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2013, Vol.8, No.1

  • 1.

    The Effect of Dual Motor Task Training on Balance of Subacute Stroke Patients

    지상구 | Kim Meung Kwon | 차현규 | 2013, 8(1) | pp.1~9 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study compared the effects of dual motor task training and simple task training on the balance of subacute stroke patients. METHODS: A total of 23 subacute stroke patients participated in the study. The subjects were allocated randomly to two groups: an experimental group and a control group. Both groups received conventional treatment for 50minutes, 5 times per week for 6 weeks. In addition, the experimental group stacked blocks, moved catch cups, and moved rings while standing and gait. To evaluate the effects of the exercises, subjects were evaluated by using the balance system and the timed get up and go test(TUG) for balance measurement. The data was analyzed using a paired t-test and independent t-test to determine the statistical significance. RESULTS: The experimental group showed a significant decrease on the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior stability index compared to the control group (p<.05) for the simple task and a significant decrease on the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior stability index compared to the control group for the dual task. In addition, the experimental group showed a significant increase in TUG time compared to the control group (p<.05). CONCLUSION: These results support the perceived benefits of dual motor task training to augment the balance of subacute stroke patients. Therefore, dual motor task training is recommended for subacute stroke patients.
  • 2.

    Difference of Trunk Muscles Activity during Hollowing vs Bracing Contraction in Various Position

    Moon Hyun Ju | 조성학 | Bongoh Goo | 2013, 8(1) | pp.11~18 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference of trunk muscles activity during abdominal hollowing and bracing contraction in various position. METHODS: This pilot test was carried out in a volunteer sample of normal adults(n=24) without a history of low back pain or injury. 24 subjects were randomly allocated to three groups(n=8) as a contraction method respectively. In hooklying position, trunk muscles activity of subjects was measured using EMG in various bridging position. RESULTS: Abdominal bracing contraction made to more great trunk deep and superficial muscles activity than hollowing contraction.(p<0.00) Especially, Multifidus activity was the biggest.(p<0.00)CONCLUSION: The result from this study showed that abdominal bracing contraction made to more balancing activity of trunk muscles than abdominal hollowing contraction. Thus, It will good for trunk muscles unbalanced LBP patient to improve lumbar stabilization.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Relationship between Image of Physiotherapist and Self-Esteem of Physiotherapy Students

    김은애 | Keon-Cheol Lee | Won-Sik Bae and 1other persons | 2013, 8(1) | pp.19~27 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to look into relationship between image of physiotherapist and self-esteem of physiotherapy students and desirable image of physiotherapists offer to establish basic materials. METHODS: The subjects of this study are consist of 603students of department of Physical therapy university and college in Busan and Kim-hae. Data are collected from June 9 to July 9 in 2011 by structured questionnaires. RESULTS: The result are as follows. 1. at the physiotherapist image score, the highest score question is “Physiotherapist is specialist”(3.45) and the lowest score question is “Physiotherapist is treated samely with doctor”(2.15). 2. at the self-esteem score, the highest score question is “I think that I am at least as valuable as others”(3.37) and the lowest score question is “I can be poorly sometimes”(2.81). 3. at the static results of physiotherapist image score gap by general characteristics, there are significantly different in gender(t=2.27, p=.02), similar profession distinction(t=4.30,p=.00), major satisfaction(t=5.74, p=.00), school system (t=-2.54, p=.01). 4. at the static results of self-esteem score gap by general characteristics, there are significantly different in years (f=5.14, p=.00), gender(t=4.09, p=.00), religion(f=2.87,p=.04), similar profession distinction(t=3.97, p=.00), major satisfaction(t=4.26, p=.00). 5. at the static results of good reputation of physiotherapists increase self-esteem of physiotherapy students score questionare significantly different(r=0.53, p=.00). CONCLUSION: Accordingly, these results of this study that there is a very correlation between image of physiotherapist and self-esteem of physiotherapy students. Therefore, good reputation of physiotherapists increase self-esteem of physiotherapy students.
  • 4.

    The Effects of Gluteal Muscle Exercises Combined Lumbar Stabilization on Lumbar Stability in Chronic Low Back Pain Patients with Lumbar Instability

    이상진 | Kim, Young-min | 2013, 8(1) | pp.29~39 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if the program focusing on gluteal muscle exercise combined lumbar stabilization had an effects on pain, functional disability and lumbar instability in chronic low back pain patients who had lumbar instability. METHODS: Thirty four patients were recruited in this study. The participants were randomly allocated stabilization exercise group (SEG) (n=17) and gluteal muscle exercise group (GEG) (n=17). The gluteal muscle exercise group conducted gluteal muscle exercises combined lumbar stabilization and stabilization exercise group did only lumbar stabilization exercise for 30 minutes three times a week for six weeks. Pre-exercise assessment tools, visual analogue scale(VAS) and Korean version Oswestry Disability Index level (KODI) were used for pain and functional disability each. Also, these were scored by the tool of lumbar instability. The pain, functional disability levels, and lumbar instability after six weeks with this exercise were re-evaluated. RESULTS: First, SEG showed a significant decrease in the lumbar pain, functional disability levels and lumbar instability. Second, GEG showed a significant decrease in the lumbar pain, functional disability levels and lumbar instability. The third, GEG showed even more significant decrease in the lumbar pain levels, functional disability levels and lumbar instability than SEG.CONCLUSION: Gluteal muscle exercises combined lumbar stabilization are more effective than only lumbar stabilization exercise in the pain levels, functional disability levels and lumbar instability for the chronic low back pain patients with lumbar instability.
  • 5.

    Effect of Movement Plane and Shoulder Flexion Angle on Scapular Upward Rotator During Scapular Protraction Exercise

    정성대 | Jonghyuck Weon | Jung, Do-Young | 2013, 8(1) | pp.41~48 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was to determine the effect of the plane of movement (sagittal plane vs. scapular plane) and shoulder flexion angle (90° vs. 130°) during scapular protraction exercises in healthy subjects by investigating the elecromyographic (EMG) activities of the serratus anterior (SA), upper trapezius (UT), and pectoralis major (PM). METHODS: Twenty-one healthy subjects participated in this study. Subjects performed maximal scapular protraction at the 90° or 130° shoulder flexion angles in the sagittal or scapular planes. Surface EMG was recorded from the SA and UT, and PM muscles. Dependent variables were examined by 2 (plane) × 2 (angle) repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: Significantly increased EMG activities in theSA and UT were found during scapular protraction exercise at the 130° shoulder flexion angle in the sagittal and scapular plane. Also, EMG activity of the PM significantly decreased at the 130° shoulder flexion angle in the sagittal plane and the 90° and 130° shoulder flexion in the scapular plane. CONCLUSION: we recommend scapular protraction exercise at the 90° shoulder flexion in the sagittal plane to selectively strengthen the SA muscle with limitation of upper trapezius activity and at the 130° shoulder flexion in the scapular plane to selectively strengthen the SA muscle with limitation of pectoralis major activity.
  • 6.

    A Biomechanical Gait Analysis of Patients with Parkinson’s Disease by Auditory Cues Velocity

    Kim Eun Jeong | Jintae-Han | 정재민 | 2013, 8(1) | pp.49~58 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if auditory cues velocity has a greater effect on the gait pattern of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) than the cues applied individually. METHODS: The subjects were 15 elderly patients diagnosed with PD, 15 healthy elderly persons. Patients were measured of three conditions performed in random order:slow, general, fast. The auditory cue velocity consisted of a metronome beat ±20% than the subject’s general gait speed. Using a motion analysis and a force platform measurement system, changes in spatiotemporal variables, kinetic and kinematic variables were compared to gait analysis. RESULTS: Comparison between the auditory cues velocity, there was a significant difference in the spatiotemporal variables with regard to the cadence, stride length, supporttime, step length, double support time (p<.05). Comparison between the auditory cues velocity, there was a significant increase general and fast velocity gait than slow velocity gait in the maximum flexion in swing phase of knee joint (p<.05). There appears to be the aspect of an increasing ground reaction force (GRF) on the first peak in the vertical axis (p<.05). CONCLUSION: Auditory cues velocity improved of spatio-temporal factors, kinematic and kinetic factors depending on the velocity of the faster. Therefore at the rehabilitation training of PD patients auditory cues velocity would be used for recovery and gait reeducation, may arise through the patients functional ability.
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  • 8.

    The Effects of Treadmill Exercise on Blood components, Antioxidant enzymes and Reactive Oxygen in Hyperlipidemic Rats

    정병옥 | Jang Sang Hun | Bang, Hyun-Soo | 2013, 8(1) | pp.71~78 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise on blood components and antioxidant system in hyperlipidemic rats. METHODS: Three weeks old male rats were randomly assigned into General diet(GD, n=10), High fat Diet(HD,n=10), and High fat diet+Treadmill exercise(HDT, n=10)groups. Treadmill exercise consisted of the treadmill running 5 times per week during 6 weeks(30 min/time for first 3 weeks and 60 min/time the other 3 weeks). RESULTS: The levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol were increased in HD group compared with GD group, and recovered to level of GD group by treadmill exercise(p<.05). Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were increased in HD group compared with GD group, and recovered to levelof GD group by treadmill exercise(p<.05). Glutathione(GSH)and glutathione reductase(GRD) concentrations were decreased in HD group compared with GD group, and these decreases returned to the level of GD group by treadmill exercise(p<.05). Xanthine oxidase(XO) and malondialdehyyde (MDA) concentrations were increased in HD group compared with GD group, and these increases retuned to the level of GD group by treadmill exercise(p<.05). CONCLUSION: This study showed that treadmill exercise application were effective treatment strategy on hyperlipidemia. Therefore, it could be considered as a treatment method in the patients with hyperlipidemia disease. Treadmill exercise, Hyperlipidemia, Blood components
  • 9.

    The Effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) on the Neuropathic Pain in Peripheral Nerve Injury

    Sun-Hyun Lee | Changho Song | 2013, 8(1) | pp.79~89 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: To identify the effects of single trial transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) application on chronic neuropathic pain and the repeated TENS application to development of neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury. METHODS: First, 20 rats were given the median nerve ligation to induce chronic neuropathic pain. After the ligation,neuropathic pain was assessed by measuring the forepaws withdrawal threshold to von Frey filaments for 3 weeks. Afterward, rats were randomly divided into TENS group and placebo-TENS group. TENS (frequency 100Hz, pulse width 200㎲) was applied to the forearm for 20 minutes. Second, 34rats were randomly allocated into two group after median nerve ligation: TENS group and placebo-TENS group. Both interventions were applied to the forearm for 20 minutes from1 day to 3 weeks after injury. Neuropathic pain to mechanical was measured on each rat for 3 weeks. RESULTS: Exeprimental rats showed a clear neuropathic pain-like behaviors, such as reduced forepaw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation for 3 weeks, after median nerve ligation. And, TENS decreased effectively the chronic neuropathic pain originated from median nerve injury. TENS also diminished the development of neuropathic pain after nerve injury. CONCLUSION: Our animal model studying for neuropathic pain following median nerve injury may be useful to investigate peripheral neuropathic pain in human. Also,TENS may be used to mediate chronic neuropathic pain and to prevent the development of neuropathic pain following median nerve injury.
  • 10.

    The Effects of a Video Strength Exercise on Grip Strength, Balance, TUG in the Frail Elderly Women

    Lee Sa Gyeom | 박성규 | 2013, 8(1) | pp.91~98 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate characteristics of the effects of a video strength exercise on grip strength, balance, timed up and go in the frail elderly women. METHODS: Subjects were thirty frail elderly people selected by the screening tool and they were divided into exercise group and control group. The video strength exercise was carried out for three time a week for 12 weeks. Data was analyzed with independent t-test between exercise and control group and paired t-test between before and after. RESULTS: There were not significant differences between exercise and control group. However, there were significant effects between before and after in exercise group. The grip strength and one-leg stand with eyes open were significant improved and timed up and go was significant decreases.CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the video strength exercise for the frail elderly was very effective on improving grip strength and one-leg stand and timed up and go.
  • 11.

    Analysis on the Status and Needs of Training in Assistive Technology of Pediatric Physical Therapist and Pediatric Occupational Therapist

    Kyoung-A Kim | Jeong Dong-hoon | 2013, 8(1) | pp.99~109 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate the current state of training in assistive technology(AT) for pediatric physical therapists(PPTs) and pediatric occupational therapists(POTs), in addition, investigate therapists’ preferred training methods and contents. The eventual purpose was to suggest the essential fundamental factors to adapt the assistive technology in clinics. METHODS: The subject of this study were 167 therapists(98PPTs and 69 POTs) who work at general hospitals, welfare center, facilities for the disabled, and special education school in Seoul and Gyeonggi province. Frequency analysis and Chi-squared test were used. RESULTS: Significant numbers of PPTs(66 therapists,67.3%) and POTs(50 therapists, 72.5%) answered that they had received training in AT. More than 48% answered notraining experience or low adequacy in each classification scheme for questions. The most difficulty in the training was indicated by lack of education opportunity(90 therapists,53.9%). The most required device training was seating and position device training(43 therapists, 21.9%) for PPTs and orthosis and prosthesis device training(29 therapists, 21.0%)for POTs. In assistive technology service, PPTs needed evaluation to AT device training(69 therapists, 35.2%) and POTs needed evaluation to disabilities for AT training(41therapists, 29.7%). Both therapists answered that the most effective training is continuous education(52 therapists,31.1%) and college education(48 therapists, 28.7%). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that PPTs and POTs need more opportunities for training in AT. For effective clinical app lication of AT, there should be continuous education such as on-the-job training, mentoring program, technical manual, and college education.
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  • 13.

    The Effects of Trunk Muscle Strengthening Exercises on Balance Performance of Sitting Posture and Upper Extremity Function of Children with Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy

    최영철 | 박수진 | 이명효 and 1other persons | 2013, 8(1) | pp.117~125 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of trunk muscle strengthening exercises on balance performance of sitting posture and upper extremity function,targeting the children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. METHODS: 20 children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy were sampled at random and the tests were conducted for 6 weeks, 3 times per week. For experimental groups, basic physical therapy and trunk muscle strengthening exercises were conducted and for control groups, only basic physical therapy was conducted. BPM(Balance Performance Monitor) was used to measure balance performance and QUEST(quality of upper extremity skills test) was used to measure the upper extremity function.RESULTS: The comparison of changes in sitting balance performance in between experimental groups and control groups show significant difference (p<.05), the changes of the upper extremity function in experimental groups and control groups show significant difference (p<.05). CONCLUSION: Trunk muscle strengthening exercises are effective in improving balance performance and the upper extremity function for the children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.
  • 14.

    The Effects of Exercise of Diverse Intensities on the Recovery of Articular Cartilage in Osteoarthritic Rats

    박수진 | 최영철 | 김진상 | 2013, 8(1) | pp.127~135 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of exercise of diverse intensities on the recovery of articular cartilage in osteoarthritic rats. METHODS: Over a period of four weeks, the authors applied treadmill exercise programs of diverse intensities to Sprague-Dawley rats, to which intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate(MIA, 3㎎/50㎕, diluted in saline)was applied to the right knee joint to induce osteoarthritis. The four-week exercise program was not carried out with the control group(CG, n=10). Exercise programs of applicable intensities were applied to the low-intensity exercise group(LEG,n=10), moderate-intensity exercise group(MEG, n=10), and high-intensity exercise group(HEG, n=10) over the four weeks. Observations were made of morphological changes in the rats’ articular cartilage, using hematoxylin and eosin stains.RESULTS: there were significant differences(p<.05) in the comparison of articular damage scores between the four groups involved. Articular cartilage damage scores were found to be significantly lower in the LEG, MEG, and HEG than in the CG, indicating that exercise helped with the recovery of cartilage. Of these latter three groups, the MEG showed the highest level of recovery, while the HEG showed the lowest. CONCLUSION: These study results suggest that exercise is effective in treating OA. They also indicate that in prescribing exercise to treat osteoarthritic patients, exercise of moderate intensity is most suitable to patients’ physical conditions, rather than low or high intensity, maximizes, and so should be used to maximize the effects of therapy.
  • 15.

    The Study on the Rater Reliabilities of Physical Therapy Students Pediatric Balance Scales items

    Hwang Ryong | KIm, Gi Won | 2013, 8(1) | pp.137~145 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to examine assessment of test-retest reliability for 13 items of pediatric balance scales, then the intrarater reliability among the raters. METHODS: Study participants included 6 children with spastic cerebral palsy who could walk. Raters were consist of seventy-four, 2nd year physical therapy major students. The children’s ability to achieve physical balance was wideotaped for PBS items. The raters watched the tapes and evlauated each child twice. Test-retest reliability was analyzed using the Spearman correlation, and interrater reliability was analyzed using the Kendall’s coefficient of concordance for ranks. RESULTS: The total PBS scores averaged 49.22 and 50.06 for first and second tests. Test-retest reliability of PBS individual items were between low and high. The low itmeswere 3 items, and high were 4 itmes. Interrater reliability were low agreement. CONCLUSION: Based on the study, the pediatric balance scale is an effective evaluating tool for measuring functional balance of school age child. However, the agreement of students or beginner’s interpretation is necessary in conjunction to this study results. On top of that, it is important to provide detailed explanation and repetitive training, which improves the analysis reliability. Also, each category subscores level for the pediatric balance scale must be examined carefully in conjunction to performing test, only after improving match quality via preceding practice.
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