Purpose：The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of core stabilization exercise on foot pressure in the hemiplegic patients.
Methods：A total of 28 subjects(n=28) who were diagnosed with hemiplegic caused by a stroke were randomly divided into bridge exercise(BX, n=14) and crunch exercise(CX, n=13) groups and each group executed the exercises 20 minutes a day, 4 times per week over an 8 week period. Foot pressure was measured on the fore,mid, and hind foot for peak pressure, and distance of center of pressure(COP).
Results：The peak pressure on the mid foot for BX and CX were significantly different according to the exercise period(p<.05). Peak pressure on the hind foot of BX was significantly different according to exercise period(p<.05), however there was not in CX. The effects of each exercises period were significantly different according to pre-after 8weeks(p<.05). According to exercise period(p<.05), COP distances of BX and CX were significantly different.
Conclusion：The results show that both BX and CX verified an improvement in gait ability. Especially, since we confirmed BX was attributed more to gait ability than CX. This is considered to be effective on those hemiplegic patients who need core-stabilization and gait stability.
Purpose：The purpose of this study was to confirm whether the Swiss Ball exercise program is effective to improve lower extremity function and activity of daily living of elderly women with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
Methods：This study was a double blind control study. Subjects participated 34 female elderly women who were assigned to exercise group (n=17) and control group (n=17). The Swiss Ball exercise program was performed 2 times a week during the 12 weeks. Pre-and post-exercise various measurements were made: lower extremity function (OLS, TUG, STS).
Results：In exercise group, There showed statically significance improve between pre-and post-exercise in OLS (7.29±1.10 and 7.64±1.32), TUG (10.47±2.03 and 10.05±2.04), STS (7.71±1.04 and 7.94±.82)(p<.05). ADL also showed statically significance improve between pre-and post-exercise (13.76±3.54 and 12.82±3.39, p<.05). There showed statically significance difference between two groups (p<.05).
Conclusion：The Swiss Ball exercise program improved lower extremity function and ADL of elderly women with MCI. Further studies are required to examine the significance of the assessment of motor function of lower extremities.
Purpose：본 연구는 단하지 보조기를 사용하는 뇌졸중환자의 시-거리 보행변수에 대한 청각신호 효과에 대한알아보고자 하는 것이다.
Methods：9명의 뇌졸중환자가 본 연구에 참여하였으며 대상자는 보조기 착용이 없는 경우, 기존 보조기 착용의 경우 그리고 청각신호 보조기 착용의 경우에 각각 시-거리 보행 변수에 대해 측정하였다. 8대의 동작분석카메라 시스템(Motion Analysis Corporation, Santa Rosa, USA)을 사용하여 시-거리 보행 변수를 측정하였으며Wilcoxon rank sum test을 이용하여 양하지의 대칭성을 분석하였고 Friedman test를 사용하여 다른 보조기 사용에 따른 효과를 알아보았다.
Results：청각 신호 보조기의 경우, 손상측과 비손상측의 보행속도, 활보장 그리고 분속수가 대칭적으로 되었다. 손상측의 경우, 단하지 보조기를 착용하였을 때가 착용하지 않았을 때보다 대체적으로 보행 변수들이 증가하였다. 청각 신호 단하지 보조기를 착용하였을 때 손상측 하지의 보행 속도, 활보장, 보장, 양하지 지지 시간이 증가하였고 단하지 지지 시간은 감소하였다.
Conclusion：청각 신호 단하지 보조기 착용 시 보행 속도, 활보장, 보장은 보조기를 착용하지 않았을 때보다는증가하였으나 청각 신호 단하지 보조기와 기존 단하지 보조기 착용 사이에는 차이가 없었다. 하지만, 본 연구의 결과는 청각 신호 단하지 보조기가 뇌졸중 환자의 시-거리 보행 변수를 개선할 수 있음을 보여주었고 앞으로 다양한 보행 변수들에 대한 연구가 필요하다고 생각한다.
Purpose：The purpose of this study was to investigate onset timing of vastus medialis oblique(VMO) relative to vastus lateralis(VL) the VMO/VL electromyographic(EMG) ratio according to heel height Methods：A repeated measures design was used. Fifteen healthy female college students with no known knee musculoskeletal dysfunction were recruited this study. They carried out a standardised stair acent activity under 4 conditions; barefoot, and with heel height of 1, 3, 7 cm. Muscle activity was measured by surface EMG (Myosystem 1400A, Noraxon Inc., U.S.A). Data were analysed using 1 × 4 repeated measures ANOVA.
Results：Onset timing differed with heel height(p<.05). However, the VMO/VL EMG ratio was not significantly difference between conditions.
Conclusion：We found that 7 cm heel height delayed in VMO onset compared with 3 cm heel height during stair ascent, but no change in the relative EMG intensity of VMO and VL as measured by th VMO/VL ratio.
The findings indicate that high-heeled shoes may have disadvantages in knee stability because of delayed onset of VMO. Due to a lack of knee joint stability, wearing of high heeled shoes should be avoided
Purpose：The study was designed to investigate the effects of landing heights on muscle activities and ground reaction force during drop landing.
Methods：Sixteen healthy adults were recruited along with their written informed consent. They performed a drop-landing task at the height of 20, 40, and 60cm. They completed three trials in each condition and biomechanical changes were measured. The data collected by each way of landing task and analyzed by One-way ANOVA. Ground reaction forces were measured by force flate, muscle activities measured by MP150system.
Results：There were significant differences in ground reaction forces, and significant increases in muscle activities of tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius and biceps femoris with landing heights.
Conclusion：These findings revealed that heights of landing increases risk factors of body damage because of biomechanical mechanism and future studies should focus on prevention from damage of external conditions.
Purpose：This study was conducted to compare the effect of visual feedback training using mirror and the training without mirror on the balance in people with hemiplegic paralysis.
Methods：A total of 26 stroke patients were enrolled in this study. The participants were allocated randomly to 2 groups : visual feedback training group(n=13) and control group(n=13). Both groups received PNF(proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation) for 5 times(each 30 minutes) per week over 6 weeks period. The group, which is enrolled in visual feed back training, performed additional exercise in front of mirror for 30 minutes. The control group performed same exercise without mirror. The data was analyzed using a paired t-test and independent t-test to determine the statistical significance.
Results：The visual feedback training group showed significantly increased foot pressure and total pressure compared to the control group(p<.05) and significantly decreased body sway compared to the control group (p<.05). Also, visual feedback training group showed significant increase on the Berg Balance Scale(BBS),Timed Up and Go test(TUG) compared to the control group(p<.05).
Conclusion：These results support the perceived benefits of visual feedback training using mirror to augment the balance of stroke patients. Therefore, visual feedback training using mirror is feasible and suitable for stroke patients.
Purpose：This study examined the effect of the strengthening exercise and stretching exercise to decrease symptom patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS).
Methods：The Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS) and Clark's test performed for diagnosis of intrinsic PFPS among young adults. Selected thirty young adults subjects who aged 20~26 years participated in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to strengthening, stretching, or control groups. Strengthening group consisted of quadriceps, hamstring and iliotibia band training used elastic band. Stretching group consisted of quadriceps, hamstring and iliotibia band trainings used stretching exercises program. Participants received 50-minute individualized exercise sessions, 3 times a week for 6 weeks.
Results：The results were as follow: there were significantly difference stretching exercise group by all muscles on muscular strength test (p<.05). there were significantly difference both strengthening and stretching exercise group by all muscles on flexibility test (p<.05). There were significantly difference stretching exercise group by all muscles on step-down test (p<.05). There were significantly difference both strengthening and stretching exercise group by all muscles on visual analog scale (p<.05).
Conclusion：Results suggest important implications for exercise programs of PFPS that stretching exercise is more improved knee pain, functional performance, patella mobility than strengthening exercise.
Purpose：The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of emotional suppression and burnout on the job satisfaction.
Methods：We distributed questionnaires to 216 physical therapists and collected completed questionnaires from 193. We analyzed the data using frequency analysis, independent t-tests, analysis of variance. and multiple regression.
Results：The results were as follows;1) General characteristics of participants were 62.7% male, 43.5% less 30 years old, 31.6% working over 10years in the hospital. 27.1% participants treated 31 patients or more a day, most(85.5%) participants were regular staff members. 2) Emotional Suppression, exhaustion and diminished self-efficacy were significantly correlated with job satisfaction. According to result of regression analysis on the job satisfaction, the job satisfaction negatively related with the diminished self-efficacy, exhaustion but positively related with the emotional supression. Their power of explanation regarding job satisfaction was 31.2%.
Conclusion：These results showed that diminished self-efficacy was importantly influenced on the job satisfaction.
So this result of the study means that we must improve the stratege for keeping efficient management.
Purpose：Trunk muscle weakness in the children with cerebral palsy can lead to postural and alignment problems, breathing difficulties, and so on. Therefore, children with cerebral palsy can benefit from exercises that strengthen the muscles in their trunks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of trunk muscle strengthening exercise on functional gross movement and balance ability in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.
Methods：We used single group repeated measure design in 8 children(four males, four females; aged 6~12years; mean 8.3 years) with diplegia. The functional gross motor outcome measured by using the GMFM and balance ability of all children was measured by pediatric balance scale. All participants were alternately received trunk strengthening exercise and neurodevelopment treatment for 40 minutes twice per week during 8weeks.
Results：Significant and clinical meaningful improvement in functional gross motor and balance ability were shown.
Conclusion：The results indicate that trunk strengthening exercise has a positive effect on both functional gross motor and balance ability in children with spastic diaplegic cerebral palsy.
Purpose：The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 0cm, 2.5cm, 5cm height increase elevator shoes insole on gait and foot pressure Methods：Fifteen young adult were recruited this study. Gait and foot was measured by Gait AnalyzerTM(Tech Storm Inc. korea). Statistical analysis was used one-way ANOVA to know difference between 0cm, 2.5cm insole and 5cm insole Results：There was no significantly difference on foot length, foot width, foot angle, step time during gait. But step length and step width was significantly difference during gait. There was no significantly difference on gait ratio during stance phase. There was significantly difference on forefoot pressure and rearfoot pressure ratio.
Conclusion：These results indicate that height increase elevator shoes insole may be caused step length, step width decreaseed during gait. It caused forefoot pressure increased and rearfoot pressure decreased on foot.
Purpose：The purpose of this study was to determine the preventive effect of joint mobilization on biphasic pain response induced formalin test.
Methods：Sprague-dawley rats(n=30) were ramdomly divided into the control group without intervention, sham control group with application of hand contact without mobilization, joint mobilization group with application of hand contact with mobilization. Joint mobilization of knee procedure involved an grade III extension mobilization basically with anterior-posterior gliding of the tibia on the femur.
Formalin injection caused biphasic pain response which is lated for 60 minute. The first phase result from primary afferent sensory fiber, wheareas the second phase has been proposed to central sensitization in the central nervous system. Behavioral analysis was performed by digital camera after 5% formalin subcutaneous injection into the dorsal foot.
Results：Pain response of joint mobilization group show significant lower than control gorup and sham control group.
Conclusion：This result suggest that pre-application of joint mobilization may be effective intervention to prevent the formalin induced pain.
Purpose：The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of leg muscle activation by applying proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) arm patterns to unilateral upper extremities under the condition of both open and closed kinetic chains in a seated position.
Methods：Twenty-two healthy subjects participated in this study. Four PNF patterns were applied to each subject's unilateral upper extremity. EMG data were collected from the vastus medialis, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius. The measured EMG data were digitized and processed to root mean square (RMS)and expressed as percentage maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures to determine the statistical significance.
Results：The results of this study were summarized as follows: Firstly, in comparison to muscle activation of the biceps femoris, there was a significant increase in the D2 flexion pattern when it was compared with D2extension pattern and when it was compared with D1 flexion pattern (p<.05). Secondly, there was a significant increase in the muscle activation of the vastus medialis and tibialis anterior with a closed kinetic chain rather than an open kinetic chain (p<.05).
Conclusion：In conclusion, in order to increase muscle activation of the biceps femoris, the D2 flexion pattern can be applied, regardless of kinetic chain. In addition, in order to increase muscle activation of the vastus medialis and tibialis anterior, four arm patterns can be applied with a closed kinetic chain.
Purpose：This study evaluated the feasibility of using Nintendo Wii games for improving cognition, balance,function in patients with dementia.
Methods：A total 30 dementia patients were randomly assigned into the experimental group(n=15) and control group(n=15). All subjects performed a general therapeutic exercise, and 30-minute sessions of the table tennis and fencing game of Nintendo Wii were conducted with experimental group 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The intervention effects were measured by using MMSE-K, BBS, and FIM. The results were analyzed by using repeated measure ANOVA.
Results：The MMSE-K and BBS scores showed significant differences. A significant interaction was observed between the experimental group and the control group in MMSE-K. The final MMSE-K and BBS scores for the experimental group were significantly higher than those for the control group. However, there was no difference in the FIM scores.
Conclusion：We suggest that Nintendo Wii games are effective in cognㅇition and balance improvement in dementia patients. Future research on a variety of programs in needed.
Purpose：The aim of this study is to compare and assess the effects of lumbar stabilization exercise on the balance ability of young college studets with low back pain after having performed spinal stabilization exercise by using 3-dimensional air-balance system and gym ball.
Methods：The subjects of this study were 34 low back patients in their early twenties. They were divided into two groups: 3-dimensional lumbar stabilization exercise group(N=17) and gym ball lumbar stabilization exercise group(N=17). The period of the intervention was for five weeks. VAS(Visual Analogue Scale) for pain test,ODI(Oswestry Disability Index) for ADL limitation test, Tetrax system for static balance test, and Air-balance system 3D for dynamic balance test were used as evaluation tools for this study.
Results：Pain showed significant decrease in both groups after having performed the experiment, but ADL limitation of the groups did not show any remarkable difference between before and after the experiment.
Dynamic balance ability in the 8-directional angle comparison test significantly increased in all directions except for the backward, left-backward, and right-backward directions. As for dynamic balance ability in the 8-directional postural test, 3D exercise group showed statistically significant reduction in every direction while gym ball exercise group did not(p<.05). However, when it comes to static balance ability in the weight distribution and stability test, there was not significantly change between pre and post test in both groups.
Conclusion：This study shows 3-dimensional lumbar stabilization exercise is more effective in the lumbar stabilization of coordinated movement than gym ball exercise, which may imply that 3D air-balance system can be used for the therapeutic treatment of body imbalance for patients with low back pain.