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2012, Vol.7, No.4

  • 1.

    The Effect of Feedback on Somesthetic Video Game Training for Improving Balance of Stroke Patients

    안명환 | 박기동 | 유영열 | 2012, 7(4) | pp.401~409 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess the difference in the effect of provision of feedback on knowledge of performance and knowledge of result in the training using somesthetic video game aimed at enhancement of balance of hemiparalysis patients due to stroke. METHODS: 20 stroke patients participated in the study. The participants were randomly divided into 2 groups,namely, the knowledge of performance feedback group (KP group, n=10) and the knowledge of result feedback group (KR group, n=10). Both groups received somesthetic video game training 5 times (30 minutes each) a week for total of 4 weeks. The KP group received feedback on the patterns of movement in execution of somesthetic video game. The KR group received feedback on the scores acquired following execution of somesthetic video game. Verification of the significance of the data was performed through paired t-test and independent t-test. RESULTS: Both groups displayed significant reduction in the movement of center of pressure (COP) and Timed up and Go (TUG), and significant increase in the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) following the training. Although the movement of COP was reduced for the KP group in comparison to the KR group, it was not statistically significant, and there was significant reduction in TUG and significant increase in BBS. CONCLUSION: The above results illustrate that provision of feedback on knowledge of performance is more effective than feedback on knowledge of result in somesthetic video game training for the purpose of enhancement of balance in stroke patients. Therefore, provision of feedback on knowledge of performance is necessary in somesthetic video game training for stroke patients.
  • 2.

    The Effects of Balance Training with Visual Cue Deprivation on Gait Function in Patients with Stroke

    문성준 | Kim Yong-wook | Tae-ho Kim | 2012, 7(4) | pp.411~421 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of balance rehabilitation training with the visual cue deprivation on gait function in stroke patients in comparison with balance training without the visual cue deprivation. METHODS: Twenty two stroke patients participated in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to one of the two balance training program with and without the visual cue deprivation. Balance training session for each group lasted 50minutes, 3 times a week for a total of 6 weeks. Gait function was measured with the Functional Gait Assessment (FGA),the self-selective comfortable gait speed (CGS), the maximal gait speed (MGS), and the Gait Analysis System. Temporal and spatial gait parameters of each evaluation were measured before and after the balance training program respectively. RESULTS: After the program, the visual cue deprivation group improved significantly in the FGA, the CGS, the gait velocity, the step time, the step length, the stride length, and the Functional Ambulation Performance (FAP) in comparison with the balance training group with the visual cue (p<.05). CONCLUSION: The gait function of the participants with the visual cue deprivation showed more improvement after the balance training program compared to the patients group without the visual cue deprivation, Therefore, the balance training program with the visual cue deprivation may be useful for rehabilitation of patients with chronic stroke.
  • 3.

    The Influence of Neck Pain on Balance in Young People

    Lee GyuChang | 2012, 7(4) | pp.423~432 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate balance changes in young patients with neck pain by comparing postural sway velocity and velocity moment between young patients with neck pain and healthy subjects. METHODS: The cross-sectional study enrolled fifteen young patients with over 3-month duration of the neck pain and twelve healthy subjects between the ages of 20 and 30years old. All subjects were measured their postural sway velocity and velocity moment during quiet standing with eyes open and eyes closed conditions. We compared the differences of postural sway velocity and velocity moment between neck pain patients and healthy subjects, and between eye open and eye close. RESULTS: Significant differences were evident in the anteroposterior and mediolateral sway velocity, and velocity moment of center-of-pressure (COP) between patients with neck pain and healthy subjects (p<.05), and in patients with neck pain in the eyes open and eyes closed conditions (p<.05). CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the balance of young patients with neck pain was worse than healthy subjects during quiet standing, and was especially lessened in the absence of vision. The finding may inform management program to decrease the balance deficits in young patients with neck pain.
  • 4.

    The Correlation Between Foot and Knee Posture Characteristics in Knee Osteoarthritis People

    김성환 | Suhn-yeop Kim | 김호봉 | 2012, 7(4) | pp.433~442 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study investigated to correlation between foot and knee posture characteristics in knee osteoarthritis patients. METHODS: The subjects of this study were 103 patients with clinically and radiographically-confirmed knee osteoarthritis was investigated using the quadriceps angle (QA), distance of both knee (DBK), ankle dorsiflexion angle (ADA), navicular drop (ND). One-way ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation were used to investigate the correlation between foot and knee posture measurements. All of whom agreed to participate in the study. In order to assure the statistical significance of the results, we used for SPSS ver. 18.0 for windows. RESULTS: The results of this study were as follows : 1)There were statistically significant difference in the correlation between QA and DBK. 2) There were statistically significant difference in the correlation between DBK and ADA. CONCLUSION: According the results of this study,patients with osteoarthritis exhibit more genu varus knee posture. Moreover patients with osteoarthritis were not correlation between foot and knee Posture characteristics.
  • 5.

    The Study of Validity in Active Movement Control test for Low Back Pain Patients with or without Hamstring Shortening

    Sejun Oh | Jong-duk Choi | 2012, 7(4) | pp.443~450 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was investigated to find the validity of active movement control test for low back pain patients with or without hamstring shortening. METHODS: The subjects of this study were 28 subjects and all of them agreed to participate in the study. All subjects were classified according to 4groups. Group1 was no LBP, no hamstring shortening. Group2 was no LBP, hamstring shortening. Group3 was LBP, no hamstring shortening. Group4 was LBP, hamstring shortening. We measured to see their low back pain and hamstring shortening with VAS,Goniometer for active movement control test. We analyzed the data using Cochran Q test and crosstabulation for agreement index. RESULTS: The results of this study were as follows : 1)Low back pain had effect on active movement control by Group1 and Group2. 2) Hamstring had effect on active movement control by Group1 and Group2 3)Low back pain with or without hamstring shortening had effect on active movement control by Group4CONCLUSION: According the results of this study,active movement control test were significantly influenced on low back pain and hamstring interaction.
  • 6.

    The Effect of Circuit Class Training on the Synthesis of Central Serotonin in People

    백일훈 | Kim Byung Jo | 박강희 | 2012, 7(4) | pp.451~458 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of present study was to determine effects of circuit class training (CCT) on the synthesis of central serotonin in people with post-stroke depression. METHODS: Forty patients with mild post-stroke depression were participated in current study. All subjects were assigned to two groups of CCT (circuit class training) group and SW (stretching and weight shifting) group. Both groups were performed for 80 minutes. The change of blood f-Trp,BCAAs, f-Trp/BCAAs and serotonin according to period training time were examined and the following results were obtained. RESULTS: In the CCT group, f-Trp, BCAAs, and f-Trp/BCAAs increased according to the time point. However, after 24 hour of circuit class training, all of these were significantly decreased by those before training. The change in blood levels of serotonin was the highest in immediately after the training in the CCT group while it was not changed significantly in the SW group. CONCLUSION: It can be seen that CCT can change the serotonin level and have an effect on the synthesis of central serotonin in people with post-stroke depression.
  • 7.

    The Effects of Asymmetric Bag Carrying during Walking on Plantar Pressure

    박수진 | 이중호 | 김진상 | 2012, 7(4) | pp.459~469 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to examine changes caused by asymmetric bag carrying methods to carry the bag with one shoulder only to plantar pressure during walking. METHODS: Twenty three normal adults without any gait problem participated in the present study. Experimental conditions used consisted of walking without carrying any bag(condition 1), walking wearing a bag on both shouders (condition 2), and walking wearing a bag on the right shoulder(condition 3) and the weight of the bag was set to 15%of each subject’s body weight. All the subjects were instructed to participate in all experiments under these three conditions and plantar pressures were measured from the subjects’ right and left feet using an F-scan system while the subjects were walking under the three conditions. To analyze the measured plantar pressure, the sole was divided into seven areas (Hallux, Toe, Met1, Met23, Met45, Mid foot and Heel) and maximum plantar pressures in individual areas were measured. RESULTS: The results of measurement of plantar pressures under three walking conditions did not show significant changes in any areas of the left and right feet except for the mid foot area of the right food. The asymmetry between the left and right feet was examined and the results showed significant differences only in area Met23 under condition 2and did not show significant differences in any other areas. CONCLUSION: On comprehensively considering the results of the present study, it could be seen that asymmetric bag carrying did not have large effects on changes in plantar pressure during walking compared to symmetric carrying. The reason for this is considered to be posture adjusting mechanisms against load positions.
  • 8.

    The Effects of Insole Supporting Medial Longitudinal Arch while Walking in Spastic Cerebral Palsy with Pes Planus

    김성경 | Young Uk Ryu | Kim, Hyeong-Dong | 2012, 7(4) | pp.471~480 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The object of the present study is to investigate the effects of the insole supporting medial longitudinal arch while walking in spastic cerebral palsy with pes planus. METHODS: Ten spastic bilateral cerebral palsy children with pes planus participated in this study. The insole were custom-made for the individual child. Muscle activity was measured by surface EMGs attached on tibialis anterior (TA),gastrocnemius (GA), vastus medialis oblique (VMO), biceps femoris long head (BF). temporal-spatial parameters such as velocity, step length, stride length, stance time, toe angle were collected while the subjects walked on the GAITRite system. RESULTS: The results of the present study were summarized as follows: 1. Muscle activities in mean EMGs while walking: Left VMO, Right TA, Left BF and GA revealed significant reductions after applying insole. 2. Muscle activities in peak EMGs while walking: Left TA and BF demonstrated reductions significantly after applying insole. 3. There were improvements in temporal-spatial gait parameters with insole: velocity, both step length, Right stride length and Right toe angle were increased(p<.05). CONCLUSION: Therefore the current study demonstrated that insole supporting the medial longitudinal arch would be effective on gait of the spastic cerebral palsy with pes planus.
  • 9.

    The Effect of Tactile Stimulation on Two Point Discrimination, Hand Function, and ADL in Impaired Characteristics of Stroke Patient

    Song, Bo Kyung | 2012, 7(4) | pp.481~491 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study find out the effect of improved two point discrimination (TPD), hand function and activities of daily living (ADL) performance through tactile stimulus of upper limb (U/L) in impaired characteristics of stroke METHODS: We selected 26 stroke patients in BMH who has problems with neglect, sensory and motor deficits. Patients were divided into 3 group with neglect group (NG),sensorimotor deficits group (SMG) and motor deficit group (MG). To compare each group we used assessment tools such as two point discrimination on affected side (TPDas) and unaffected side (TPDus), Manual functional test on affected side (MFTas) and unaffected side (MFTus) and Korean version modified barthel index (K-MBI). RESULTS: 1) In the NG, tactile stimulus on U/L was statistically important for TPDas (forearm, index finger tip)also SMG and MDG was statistically important for TPDas. 2) In the NG, SMG, there was statistically important for MFTas, MFTus and in the MG. K-MBI also was statistically importance. Among three group, there was an statistically important difference for TPTus (forearm, thenar, hypothenar),MFTas and MFTus. We analyzed the relationship among TPD, MFT and K-MBI and There was negative relationship between TPD, MFT and There was positive relationship between TPD and K-MBI CONCLUSION: In impaired characteristics of stroke patients, tactile stimulus on U/L influenced on two point discrimination, hand function and ADL‘s. And we also found relationship among somatosensory, hand function, and ADL performance.
  • 10.

    The Effect of Self-controlled Feedback on Proprioception in Elbow Flexion of Healthy Subjects

    Yoon, Jung Gyu | 2012, 7(4) | pp.493~500 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate effect of self-controlled feedback on proprioception in elbow flexion. METHODS: Thirty young adult volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned to one of three groups (selfcontrolled,yoked, control). Power and velocity in elbow flexion was measured by PRIMUS RS (BTE Tech., Hanover,U.S.A). Statistical analysis was used multivariate ANOVA to know effect of self-controlled feedback on proprioception in elbow flexion. Post hoc was used Scheffe. RESULTS: In acquisition phase to practice effect, variable errors in self-controlled group was significantly low scored more than yoked and control group. In retention phase to learning effect, variable errors in self-controlled group was significantly low scored more than yoked and control group. CONCLUSION: Self-controlled feedback was more effective on movement control when the learner could make a decision about receiving feedback after the trial. This seems to support the view that self-controlled feedback benefits learning, because learners can make a decision about feedback based on their performance on a given trial.
  • 11.

    Kinetic Analysis on the Lumbar at the Trunk Flexion according to the Degree of Hamstring Flexibility of Healthy Adult

    Kim Gi Chul | KAK HWANGBO | 2012, 7(4) | pp.501~507 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study aims to examine the effects of trunk flexion on the kinetic characteristics of the lumbar according to the degree of hamstring flexibility. METHODS: This study has as its subjects 29 young adults and divides them into the group (NSRTG, n=15) with the normal length of hamstrings according to SRT and the group (SSRTG, n=14) tending to have shortened hamstrings. Sit and Reach Test was conducted to evaluate the degree of hamstring flexibility. And to examine the kinetic difference of the lumbar at the trunk flexion, it was compared and analyzed by using the picture archiving and communication system (PACS). RESULTS: SSRTG showed more significant difference than NSRTG in the analysis on the trunk flexion of NSRTG and SSRTG. CONCLUSION: According to the analysis, the shortening of hamstrings is the factor that affects the dynamic stability of the lower lumbar through the reduction of the pelvic anterior tilt at the trunk flexion.
  • 12.

    Effects of Self-stretching Exercise and Upper Thoracic Joint Mobilization on Range of Motion and Pain of the Patients with Chronic Neck Pain

    KAK HWANGBO | Kim Gi Chul | 박윤기 | 2012, 7(4) | pp.509~514 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study aims to compare the effects of upper backbone joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise in the patients with chronic neck pain. METHODS: Thirty seven patients with chronic neck pain were divides into self stretching group(SSG, n=18) and mobilization group(MG, n=19). To assess the degree of neck pain, the visual analog scale (VAS) was utilized, and to measure the joint range of motion at the flexion-extension, it was compared and analyzed by using the cervical range of motion (CROM) device. RESULTS: The joint range of motion and visual analog scale of SSG and MG showed significant effects on both groups. In the comparison of groups, there was no significant difference, but it indicated effects on improving the pain and the range of joint motion in MG. CONCLUSION: According to the analysis, not only self-stretching exercise intervening for direct treatment but also upper backbone joint mobilization intervening for indirect treatment are effective to improve the pain and the range of motion.
  • 13.

    The Correlation between Musculoskeletal Pain and Level of Work Stress of Prosthetists and Orthotists

    Do-young Jung | Koh, Eun Kyung | 장준혁 | 2012, 7(4) | pp.515~524 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: It is known that work stress was linked to WRMDs in workplace. The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) related to job stress among prosthetists and orthotists. METHODS: Eighty-six self-reported symptoms of discomfort (SRSD) and job stress were collected by questionnaire and analyzed. RESULTS: The results were as follows: Over 70% of respondents had WRMDs. The shoulder was the most painful region and each of “within 15 minutes”, “once a week” and “severe moving or doing exercise” items were main characteristics in the SRSD. Finally, the “repetition of simple work” item in job stress ranked as resulting in “often discomfort” in over 43% of respondents. Additionally, there was a statistically significant correlation between job stress and pain intensity (p<.05, rs=.36). CONCLUSION: Further studies are needed to identify the factors affecting musculoskeletal symptoms and job stress of prosthetists and orthotists in Korea.
  • 14.

    Initial Effects of the Non-elastic Taping Technique on Grip Strength and EMG in Female with Lateral Epicondylalgia

    박진현 | Kyoung Kim | 2012, 7(4) | pp.525~533 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate initial effects of the non-elastic taping technique on grip strength and EMG in female with lateral epicondylalgia. METHODS: Twenty-two participants (mean age SD,52.8±10.2 years) with chronic lateral epicondylalgia (mean duration±SD, 13.1±9.9 months) participated in a placebo control study of an elbow taping technique. Outcome measures were pain-free grip and EMG taken before,immediately after application of tape. RESULTS: The experimental group were more significantly improved grip strength and muscle activity of forearm than control group. CONCLUSION: This study show that non-elastic taping technique is beneficial intervention for increase grip strength and EMG in female with lateral epicondylalgia.
  • 15.

    The Effect of Pelvic Floor Muscle Contraction with Image Feedback on Abdominal Muscle Thickness

    김진희 | Kim, Nan-Soo | 장준혁 | 2012, 7(4) | pp.533~539 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pelvic floor muscle contraction with image feedback on Abdominal muscle thickness. METHODS: Twenty three adults participated in this study. Abdominal muscle thickness was measured by ultrasound in three condition(rest, pelvic floor muscle contraction, pelvic floor muscle contraction with image feedback). Subjects was contraction pelvic floor muscle by general method. And ultrasound(convex probe, 3.5MHz) was used to image feedback for selective pelvic floor muscle contraction. One-way ANOVA was used to compare abdominal muscle thickness in three condition. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in external oblique(p=.514) and internal oblique muscle(p=.250) thickness by three condition. There was significant difference in transverse abdominis thickness by three condition (Transverse abdominis thickness was highest while Pelvic floor muscle contraction than pelvic floor muscle contraction with image feedback and rest.)(p=.000). CONCLUSION: This study shows that pelvic floor muscle contraction with image feedback increase the thickness of transverse abdominis lesser than general pelvic floor muscle contraction.
  • 16.

    Comparison of Quadriceps Femoris Muscle Activations during Wall Slide Squats

    Kim Byung Jo | 2012, 7(4) | pp.541~550 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was compare quadriceps femoris muscle activity while performing wall slide squats of four methods. METHODS: Forty subjects, with no history of patellofemoral pain, quadriceps injury, or other knee injury volunteered for this study. Muscle activation of the vastus medialis obliquus,rectus femoris, vastus lateralis muscles were recorded while subjects performed 10 consecutive wall slide squats. Subjects performed the wall slide squats during four different methods:(1) basic wall slide squat, (2) keep back upright against fitness ball, (3) standing of unstable surface, (4) squeezing ball between both knees. Statistical analysis were accomplished by utilizing the one-way ANOVA(Bonferroni’s post-hoc test)by SPSS 20.0 program. Significance level was set at p <.05. RESULTS: Muscle activations induced wall slide squats of four methods compared and results showed that there was significant difference only in vastus medialis obliquus and rectus femoris but there was no significant difference in vastus lateralis. The vastus medialis obliquus was significantly different only keep back upright against fitness ball at post-hoc test. The rectus femoris was significantly different keep back upright against fitness ball and standing of unstable surface at post-hoc test. CONCLUSION: Based on these results, we conclude that quadriceps femoris muscle activations are differenced by performing wall slide squats of four different methods in healthy subjects. These data suggest that for quadriceps muscle strengthening, exercise professionals can perform the wall slide squats by altering several task variables. Further research is needed to determine the exact mechanism by which quadriceps function is altered.