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2013, Vol.8, No.3

  • 1.

    Analysis of Electromyographic Activities of Erect Spinae at Different Height of Table during Ultrasound Therapy Work

    김충유 | Jong-Ho Kang | 2013, 8(3) | pp.289~294 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    Purpose:The purpose of this study was to examine differences in erect spinae activities at different height of table during ultrasound therapy in order to propose a optimum work environment. Methods:Twenty five healthy adult males and females volunteered to participate in this study. EMG signals of both erector spinae(T10, T12, L2, L4) were recorded throught the surface electromyography system at different height of table(45cm, 56.2cm, 67.5cm) during ultrasound therapy work. Results:The higher table heights was, the lower %RVC of the T10, T12, L2, L4 erect spinae at both sides. The left and right T10, T12 and the left L4 showed significant differences. The lower the spinal level was, the higher %RVC of both erect spinae at 45cm, 56.2cm, 67.5cm. The left erect spinae at 56.2cm, right erect spinae at 45cm, 67.5cm showed significant differences. Conclusion:The muscle activities of both erect spinae decreased at higher table height and increased lower spinal level. We identified lower table height are risk factor of spine work related musculoskeletal disorders.
  • 2.

    The Effect of Short-term Lumbar Stabilization Exercise for Lumbar Muscle Strength and Postural Balance on Chronic LBP

    조성학 | 김진희 | 최문희 | 2013, 8(3) | pp.295~302 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract
    Purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term lumbar stabilization exercise to patients suffering from chronic low back pain(CLBP) on the strength of their lumbar flexor and extensor and the postural balance of them and to suggest effective treatment duration for them. Methods: Study subjects were 20 patients with CLBP who’s been reported the pain for more than 12 weeks. For these subjects, muscle strength of both extensor and flexor of lumbar and the balancing ability were measured before and after the intervention. Lumbar stabilization exercise was composed of matt, ball and sling exercise. The intervention was applied for total 12 sessions for 4 weeks (3 times a week) and each session was for 40 minutes. Result: For muscle strength of both extensor and flexor of lumbar, there was significant differences after the application of lumbar stabilization exercise(p<.05). For balancing ability, stabilization shows significant differences in all of the positions except PC(eyes closed on pillows)(p<.05). Distribution of weight shows no significant differences but it was generally distributed within normal range after the exercise and Fall index shows significant differences between before and after the exercise(p<.05). Conclusion : These results could have positive effect on deciding different periods of therapeutic intervention.
  • 3.

    A Study for Home-based Physical Therapy Service Introduction through a Group of Professionals In-depth Interview

    이민수 | myungchul kim | 김규용 | 2013, 8(3) | pp.303~315 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Purpose : The present study was aimed at providing political basic data for introduction home-based physical therapy service through conducting In-depth interviews with professionals for complementing the survey of previous studies. Methods : we conducted In-depth interviews to 10 professionals with their consent after describing the intent and purpose of the study. Result : Interviewees has significant recognition of home-based physical therapy service, and were sympathetic to the need for the introduction of the home-based physical therapy service. They suggest that it should be required to public relations, incorporation home-based physical therapy into the regular curriculum and research the foreign cases. Also home-based physical therapy system service should be include therapeutic exercises, education for families & caregivers and providing the rehabilitation of the team approach. Most professionals think the sooner Home-based physical therapy service introduction, the better for public. Also they propose that hospitals and clinics under the national and local government become a principal and operate in conjunction with the health center. Conclusion : Home-based physical therapy service should be conducted in early for relieving the physical, mental and social discomfort of patients, physical therapists and caregivers, also providing the quality of physical therapy to chronically ill patients. It is necessary to efforts of the physical therapy association and physical therapist and government`s political supports. In addition, we must be prepared on the basis of policy development and operation through continuously converging the opinions of experts who have been associated with home-based physical therapy service.
  • 4.

    Study on the Occupational Therapy Students Attitudes & Behavior for the Person with Disabilities

    Chel Jang | Hyun-Suk Shin | 2013, 8(3) | pp.317~326 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to check the attitudes and behavior toward the disabilities of occupational therapy students who are going to be the future subjects of medical rehabilitation service, based on this to provide occupational therapy students an alternative to have the right attitude toward the disabilities to find ways to reduce prejudice against them in society meeting in the future. Methods: The survey was carried out to select randomly 6 cities and provinces nationwide with occupational therapy, to choose 20 students at each grade and have them to fill up the questionnaire themselves after reading the text, and as a result of the survey. Results: The attitudes and behavior toward the disabilities according to the gender, there was more positive significant difference in women than men, the attitudes and behavior toward the disabilities by each grade, the higher grade they were, the more positive significant difference they had. As the results of the attitudes and behavior toward the disabilities whether to take classes related to them, there was a positive significant difference in the students who took classes related to disabilities person, and the results of the attitudes and behavior toward the disabilities whether to participate in a clinical practice and voluntary service, there was a positive significant difference in the students who took part in that service. Conclusion: The positive attitudes and behavior toward disabilities were higher in women than men, higher grade students than the lower, the more time for voluntary service and the more contact with disabilities persons. As through the results of this, the comprehensive and continuous education about the disabilities for the students in all Departments related to medical rehabilitation service and the suggestion for continuous research on the fundamental problems should be made in the future.
  • 5.

    Effects of Trunk Position Sense through Visual Cue Deprivation Balance Training in Subacute Stroke

    한규범 | Shin Won Seob | 2013, 8(3) | pp.327~335 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Purpose:The purpose of this study is to investigate effects of trunk position sense through visual cue deprivation balance training in subacute stroke patients. Methods:The subjects were randomly allocated to two groups: experimental(n=10) and control(n=10). Both groups performed balance training on sitting for 30minute after measurements. Trunk position sense test was assessed using the David back concept to determine trunk repositioning error for four movement(flexion, extension, affected side lateral flexion, non-affected side lateral flexion). Measurements on each test were assessed prior to the balance training and then immediately following the balance training. Results:In comparison of the difference of the trunk position sense between groups, the experimental group decreased significantly in trunk repositioning error of flexion, extension and affected side lateral flexion than control group(p<.05). Conclusion:The trunk position sense of the experimental group showed more improvement after the balance training program compared to the control group, Therefore, these results suggest that visual cue deprivation training is considered an effective exercise method for individuals with subacute stroke.
  • 6.

    The Effect of Visual Cue Deprivation for the Head Alignment on Unilateral Neglect Patient: Case Report

    CHANG JONG SUNG | 박정미 | Mi-Young Lee | 2013, 8(3) | pp.337~342 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Purpose : The Unilateral neglect is characterized by difficulty shifting attention to the side of space opposite the brain lesion and frequently reducing use of contralesional extremities. This study was to identify whether the visual deprivation was responsible for head position on unilateral neglect patient after stroke. Methods : A patient with left middle cerebral artery infarction participated in the study. We assessed neglect using line bisection and star cancellation test. Patient was instructed to maintain correct alignment of trunk and head in a sit position. We evaluated degree of head lateral tilting and rotation. Then, patient was blocked visual input. Also, we evaluated head position in the same way. Results : He scored 3 points in the line bisection test and 9 points star cancellation test. In postural evaluation, he had deviated posture such as lateral head tilting and rotation. After visual cue deprivation, patient showed different head position which was decreased degree of head tilting and rotation. Conclusion : For vertical body orientation, it was used multiple sensory references including the vestibular, somatosensory, and visual system. This finding suggested that abnormal posture of neglect patient could be related to the visual input. It has important clinical implications in terms of understanding the neglect
  • 7.

    The Effect of Non Elastic Taping During the Lumbar Stabilizing Exercise in Chronic Low Back Pain

    황경옥 | 정기용 | 2013, 8(3) | pp.343~350 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a combined non elastic taping and lumbar stabilizing exercise against lumbar stabilizing exercise only during the lumbar stabilizing exercise in chronic low back pain. Method: Thirty-one patients of low back pain were randomly allocated to 2 groups: lumbar stabilizing exercise group (n=16) and nonelastic taping group(n=15) with lumbar stabilizing exercise. Taping and stabilizing exercise were performed twice a week for 4 weeks. The patients were assessed using by visual analog scale (VAS) and Korean version of Oswestry disability index (KODI). The measurements of each patients were measured before the intervention and 2 weeks post-experiment and 4weeks after the intervention. All data were analyzed using by SPSS 12.0 software for Window, the experimental data was analyzed using by paired samples t-test and repeated ANOVA. All statistical tests in this study were conducted at the .05 level of significance. Results: The results of this study are in the nonelastic taping group, significant difference were found in th VAS between pre-test and post-test (p<.05). In addition, there were significant differences in the VAS between the two groups at post-test(p<.05). And in the nonelastic taping group, significant difference were found in the KODI between pre-test and post-test (p<.05). However, there were no significant differences in the KODI between the two groups at post-test (p<.05). Conclusion: These findings suggest that combination of nonelastic taping and lumbar stabilizing exercise is more effective for low back pain than stabilizing exercise alone. In conclusion, this study indicates that stabilizing exercise combined with nonelastic taping would be recommended in the clinic.
  • 8.

    Effects of Observed Action Gait Training on Spatio-temporal Parameter and Motivation of Rehabilitation in Stroke Patients

    Kang Kwon Young | 2013, 8(3) | pp.351~360 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    Purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of observed action gait training on stroke patients. Methods : 22 subjects were randomized into two groups. The observed action gait training performed that watched a video of normal gait before gait training and the general gait training without watching it. The experimental group(n=11) performed observed action gait training and the control group(n=11) performed general gait training. Both group received gait training for 3 times per week during 8 weeks. Results : The experimental group showed significant differences in the cadence, gait velocity, stride, step, single limb support, double limb support, stride length and step length(p<.05). The control group showed significant differences only in the stride(p<.05). Conclusion : The observed action gait training affected coordination and weight shift, as well as symmetry of the body. Plasticity of the brain was facilitated by repetitive visual and sensory stimulation. The observed action gait training promoted the normal gait by watching the normal gait pattern. In conclusion, motor learning through the sensory stimulation promotes brain plasticity that could improve motor function, and observed action gait training indirectly identified stimulated brain activities.
  • 9.

    The Comparison of Balance using Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool to Stable and Instability Ankle

    김기종 | 제갈혁 | 전현주 and 4other persons | 2013, 8(3) | pp.361~368 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    Purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate the comparison of balance on Stable Ankle(SA), Instability Ankle(IA) using Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool(CAIT). Methods : Total 54(SA: 27, IA: 27) subjects were volunteered to participate in the study. SA is defined as CAIT score ≥ 28, with no history of injury to ankle. IA is defined as persisting symptoms of giving way and ≤ 24 on the CAIT after ankle sprain. the balance measured using Biodex Balance System®(BBS). BBS instability protocols used static, dynamic balance level less stable(2), moderate stable(4) and level more stable(8). Results : There were significant differences at overall, Anterior-Posterior(AP), Medial-Lateral(ML) of static balance, dynamic balance level 2, 4. dynamic balance level 8 found significant difference at ML, but not found significant differences at overall, AP. Conclusion : We suggest that CAIT is acquired more exact information for IA intervention, as balance measured.
  • 10.

    A Comparison of the Serratus Anterior Muscle Activity according to the Shoulder Flexion Angles in a Closed Kinetic Chain Exercise and an Open Kinetic Chain Exercise

    문성종 | Tack-hoon Kim | Jung-suk Roh | 2013, 8(3) | pp.369~378 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    Purpose : The purpose of present study was to ascertain how the activity of the serratus anterior muscle, the upper trapezius muscle and the pectoral major muscle was affected while the upper arm was being flexed at 70, 90 and 110 degrees respectively in a closed kinetic chain exercise (wall push up plus) and an open kinetic chain exercise (static hug). Methods : Sixteen healthy young men subjects participated in the study. Surface electromyography (EMG) data were collected from the dominant-side muscles during a closed kinetic chain exercise and an open kinetic chain exercise. The activity of each muscle was measured quantitatively, and by the use of the two-way repeated ANOVA, the data were compared with each other according to exercises and shoulder flexion angles. Results : Results indicated that the closed kinetic chain exercise did not interact with the open kinetic chain exercise (p>.05). In both the closed kinetic chain exercise and the open kinetic chain exercise, the activity of the serratus anterior muscle became different significantly according to angles (p<.05). Its activity increased in order of 70, 90 and 110 degrees (p<.05). In both exercises and all angles, muscle activity was significantly higher in the serratus anterior muscle than in the upper trapezius muscle and the pectoral major muscle (p<.05). Conclusion : The above results show that there is a need to selectively control the exercise stress of the serratus anterior muscle in the case of the patients with the shoulder impingement syndrome characterized by the winged scapula, insufficient scapular protraction and upward rotation.
  • 11.

    The Age Related Changes of Thickness and Symmetry of Deep Trunk Muscles

    seo dong kwon | Seungwon Lee | 2013, 8(3) | pp.379~385 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Purpose : This study is research about deep trunk muscles (DTM) that is important and serve to control the movement of the trunk to provide stability during movement for human. In this study, trying to prove a change of DTM of aging in the ultrasound image. Methods : We measured via an ultrasound image during rest and contraction of DTM in 42 young and 48 old people, and then we measured the change of thickness and symmetry. Results : Symmetry showed a significant difference only external oblique (EO) in the young(p<.05). In the elderly, it was found that ratio of contraction was greater transverse abdominis than EO. Conclusion : I considered it could lead to improvement of activity of daily life by applying intervention for recovery of motor control of TrA for the elderly in clinical practice.
  • 12.

    The Effects of Training Using Pedalo Equipment on Balance of Post-Stroke Patients: Pilot Study

    이윤복 | 김진범 | Lee GyuChang | 2013, 8(3) | pp.387~395 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Purpose : The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of the training using Pedalo equipment on balance function in post-stroke patients. Methods : The present study was case-series. Ten post-stroke patients participated in the study. Participants performed the training using Pedalo equipment. The training using four Pedalo equipment lasted 30 minutes, 3 times a week for 6 weeks. Force platform, Berg Balance Scale(BBS), and Timed Up and Go(TUG) test were used to assess balance ability before and after training. Results : After training using Pedalo equipment, there were significantly improved on path length and sway velocity of post-stroke patients in the both of eye open and - close conditions comparing with baseline. Also, on the BBS and TUG, there were significant improvements after training. Conclusion : The results of this study showed that the training using Pedalo equipment may be effective on improving the balance ability in the post-stroke patients. Through this study, we were able to confirm the potential of training using Pedalo equipment as an intervention in the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients.
  • 13.

    The Effects of Gait Ability in the Stroke Patients after Stair Gait Exercise and Lamp Gait Exercise

    Seo Gyo cheol | 김현애 | 2013, 8(3) | pp.397~406 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Purpose : The Purpose of this study was on determine whether stair gait exercise and lamp gait exercise might increase the gait ability of the patients with stroke Methods : Fourty five patients with stroke were randomly assigned to plane gait exercise group(n=15) and ramp gait exercise group(n=15) and stair gait exercise group(n=15). During four weeks, each group participated thirty minutes for five times per week. Subjects were assessed using pre-value and post-value measurement gait ability(Step length, Heel to heel base of support, Step time, Double support ratio, Gait velocity). Results : These finding suggest that stair gait exercise group was significant in Step length, Heel to heel base of support, Step time, Double support ratio, Gait velocity(p<.05). And lamp gait exercise group was only significant increase in Step time, Gait velocity(p<.05). In comparison of three group, stair gait exercise group was high gait ability than other two groups(p>.05). Conclusion : This study showed stair gait exercise group can be used to improve gait ability than other two groups. Thus it indicates that the stair gait exercise group will be more improved through the continued gait program.
  • 14.

    The Effects of Task-Related Circuit Training by Type of Dual Task on the Gait of Chronic Stroke Patients

    김현애 | Seo Gyo cheol | 2013, 8(3) | pp.407~415 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Purpose : This study is to examine the effects of different types of tasks on gait functions of chronic stroke patients when different types of dual tasks were applied while the patients were implementing practical and continuous circuit tasks using their upper and lower extremities circulating many workbenches. Methods : Forty-four chronic stroke patients were divided into a dual motor circuit task training group, a dual cognitive circuit task training group and a simple task training group. Before training, all the patients were identically encouraged to receive conservative physical therapy for 30 minutes by a physical therapist were thereafter made to train for 30 minutes, five times a week for a total of eight weeks with individual additional tasks. The dual motor circuit task training consisted of continuous circuit training motor tasks and additional motor tasks and the dual cognitive circuit task training consisted of tasks combining the same circuit training motor tasks and additional cognitive tasks. The simple task training consisted of natural walks on a flat terrain to the front, rear and lateral sides of the terrain. Changes in functional gait abilities made through the training were evaluated using GAITRite. SPSS Win 12.0 was used for the data analysis. Results : As for the gait variables that showed significant differences in comparison between the groups over the training period, the dual motor circuit task training group showed more significant differences than the dual cognitive circuit task training group and the simple task training group at 4 weeks and 8 weeks of training(p<.05). Conclusion : Therefore, it could be seen that the practical and continuous dual circuit task training was more effective than simple task training on gait. In comparison between the types of dual tasks, the dual motor circuit task training group showed more effects than the dual cognitive circuit task training group.
  • 15.

    The Relationship between the Segment of Erector Spinae during a Core Stability Exercise according to Visual Control

    Yoon, Jung Gyu | 2013, 8(3) | pp.417~424 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Purpose : We investigated the relationship between the segment of erector spinae during a core stability exercise according to visual control. Methods : The subjects of this study were 20 healthy students. An 8-channel electromyograph was used to measure muscle activities of the erector spinae by segment(cervical, thoracic and lumbar) during a core stability exercise according to visual control. The collected data were analyzed using the independent t-test and Pearson-test. Results : The activity of the erector spinae for all segment was higher without the vision than with. The activity of right cervical erector spinae was significantly increased by increasing the activity of the left thoracic erector spinae during a core stability exercise with vision (r= .555). The activity of left thoracic erector spinae was significantly increased by increasing the activity of the left lumbar erector spinae during a core stability exercise without vision (r= .472). Conclusion : There was a positive correlation between the cervical and thoracic segment of erector spinae during a core stability exercise with vision. There was a positive correlation between the thoracic and lumbar segment of erector spinae during a core stability exercise without vision.
  • 16.

    The Effects of Visual Direction Control on Balance and Gait Speed in Patients with Stroke

    권혜림 | Shin Won Seob | 2013, 8(3) | pp.425~431 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of visual control on gait speed and balance in patients with stroke. Static balance and gait speed were investigated with comparison and fixed direction of visual. METHODS: We included twenty-six patients with stroke. Participants were measured static balance while standing on a forceplate with one of 4 different visual direction in front, floor, non-affected side and affected side for 30 seconds. To compare of the gait speed, participants had to walk with one of fixed visual direction. And to compare of gait speed with visual dispersion, gait speed were measured with visual change in left and right, up and down direction every 5m, 2m and 1m intervals. RESULTS: The result of the static balance with fixed visual showed that the affected side and the non-affected side were shown significantly increased sway of total sway length, mediolateral distance, anteroposterior distance, average velocity(p<.05). The gait speed with fixed visual showed that affected side was significantly slower(p<.05). And the gait speed significantly increased as interval of visual dispersion decrease in the sagittal and horizontal plane(p<.05). CONCLUSION: The results from this study showed that the visual direction effected on static balance and the faster visual movement made to increase the gait speed. Therefore the rehabilitation training with visual control may be implemented for stroke patients.
  • 17.

    Effect of Hold-Relax Technique for College Students with Hamstring Shortening

    Oh, Yeong Taek | 2013, 8(3) | pp.433~441 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of three PNF stretching techniques for improving hamstring flexibility and to compare the effectiveness of three PNF stretching techniques(direct and indirect and mix(direct&indirect) of hold-relax technique). Methods: The subjects were randomly assigned into three groups: group1-direct-hold-relax technique(n=10); group2-indirect-hold-relax technique(n=8); group3-mix(direct&indirect)-hold-relax technique(n=10). For each group, stretch was performed three times a week for a period of three weeks. Hamstring flexibility for each group was measured using the ASLR and PSLR. Results: The results showed significant improvement in hamstring flexibility for all subjects of three groups. However, were not significantly different between the three groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, three PNF stretching techniques are confirmed to be useful for improving hamstring flexibility. The choice for a qualified technique has to be made individually according to patient and therapist.
  • 18.

    An Analysis on Upper Extremity and Trunk EMG of Elderly for Table Height Using Electronic Bed

    Lee Myoung Hee | Lee Sang-yeol | 2013, 8(3) | pp.443~448 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Purpose:In recent years, senior friendly device is growing rapidly because of population aging The study was designed to investigate the effects of table height of electronic bed on Upper Extremity and Trunk EMG in elderly. Methods:Thirty right-handed elderly without history of neurological and musculoskeletal dysfunction were participated in this study. Three heights of the table (3/3 height, 2/3 height, and 1/3 height between top of the shoulder and olecranon) were provided. During the eating performance, surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure muscle activity, and electrodes were attached to the deltoid middle fiber, serratus anterior, suprapinatus, upper trapezius, rhomboideus, cervical part of longissimus, thoracic part of longissimus, lumbar part of longissimus on right. One way ANOVA was conducted for the statistical analysis. Results:There were significant differences in deltoid middle fiber, suprapinatus, upper trapezius, rhomboideus, lumbar part of longissimus in the 3 different height of table (p<.05). The deltoid middle fiber, suprapinatus, upper trapezius, and lumbar part of longissimus were significantly increased in higher table than lower table(p<.05). And the rhomboideus was significantly decreased in higher table than lower table(p<.05). Conclusion:This study demonstrates that different height of table affect upper extremity and trunk muscle activity. The table height of olecranon is the best for elderly.
  • 19.

  • 20.

    The Trend of Research in Journal of the Korean Society of Physical Medicine

    Jung-suk Roh | 2013, 8(3) | pp.457~466 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Purpose:The purpose of this study was to investigate the trend of research in Journal of the Korean Society of Physical Medicine (JKSPM). Methods:A total of 897 articles of JKSPM from Vol.1, No.1, 2006 to Vol.7, No.4, 2012 were reviewed in regard to research type, research level, subjects, research topic, statistic method, and researcher. Results:The most common research type was experimental study(65%). The most common research level was level 2(randomized controlled trials; RCT)(55%). The most common age group of subject was age 11-30 group(55%). The most common diagnosis of subjects was stroke(49%). The main research topic of articles was therapeutic exercise(13.2%). Independent t-test was the most used statistic method. A professor was the most common researcher. The Daegu and Busan were the most common provinces that researcher works. Conclusion:This study showed the trend of research in JKSPM and helped readers to understand the trends of research in fields of physical therapy of Korea. In further studies, it is necessary to review systematically and intensively other journals in field of physical therapy.
  • 21.

    The Effect of Backward Pedaling Ergometer Training on Ankle ROM, Lower Extremities Strength, Foot Pressure in Hemiplegia

    하미선 | 김은정 | 김명희 and 1other persons | 2013, 8(3) | pp.467~477 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Purpose : The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of backward pedaling ergometer training on ankle ROM, lower extremities strength, foot pressure in hemiplegia. Methods : The subjects consisted of control group(n=10) and experimental group(n=10), subjects were trained 5 times a week for 2 weeks each group. Control group were trained forward, experimental group were trained backward pedaling with physical therapy in both groups. Each group measured ankle joint ROM with DUALER IQ and ankle and knee joint flexor and extensor muscle strength by Manual Muscle Test System and foot pressure by Gait view system. Results : The result of this study between pre and post test that experimental group had statistically significantly differences in ankle joint range of motion and lower extremities strength. But foot pressure had not statistically significant differences. There was not significantly difference of variation between groups. Conclusion : Therefore these results mean that backward and forward pedaling ergometer training effected an improvement of lower extremities function in hemiplegia.