership and strategic planning and public servants showed positive response on the improvements of evaluation indicators. This study suggests the indicators development of leadership and strategic planning and also the amendments of organization, personnel, and information indicators.
  • 6.

    A Study on Koreans’ Welfare Attitude Type Using the Latent Class Analysis

    Park Mi Kyung , CHO, MIN HYO | 2016, 26(4) | pp.137~164 | number of Cited : 16
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to explore Koreans’ welfare attitude types and further analyze the characteristics of each type of welfare attitude. Latent Class Analysis is used on a recently collected nationally representative sample of Korean adult residents in order to categorize attitudes towards welfare provision based on cognitive, affective, and behavioral components. The results reveal three distinct welfare attitude types: the selective complex centered cluster (16%), the selective government centered cluster (54%), and the universal government centered cluster (30%). Policy implications of this study are discussed based on the results.
  • 7.

    Emission Trading System as Market-based Regulatory Alternative

    김신 , Choi Jinsik | 2016, 26(4) | pp.165~194 | number of Cited : 1
    The purpose of this study is to address the determinants of applying market-based regulation as a regulatory alternative in the field of social regulation. This study compares the emission trading systems of the EU, US and Korea in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, equity and fairness. The results of the analysis are as follows. First, to enhance the effectiveness of market-based regulations, the purpose and monitoring processes should be stipulated in law, rather than public announcements. Second, the efficiency of market-based regulation can be improved by selecting the optimum level for national caps and by adopting multi-year compliance periods and auctions. Third, the equity and fairness of market-based regulation can be addressed by sharing information associated with emission trading on the basis of government 3.0.
  • 8.

    An Analysis on the Effect of Government Supports for the R&D of SMEs: Focused on Technical, Economic, and Social Outcomes

    Hyunjoo Chang | 2016, 26(4) | pp.195~218 | number of Cited : 36
    This study aims to expand the debate on the effects of government support for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and analyze technical outcomes of the creativity and marketability of newly developed technologies, the social outcomes of employment changes, and the economic outcomes of government support for the research and development (R&D) of SMEs. The technical, economic (with a focus on growth and profitability), and social outcomes of SMEs which have gained multiple benefits from government are found to be more effective than the outcomes of SMEs which have gained a one-shot benefit. Also, government support was found to positively affect the technical and economic outcomes of the number of patent registrations, and the growth of business and employment, but not profitability. Furthermore, while government support and technical outcomes, as well as the economic outcome of growth significantly affected the employment growth of SMEs, another economic outcome, profitability, did not affect such a social outcome. The results imply that a virtuous cycle has begun to appear in the form of ‘introduction of production equipment - expansion of plant and facilities - increase in patent application and registration - expansion of scale of business - employment growth’. However, government support has not yet been able to improve the profitability of SMEs.
  • 9.

    Exploring Reasons for Illegal Use of Software: An Application of Q-Methodology

    Kim, Chan-woo , Jung, Kwangho | 2016, 26(4) | pp.219~244 | number of Cited : 1
    The purpose of this study is to analyze perceptions of illegal software use by using Q methodology. Based on previous studies on software piracy and interviews, 32 Q statements were developed and Q sorts were collected from 30 respondents, including public officials, employees from multiple software companies, students, professors, researchers and the public. The results illustrate that there are four different Q factors, namely positive utility focused type, enforcement of punishment type, negative utility focused type, and norm type. Despite different perceptions of software piracy, all respondents admitted that the use of illegal software is not only against the law but also unjust. However, a theme that emerged was that the illegal use of software is attributable to socio-structural factors. Consequently, consistent policies devised from a structural approach seem necessary in order to reduce the use of pirated software.
  • 10.

    A Evaluative Study of Social Welfare Informatization Program in Korea, Focusing on the ‘Haengbok-eUm’

    Yoon-Shik Lee , Seo, Young-Bin , 전지현 | 2016, 26(4) | pp.245~264 | number of Cited : 3
    This study aims to draw out the implications of improving social welfare information systems and social welfare informatization areas by evaluating ‘Haengbok-eUm’, which is the information system of local governments. To this end, evaluative criteria have been formulated through the analysis of ‘Haengbok-eUm’ program goals, such as increased precision in the selection of welfare recipients, offering individual customized service, and identifying blind spots in the social welfare system. These evaluative criteria, which help to enhance accuracy and validity in the measurement of program effects are then used to analyze the empirical data. The results show that precision of recipient selection has increased, but that individual customized service has not been offered, and that there has been only limited success in identifying blind spots in the social welfare system. These findings demonstrate that the goals of the ‘Haengbok-eUm’ informatization program have not been completely achieved. While it is clear that welfare informatization including integration of social welfare information is needed to offer better services, tools for developing individual customized service are also required, and most importantly, more efforts must be made to discover blind spots in the social welfare system, such as the holes in the social service system. This study is one of the first pieces of research based upon empirical data to attempt an objective and valid assessment of the ‘Haengbok-eUm’ program by using an evaluative design. It is suggested that multi-year analysis of program effects offers a more precise approach which can remedy the shortcomings of the one-time point before and after design.
  • 11.

    Empirical Research on the Public Service Value of Government Employee: Focusing on the Employment Period

    leesunwoo , Kyunghoon Cho | 2016, 26(4) | pp.265~286 | number of Cited : 27
    Public service values is very broad and complex concept. Public service value is the quality of the civil service to be retained. Public service value seems to vary depending on the definition, emphasizing that hold many values throughout. The purpose of this study is to identify empirically the service value of public officials that are recognized today and that reveal the relationship between the influencing factors for the purpose of impact. The results confirmed that officials were aware of the accountability and innovation, organizational commitment as a major factor of public service value. The influence factors on public value was constructed motivation, leadership, conflict management, job satisfaction. Depending on the service period, differences in perception between new employees and existing employees were identified. Although for the recognition of the public value is a big difference between the two groups was not confirmed, but consistently it has been found that the new employees recognize innovative value higher. Conversely, job satisfaction, conflict management and leadership factor was recognized in the existing staff more highly, however motivational factors has been shown to recognized in new employees higher. Results of Structural equation analysis to determine the factors that affect the public service value showed that motivation, leadership, conflict management directly affect the public service value. Meanwhile, the leadership has been found to have a negative effect on innovation and organizational commitment. On the one hand, through intergroup difference analysis on the structural model has been found new employees were tend to be more sensitive.
  • 12.

    The Leadership of a High-level Bureaucrat in the Heavy and Chemical Industrial Policy in the Era of Economic Growth in Korea

    김준형 , Eom, Seok-Jin | 2016, 26(4) | pp.287~310 | number of Cited : 5
    In this study, the authors analyze the leadership which Former Senior Secretary to the President for Economic Policy Won-Chul O showed during the industrialization process of Korea, based on governance theories as the point where he showed leadership and power resources theories as the means for him to show leadership. According to the research findings, Won-Chul O showed his leadership by exerting both hard and soft power in relationship with state and non-state actors in order to solve numerous pubic problems arising during the industrialization process. In particular, his leadership had a positive influence on successful implementation of the initially planned policies by inducing change in ideas and behaviors of the other parties in most cases, thereby contributing to solving or alleviating the public problems associated with industrialization. Particularly, Won-Chul O showed bottom-up and active leadership, rather than top-down and passive leadership, by playing a role of the problem solver providing both accurate cause analysis and creative policy ideas and of the mediator encompassing state and non-state actors in enforcing policies.
  • 13.

    A Study on the Relative Effectiveness of Citizen Participation in Urban Policy Decision: Urban Structure, Political System, and Citizen Participation in Florida

    유동상 , JEONG BIN YIM | 2016, 26(4) | pp.311~330 | number of Cited : 11
    The purpose of this study is to analyze methods and levels of citizen participation in urban development decision making by policy stages. Based on the analysis, we tried to find the relationships between citizen participation and urban political and cultural characteristics with the relative effectiveness of citizen participation. Analysis of cities in Florida provided several policy implications. First, city governments' efforts to promote citizen participation in urban policy decision making should be understood in the relationship with urban environment. Second, methods and levels of citizen participation can be determined by the will and perception of urban politicians such as local government heads and legislators. In addition, whether urban governments apply traditional or non-traditional methods of citizen participation is different depending on the policy stages. It should be also understood in the relationship with urban political and institutional structure. Finally, the effectiveness of citizen participation cannot be evaluated based on absolute scale since it is different depending on the urban environment.
  • 14.

    Perceived Family Caregivers Stress who Take Care of Community Dwelling Elderly

    LEE, HWAN-BEOM , Paik sun ah , 김태희 | 2016, 26(4) | pp.331~354 | number of Cited : 1
    The purpose of this study was to explain perceived family caregivers stress those who take care of community dwelling elderly with currently experiencing general aging process. Data was collected by 625 participants with help of nationwide non-profit organization. Overall, primary women caregivers present higher stress when they became caregivers than noticed general aging process of elderly. When all primary caregivers, both men and women, provide three different types of support, they perceive higher stress in the order of functional(6.5358, p<.01), emotional (5.493, p<.001), and financial(1.944, p<.001) support. Among those primary caregivers, primary women caregivers present higher stress when provide all three types of support compare to primary men caregivers. The regression analysis model used to determine degree of caregivers stress to both categories; recognizing general aging process of elderly and becoming caregivers. When general aging process of elderly was recognized by primary caregivers, they perceived stress to provide emotional(β=.458), and functional(β=.161) support. In the situation of becoming caregivers, women caregivers perceived significant level of stress to provide all types of support; emotional(β=.377), functional(β=.217), and financial(β=.123).
  • 15.

    Linking Goal-Directedness, Leader Support, and Employee Outcomes: Evidence from U.S. Federal Agencies

    Jinwoo Jeong , Jieun Son , 이지한 | 2016, 26(4) | pp.355~377 | number of Cited : 0
    This study examines how public employees’ perceptions about goal-directedness in the workplace impact their perceived leader support and attitudinal outcomes (i.e., job satisfaction and turnover intention). Specifically, this study focuses on public employees’ perceived leader support as a mediator in understanding the relationship between goal-directedness and employee outcomes. This study empirically found that goal-directedness plays an important role in enhancing public employees’ perceived leader support and in their behavioral outcomes. More importantly, findings show that public employees’ perceived leader support mediated the relationship between goal-directedness and their behavioral outcomes such as job satisfaction and turnover intention. The findings of this research provide new insights about underlying processes in understanding the relationship between goal-directedness and employees’ work attitudes and behavioral outcomes.
  • 16.

    Risk Society and Bureaucratic Responsibility: A Comparative Analysis between Sewol Ferry Disaster and MERS-CoV

    Kim, Byong Seob , Kim, Jungin | 2016, 26(4) | pp.379~407 | number of Cited : 30
    Using two risk cases(Sewol ferry disaster & MERS-CoV), this research examined types of risk based on two criteria: risk target groups and risk uncertainty & unpredictability. As a result, Sewol ferry disaster had both specific target groups and predictable risk, but MERS-CoV had both unspecific target groups and unpredicable risk. Accordingly, we need to prevent risk based on each risk characteristic and the differences in risk problems. In addition, government, in particular, bureaucrats should take responsibilities to protect risk. Moreover, they should prevent risk according to its characteristics instead of protecting uniformly it.
  • 17.

    Impact of Personal Income Tax on Income Inequality: With a Focus on OECD Countries

    유지연 , KIM, SANGHEON , Heontae Shin | 2016, 26(4) | pp.409~426 | number of Cited : 1
    Income polarization tends to have deepened around the world. Traditionally, the redistributive function of tax policy has been regarded as one of the main features of tax policies to mitigate income inequality. However, according to previous studies, as a result of analyzing the determinants of income inequality targeting developing countries, it shows that tax policy does not carry out an effective redistributive function, and income redistribution effect is also weak in Korea. Considering economic・policy・labor-sociological factors, this paper tries to analyze the redistributive effect of personal income tax focusing on OECD countries by using system GMM. The finding is that the personal income tax has a significant and positive effect on Gini coefficient, meaning that tax policy focused on personal income tax does not perform any income redistributive function. Finally, this paper suggests policy implications.
  • 18.

    The Problems and Alternatives of Official Development Assistence through Governance Approach by Analyzing Audit Cases of the Board of Audit and Inspection of Korea

    Kim, Seong Yeun | 2016, 26(4) | pp.427~452 | number of Cited : 6
    The purpose of this study is to improve problems of Official Development Assistence(ODA) caused from audit with governance approach. To improve the problem, this study establishes the principle of governance implementation through meta-analysis and classifies total 102 problems of ODA into 9 types by analyzing three audit cases of the Board of Audit and Inspection of Korea. This study suggests alternatives and policy implications applying governance practical strategies on the 9 type problems. As a result, first, this study suggests the minimization of discretion of the person in charge and the release of information on manual creation and education for transparency in ODA. Second, the qualitative improvement of management systems is needed to improve the responsibility of ODA. Third, this study suggests to establishment a control tower for encouraging participation and cooperation of government departments. Fourth, the effective utilization of the ODA(Official Development Assistance) information center(www.oda.go.kr) is needed for improving the effectiveness of ODA. Finally, the principle of humanitarian approach should be considered for equity of ODA.