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2017, Vol.27, No.4

  • 1.

    A Study on the Philosophical Logics of the Methodology for the Complex System

    Seong Nam Kang | 2017, 27(4) | pp.1~30 | number of Cited : 7
    This study explores the logic and philosophical context of research methodology for complex system. This paper discusses the epistemology of simple paradigm and complexity paradigm as a starting point. I look at the core concepts of complex systems in order to understand the complex system paradigm. The implication of the philosophical logic of complex systems is presented. The mechanistic thought system strengthened Newton’s paradigm to understand the world by the laws of motion that move the trajectory set according to the causality inherent in the object. The ontology, epistemology, and methodology that make up the new world view are the elements that support complex ideas based on organicism. The emergence of interactions between elements in a system of many components is a key characteristic of complex systems. The pathology of knowledge by simple paradigm , which emphasized the principle of separation, reduction, and abstraction, relying on the conventional mechanical and reductionist thought system, has produced a serious side effect. They failed to properly understand the phenomena and events, human context and totality, multi-dimensionality and complexity, and the chance of intervening in the phenomenon. In this paper, I examine the philosophical logic of methodology as well as epistemology to deepen understanding of complexity. Along with the origin of the organic reason, I am also identifying the possibility of generalization of knowledge on complexity and the problem of context-dependent knowledge. Complexity thinking is based on the perception that knowledge arises in relation to the environment. Therefore, complexity thinking focuses attention on interactivity and interpretation of results. Organicistic thinking suggests a certain point of view and analysis framework for knowledge formation on complexity.
  • 2.

    Evaluating the Effectiveness of Increasing Tobacco Taxes

    김영직 , 정기덕 , CHO, MIN HYO | 2017, 27(4) | pp.31~52 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to evaluate that increasing tobacco taxes implemented in Korea in 2015 had impact on smoking and to further infer whether taxes are regressive or not from the analyses conducted separately in terms of income. Using data from the Korea Welfare Panel(2014-2015), this study divided 2,455 smokers into three groups by their disposable income. Results indicated that increasing tobacco taxes reduced 3.601 cigarettes a day for whole smokers and 3.284, 3.335, 4.225 cigarettes for each high-, middle-, low-income group. It showed that increasing tobacco taxes has positive effect on the decrease in smoking but it could be overestimated considering the amount of smoking had decreased every year. Findings also suggest that the amount of smoking decreased among three groups is not significantly different, about only 1 cigarette, even though each high- and middle-income group has nearly 3 times and 6 times more income than low-income group. We deduced that cigarette taxes placed a large net burden on the poor and were regressive. Further discussion on policy implications and limitations is provided.
  • 3.

    A Study for Assessment and Rating Instrument of Children’s Education and Care

    Kim Junhyun | 2017, 27(4) | pp.53~79 | number of Cited : 4
    The purpose of this study is to suggest some policy alternatives that are necessary for the evaluation and certification system to be an effective policy instrument. To this end, the daycare center certification assessment method and result disclosure method are summarized, and the results of the focused group interview(FGI) are presented. We also looked at Australian cases and searched for alternatives to improve the problems revealed through FGI. According to these interviews and reviews, we recommend to maintain the current averaging method in the rating system, and to expand the essential indicators/area and raise the baseline scores. In addition to the certification, we recommend an ‘excellent' grade has been established in the certification level. However, we pointed out that the absolute evaluation method would be more appropriate than the relative evaluation method in assigning the ’excellent' rating. Finally, we suggest if 'excellent' rating is established, only the rating information will be disclosed externally, and the more detail information should be disclosed only to the center.
  • 4.

    Enhancing the Government Trust through Analyzing the Open Government Policy Performance Result

    Kim, Jaeil | 2017, 27(4) | pp.81~106 | number of Cited : 0
    Confidence in government has great impact on the effectiveness of socioecomic activities as well as the government policy effectiveness. This paper presents 6 areas of governance, according to OECD, a government needs to consider in order to preserve the public trust in their government. The Korean open government policy result assessed by the Open Government Partnership(OGP) is used to analyze the output and the causes behind those outputs. The analysis found that the Korean government has focused on producing outputs that would be resulted in good public relations materials, instead of planing for strategies and concordances in line with promoting the public confidence in government. The possible explanations for such results are as follow. First, since the plan was not developed with the OGP action plan guidelines, so the commitments could not assure neither the openness nor transparency during the development process. Second, the control tower for the action, the Ministry of Interior, was not in position to control other governmental departments and agencies, since they are pretty much equal in the line of command of the Korean government. Third, maybe the most compelling problem, the government officials seemed not fully understood the core values of the open government proposed by the OGP. It was couped with a performance incentive system in line with producing visible outputs that caused the lack of openness, transparency, and citizen participation which are all time consuming to the officials. Based on the analysis, the paper proposes the following suggestions to promote the public trust in Korean government. First, the control tower sould be designated with kinf of influence that can oversight all departments and agencies. Also, an adequate manpower should be commissioned in order to carry out the task in hands properly. Second, the open government action plan should be designed in detail in order to reflect the values guidelined by OGP. In addition, an adequate timeline should be given in ordr to carry out the action plans throughly and effectively. Third, all strategies, plans, processes, outputs, feedbacks, and evaluations should be documented and recorded to enhance the openness and transparency of procedures and processes. Fourth, continuous training for the officials are needed to emphasize the importance of openness, transparency, and citizen participation to ensure the pulic trust in government. Lastly, a periodical assessments of the government trust should be carried out and publicly announced to ensure the proper self-assessment and awareness as well as openness to the public.
  • 5.

    Case Study on the Spending Waste of Local Government

    Park, Hee-Jeong , Seung Ryeol Kim | 2017, 27(4) | pp.107~131 | number of Cited : 2
    Focusing on the development and welfare sector of local governments, this study intends to analyze the typology and structure of spending waste and to contribute to the establishment of efficient budgetary control system. For this, we collected the spending waste cases from audit reports of BAI(The Board of Audit and Inspection of Korea) and MOI(Ministry of the Interior), and settlement reports of NABO(National Assembly Budget Office). Our results indicate that: (i) Despite sectoral differences, the cases of spending waste of development and welfare sector fit comprehensively into the 11 types of spending waste, which were drawn from the analytic framework of this study. (ii) It was found that the over and under supply of public goods stands out as the waste cause of development programs at the planning stage. And the spending waste resulting from design change was prominent in development programs while corruption and abuse was remarkable in welfare programs. (iii) The structure diagram of spending waste, which was made from collected cases, seems likely to be helpful in auditing and management of improper payment. Based on the results, this study recommends as following: (i) the institutional apparatus to verify campaign agenda of local election candidates, (ii) the reshuffle of various sorts of standards relevant to facility, design, operation, etc. (iii) the institutionalization of improper payment connected with performance management, (iv) the establishment of internal control system to reinforce managerial accountability, (v) the reinforcement of performance audit focused on the criterium of economy.
  • 6.

    Analysis of Efficiency and Determinants of Local Financial Institutions

    Song Keon-Sup , 정낙원 | 2017, 27(4) | pp.133~155 | number of Cited : 1
    This paper measures the efficiency and determinants of local banking services, to provide a basis for the efficiency of the banking system. Bank service efficiency is measured using the DEA efficiency performance data for five years from 2011 to 2015. The inputs are numbers of employee, cost of labor, objects, depreciation and the output variables are selected net income, deposits, loans average balance, the total number of customers. The results are as follows. First, the annual average efficiency is significantly higher than the average of the CCR efficiency index, as well as the average of the BCC efficiency index. Second, the average rate of change of the efficiency index by bank branches (CCR and BCC) are increased in 2015 compared to 2011. Third, it showed a greater average value of net technical efficiency rather than technical efficiency by region. This is due to the efficiency of the scale. Fourth, the determinants in the efficiency of local banks showed a significant part of the deposit and loan. Therefore, local banks need to expand loans to secure efficiency and to expand deposits of local residents.
  • 7.

    The Study on the Perception towards Whistle-blowing: An Application of Q-methodology

    Lee, Siyoung , Jonghwan Eun , Han Ikhyun | 2017, 27(4) | pp.157~177 | number of Cited : 2
    People’s perception and attitude towards whistle-blowing is diverse. The purpose of this study is an in-depth exploration of such diverse perceptions on whistle-blowing and whistle-blowers. In order to reveal diverse perceptions hidden behind simple positive or negative attitude towards whistle-blowing, Q-methodology is applied. The result shows four different perception types on whistle-blowing: desirable citizen, inside-solution seeker, functionalist and organizational misfit. Each perception type is independent from others and shows different attitude on whether it sees whistle-blowing positively or negatively and whether whistle-blowing is a national issue or an inside problem of an organization. The result indicates that an opinion on whether whistle-blowing is a national issue or not plays an important role in making diverse opinions on whistle-blowing. In terms of policy-making, this study shows the necessity of a clear division between problems that must be dealt within the organization and those needed governmental intervention.
  • 8.

    A Typology of Social Economy Organization in South Korea: Fuzzy Ideal Type Analysis

    Lee, Eun Sun , Suk, HoWon | 2017, 27(4) | pp.179~213 | number of Cited : 19
    Abstract PDF
    This study is to aim for suggesting policy direction by articulating and categorizing of social economy organization to social economy act. Main variables for categorizing are purpose, marketability, benefit scope. Fuzzy-set ideal type analysis with fuzzy-set calibration function is utilized for categorization, which is based on previous studies and theories of social economy. Analysis results are as follows. Firstly, the highest scored organizations in each categorizing variables(integrated social economy organization: ISE) are social enterprise, livelihood cooperative association, community business. Secondly, self-support business, agricultural corporation, standardized workplaces for disabilities are quasi-integrated social economy organization(QISE) because of the law score of benefit scope. Thirdly, social cooperative association and social welfare plan corporate are located in the purpose-oriented social economy organization, and employment promotion and vocational rehabilitation of disabled person, self-support center are in the quasi- purpose-oriented social economy organization. Finally, corporate-oriented social economy organizations are credit union and community credit cooperatives, but none can be corresponded to quasi-corporate-oriented social organizations type. Additionally, we suggest that agricultural cooperatives, forestry cooperatives, SMEs cooperatives, tobacco producers cooperative are ISE. However, fuzzy scores of these organizations are located in bifurcation point, so these organizations are positioned to the border line between ISE and QISE.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Customer Satisfaction of One-stop Service: Focusing on the Experience of the Affiliated Service in Employment Welfare Plus Center

    Jae-Wan Lee , Park Eun Hyung | 2017, 27(4) | pp.215~239 | number of Cited : 4
    This study analyzed the effects of one-stop service of the Employment Welfare Plus Center (EWPC) integrating employment service with welfare one and then providing them on the degree of customer satisfaction. Further, it also performed a practical analysis of how the actual experience with one-stop service can regulate the association between it and the degree of customer satisfaction. To do this, data obtained from ‘A Survey about the Degree of Satisfaction with EWPC’ performed by the Korean Ministry of Employment and Labor was analyzed using a multiple regression model. As a result, the convenience of the integration of working process through a one-stop service had a significant effect on the degree of customer satisfaction. That is, if a civil petitioner obtains the data, claims the relevant services and receives a follow-up response at a single site through a one-stop service, this would raise the degree of customer satisfaction. Next, correlations between the convenience of integration and the experience of the affiliated service had a significant positive effect. Thus, the experience of the affiliated service reinforced the relationship between the convenience of integration and the degree of customer satisfaction. In other words, it is presumed that there was a further increase in the degree of customer satisfaction when they had experiences in resolving their own problems both promptly and accurately by being provided with the relevant services that are suitable for them through an affiliation between the service desks of organizations moving in the center. The current study implies that the effects would be strengthened so long as the collaboration is reinforced to substantial extents although it is possible to raise the degree of customer satisfaction through a one-stop service from the integration between the places by the EWPC.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Typification of Policy Compliance and Non-compliance: Focused on the Spontaneity of the Policy Target Group to Policy Directives

    HYUKWOO LEE | 2017, 27(4) | pp.241~267 | number of Cited : 16
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, we classify policy compliance and non-compliance as voluntary compliance, involuntary compliance, voluntary non-compliance, and involuntary non-compliance based on the “spontaneity” aspect of the policy target group, derive the typical characteristics of each type, and examine the validity of this classifying model. Voluntary compliance is the most ideal form of policy enforcement when it is only possible to obtain the support of the target group. The involuntary compliance is the adaptation of the policy target group which is not originally conformed by the government. This involuntary compliance requires the government to overcome the opposition and resistance of the target group. On the other hand, voluntary non-compliance refers to the state in which the policy target group does not follow the policy directives, while the involuntary non-compliance refers to the state that the policy target group cannot help following the policy requirements even though it tries to conform. The homeless shelter policy is a typical policy in which these four types of policy compliance and non-compliance behavior are all present.
  • 11.

    A Case Study on Residents’ Conflict in Newly-built Town: Focusing on a Multi-functional Administrative City

    Joon-Young Hur , 문지은 | 2017, 27(4) | pp.269~296 | number of Cited : 5
    The new administrative city, Sejong New Town, which serves as the administrative capital, has been designated as such by the majority of ministries and agencies and their families since 2012. Accordingly, as the new self-sufficient town, it is rapidly expanding. However, as construction of the new town concentrated within a short period of time following the government plan, the conflict between large-scale migrants and residents has emerged as a crucial task to foster conflict resolution and social integration. We selected typical three cases of conflict between migrants and residents in Sejong new town (Change of 'Beopjeongdong' name, plan for new city hall construction, change of Sungnam middle school name), analyzed these cases from the perspective on conflict management with structural, relational, and managerial characteristics of conflict. Using case studies, this paper identified the structure of conflict centers around the two groups: migrants and residents, and the administrative agencies, which are responsible for conflict management, lacks preventive role and active coordination efforts, so conflicts remain unsolved. Also, we found aside from conflict about change in property right, interests and compensation, there were greater conflicts on cultural, emotional identities. It is likely that there will be different approaches to conflict management, unlike the conflict involving political or economic interests, the cultural or identity conflicts between disparate groups.