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2013, Vol.8, No.4

  • 1.

    The Effect of Improve the Waist Flexibility, the Waist Muscular Strength and the Waist Balance which Grafted in William & McKenzie Exercise with Swiss Ball

    Lee, Han Ki | 조영현 | 이준철 | 2013, 8(4) | pp.479~487 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract
    PURPOSE : The purpose of this research was comparing and analyzing the exercise effect for the public who was not suffering back pain exercise in improving the waist flexibility, the waist muscular strength and the waist sense of equilibrium after grafted in William & McKenzie exercise with swiss ball. Methods : 16 people who were not in progress of the chronic low-back pain were recruited. They were grouped into 8 for each experiment(GSBE=Group which play swiss ball exercise, GWME=Group which William & McKenzie exercise). Results : The following result was obtained through measurement of three items in both pre and post examination. Conclusions : Comparing the average result of flexibility improvements of each group after 12-week exercise program, the result showed that GSBE was more effective than GWME with increase of muscular strength. Comparing the average result of muscular strength of each group after 12-week exercise program, the result showed that GSBE was more effective than GWME with increase of flexibility improvements. Comparing the average result of sense equilibrium of each group after 12-week exercise program, the result showed that GSBE was more effective than GWME with increase of sense equilibrium.
  • 2.

    The Effects of Respiratory Muscle Strengthening Training on Pulmonary Function and Gait Ability in Subacute Stroke Patients

    김진석 | Shin Won Seob | 2013, 8(4) | pp.489~496 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of respiratory muscle strengthening training on pulmonary function and gait ability in patients with subacute stroke. METHODS: Eighteen inpatients with subacute stroke were recruited for this study. The subjects were randomized into two group. All study groups participated in a conventional stroke rehabilitation intervention 30minutes a day 5 times a week for 4 weeks. For subjects from the experimental group, respiratory muscle strengthening training was performed: 30minutes a day 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Outcomes such as the pulmonary function(Forced Vital Capacity, Forced Expiratory Volume in one second, Maximal Voluntary Ventilation) and gait ability(10m walk test, 6 minute walk test) were measured before and after training. RESULTS: There were significant differences of pulmonary function(FVC ,FEV1 and MVV) and gait ability(10m walk test, 6minute walk test) between pre and post in the experimental group. In comparison of two group, experimental group was significant different pulmonary function(FVC, FEV1, MVV) and gait ability(6minute walk test) than control group. but, There was no significant difference of the gait ability(10m walk test). CONCLUSION: This study showed experimental group can be used to improve pulmonary function and gait ability than control group. These findings suggest that the respiratory muscle strengthening training effect on pulmonary function and gait ability for rehabilitation in patients with subacute stroke.
  • 3.

    Activation of the Triceps Surae During Heel Raising Depend on the Knee Joint Flexion Angles

    권유정 | 송민영 | 2013, 8(4) | pp.497~503 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate the change of triceps surae activation during heel raise test in standing among knee flexion angles(0°, 30°, 45°,60°). Methods : Twenty healthy individuals performed unilateral plantarflexion in standing with 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° knee flexion. Activity of medial gastrocnemius(MG), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), soleus(Sol) was recorded with surface electromyography(EMG). Result : The muscle activations induced the four different positions were compared and results showed that was significant difference MG and LG while the angle increase from 0° to 30°, 45°, 60° but Sol did not show significant differences in every angle. Conclusion : This study suggest that 30° knee flexion is required to induce a significant mechanical disadvantage of gastrocnemius.
  • 4.

    The Effect of EEG through Proprioceptive Exercise and Computerized Cognitive Therapy on Stroke

    Kim shin gyun | ERR | Kyoung Kim and 2other persons | 2013, 8(4) | pp.505~512 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Purpose: The purpose of this study applied computerized cognitive therapy and proprioception exercise to stroke patients and analyzed improvement in their changes in Electrocephalogram(EEG). Methods: The subjects were 30 patients who were diagnosed with stroke and they were randomly selected to a proprioceptive training group(n=15), a cognitive training group(n=15). The experiment was performed for three times per week for 6 weeks and EEG was measured before and after the experiment . Results: Before and after the experiment in each group of experiments, the α-and β-wave study showed significant changes but, there was no significant difference in the change between groups before and after the experiment. Conclusion: From the above results, the cognitive training and the proprioception training have a positive impact in stroke patients EEG changes, but it is difficult to suggest a better therapeutic interventions. However, as compared with that the cognitive training that directly involved in the cognitive and brain activation, the proprioception training have changes on brain activation. Therefore, of Clinical therapeutic interventions, the proprioception training can be presented effectively to the changes in brain activation in stroke patients.
  • 5.

    The Effects of Combined Complex Exercise with Abdominal Drawing-in Maneuver on Expiratory Abdominal Muscles Activation and Forced Pulmonary Function for Post Stroke Patients

    윤정현 | TeaSoo Kim | Lee Byung-ki | 2013, 8(4) | pp.513~523 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract
    Purpose:The purpose of this study was to investigate characteristics of the forced pulmonary function test effect and abdominal muscles activation by combined complex exercise with abdominal drawing-in maneuver training of chronic stroke patients. Methods: 14 post stroke patients(10 males and 4 females) involved voluntary this study and we divided two groups into CEG(complex exercise group) and CEAG(complex exercise and abdominal drawing-in maneuver group).(n=7, per goup). Each groups implicated the 2 times, 30minute exercises for 6 weeks a day. The CEAG performed the complex exercise 15 minutes and 15 minutes of abdominal drawing-in maneuver. For data analysis, the mean and standard deviation were estimated; non-parametric independent t-test was carried out.. Results:According to the study, in the combined complex exercise with abdominal drawing-in maneuver group, FVC and activation of transversus abdominis/internal oblique were statistically significant difference compared to the complex exercise group. Conclusion:These results indicate that the combined complex with abdominal drawing-in maneuver was efficient in enhancing abdominal muscles activation and pulmonary function of chronic stroke patients.
  • 6.

    Muscle Recovery After Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Rats by Different Loading Swimming Exercise

    Min-Hyung RHEE | Jongsoon Kim | 2013, 8(4) | pp.525~532 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Purpose:The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different loading swimming exercises on muscle recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats. Methods:For this study, thirty-one Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into five groups. There were the negative control group (NCG, n=5), the positive control group (PCG, n=7), the low intensity swimming exercise group (LISEG, n=7), the moderate intensity swimming exercise group (MISEG, n=7) and the high intensity swimming exercise group (HISEG, n=5). Each rat was weighed to determine the lead weight to be attached to the base of its tail. Subsequently, the PCG, the LISEG, the MISEG and the HISEG were underwent standard unilateral sciatic nerve crush. The LISEG (no load), the MISEG (lead weight equivalent to 2% average body mass) and the HISEG (lead weight equivalent to 4% average body mass) were received the 10 minute swimming exercise in a day for 10 days. The NCG and PCG were not received with any therapeutic intervention. The diameter of the calf muscle and the level of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured to detect the effects of the swimming exercise. Results:The maximum diameter of the calf muscles was significantly increased after seventh swimming exercise in the LISEG, the MISEG and the HISEG compared with the PCG (p<0.05). However, there was no statistically significant difference between the LISEG, the MISEG and the HISEG. Also, the level of the serum LDH was significantly decreased in the LISEG, the MISEG and the HISEG compared with the PCG (p<0.05). Conclusion:Taken together, these results suggest that swimming exercise could accelerate muscle recovery processes after crush injury, but the different intensity of the swimming exercise does not affect healing processes.
  • 7.

    The Effect of Low-dye Taping on Muscle Activity during Single-leg Standing in People with Flatfoot

    Min chul Park | 2013, 8(4) | pp.533~538 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Purpose : This study was performed to investigate the effect of Low-dye Taping on muscle activity during single-leg standing in subjects with flexible flatfoot. Methods : Thirteen able-body volunteers who had flexible flatfoot were recruited for this study. Subjects were measured navicular drop test to evaluate pronation of foot and muscle activity during single-leg standing before and after taping. The muscle activity was recorded using surface EMG from the tibialis anterior and the peroneus longus during single-leg standing on stable and unstable surface. Results : The results show that the navicular drop height and the tibialis anterior muscle activity were significantly decreased after Low-dye taping. Conclusion : The results suggest that Low-dye taping could be useful in managing overuse of the tibialis anterior by reducing their level of activation during single-leg standing.
  • 8.

    The Effects of Exercise of Diverse Intensities on the Expression of TNF-α in the Spinal Cord in Osteoarthritic Rats

    박수진 | 2013, 8(4) | pp.539~547 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Purpose : This study examined the effects of exercise of diverse intensities on the expression of TNF-α(tumor necrosis factor-α) in the spinal cord in osteoarthritic rats. Methods : Over a period of four weeks, the authors applied treadmill exercise programs of diverse intensities to Sprague-Dawley rats, to which intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate(MIA, 3㎎/50㎕, diluted in saline) was applied to the right knee joint to induce osteoarthritis. The four-week exercise program was not carried out with the control group(CG, n=10). Exercise programs of applicable intensities were applied to the low-intensity exercise group(LEG, n=10), moderate-intensity exercise group(MEG, n=10), and high-intensity exercise group(HEG, n=10) over the four weeks. Observations were made of expression of TNF-α in the spinal cord in osteoarthritic rats using western blot analysis. Results : there were significant differences(p<.05) in the comparison of expression of TNF-α between the four groups involved. The expression of TNF-α in the spinal cord, the LEG and HEG had more elevated expression significantly than the CG(p<.05). But the MEG had reduced expression significantly than the CG(p<.05). Conclusion : These study results suggest that moderate-intensity exercise is effective in inhibition TNF-α in the spinal cord. They also indicate that in prescribing exercise to treat osteoarthritic patients, exercise of moderate intensity is most suitable to patients’ chronic pain, rather than low or high intensity.
  • 9.

    The Usability of Sit to Stand Test Performance in Chronic Stroke

    Cho Hwi-young | Seung Heon An | lee yunbok and 2other persons | 2013, 8(4) | pp.549~558 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Purpose : This study is designed as a retrospective study, and identified the clinical usability of Sit to Stand (STS) test for predicting of fall incidence in stroke patients who experienced a fall a under 1 years. Methods : Between July 2011 and November 2012, 69 inpatients with stroke in K rehabilitation hospital were participated under voluntarily signing the informed consent form. STS test and 10m walk test (10MWT) were used to assess the muscle strength of lower-extremity and walking velocity, respectively. Also, we tested dynamic balance and motor function of lower-extremity in affected-side using with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and the Fugl-Meyer assessment of lower extremity (FM-L/E). Results : There were significant differences between subjects with fall-experienced group and without subjects without fall-experienced group in STS test, 10MWT, BBS scores and FM-L/E. STS test significantly showed a negative correlation between 10MWT (r=-.657), BBS (r=-.512), and FM-L/E (r=-.563). And, 10MWT have a influence on the performance of STS test (the capacity of explanation = 20%). The cut-off value of STS performance predicting falls experience is ≥14.36 seconds (sensitivity=76%; specificity=79%, area under curve=.785). According to logistic regression analysis of falls experience, subjects ≥14.36 s showed that 4.164 times (odd ratio) increased in falls than subjects < 14.36 s in STS test. Conclusion : This study demonstrated that STS test may be a useful tool predicting and measuring falls in patients with stroke. Further study will be needed to elucidate the kinematic analysis of STS test and the relationship between physical activity level and falls in stroke patients.
  • 10.

    The Effects of Feedback Respiratory Exercise on Gait Ability in Patients with Stroke

    Seo Gyo cheol | Cho, Misuk | 2013, 8(4) | pp.559~566 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Purpose : The present study examines how feedback respiratory exercise affects gait performance of stroke patients. Methods : Forty stroke patients were randomly divided into an experiment group and a control group. For the former group, patients went through a half-hour of training therapy and a half-hour of feedback respiratory device exercise. For the latter group, patients went through 30 minutes of training therapy and a half-hour of motomed exercise. All participants had five training sessions each week for four weeks. For measurement, a GAITRite system was used to examine spatial parameters, and functional ambulation performance before and after the training. Results : In terms of spatial parameters, double support ratio, stance phase increased significantly in the experiment group after the walking exercise(p<.05). FAP rose more significantly in the experiment group than in the control group(p<.05). In comparison of two exercise groups, double support ratio, Stance phase, gait velocity, FAP was significant difference(p<.05). Conclusion : The experiment results showed that feedback respiratory exercise is effective in enhancing gait performance.
  • 11.

    Application Effects of Various Solidity of Mouth Guard on Torque and Power at Isokinetic Contraction in Shoulder : A Pilot Study

    Lee Sang-yeol | 2013, 8(4) | pp.567~571 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study find out the effect of torque and power through various solidity of mouth guard on shoulder flexion and extension. METHODS: This study was conducted with healthy adults in their 20s Korean. Cybex system was used to measure the torque and power fo shoulder joint flexion/extension during isokinetic contraction when the various solidity mouth guard was used and no mouth guard was used. RESULTS: The results of this study were summarized as follows: relative torque and average power was showed significantly difference between non applying mouth guard and applying hard type mouth guard during shoulder flexion and extension at isokinetic contraction. CONCLUSION: The application of hard type mouth guard was increased torque and power in joint of body. which may be clinically useful.
  • 12.

    The Reliability and Validity of Korean Version of the Wheelchair User’s Shoulder Pain Index in Wheelchair Users

    박지연 | 조상현 | 2013, 8(4) | pp.573~582 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to establish the reliability and validity of the Wheelchair User's Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI), which was translated into Korean for long-term wheelchair users. This index measured 15 functional activities, including transfer, self-care, wheelchair mobility and general activities. Methods: To assess test-retest reliability, 23 long-term wheelchair users completed this self-administered index twice within the same day. Reliability was determined by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Cronbach's alpha was used to measure internal consistency. To examine concurrent validity, 21 long-term wheelchair users completed the questionnaire, and we examined the correlation between the index score and the shoulder range of motion measurements. Results: The results showed that the intraclass correlation for test-retest reliability of the total index score ranging from .88 to .99 was good to excellent. Additionally, Cronbach's alpha was .96. The internal consistency indicated excellent. Concurrent validity showed negative correlations of total index score to range of motion measurements of shoulder flexion (rho=-.58), extension (rho=-.09), abduction (rho=-.59), external rotation (rho=-.07) and internal rotation (rho=-.3), suggesting a relationship of total index score to loss of shoulder range of motion. Conclusion: The Korean WUSPI shows not only high reliability and internal consistency, but also concurrent validity with loss of shoulder flexion and abduction.
  • 13.

    Comparative Analysis of Muscles Activation relate to Core Stability during 5 Therapeutic Exercise in Children with Spastic Diplegia

    서혜정 | JoongHwi Kim | 신현희 and 1other persons | 2013, 8(4) | pp.583~592 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Purpose:This study aimed to investigate muscles activation relate to core stability during 5 therapeutic exercise in children with spastic diplegia. Methods:The subjects of this study were 8 children with typical development and 12 children with spastic diplegia who have been treated in Bobath children's hospital, all of whom agreed to participate in the study. All subjects were measured to see their muscles activation of rectus abdominalis, external oblique abdominalis, elector spinae, gluteus maximus, rectus femoris, and semitendinosus with surface EMG. Results:The results of this study were as follows : 1) There were statistically significant difference in the root mean square(RMS) of all muscles according to 5 therapeutic exercise in children with spastic diplegia. 2) There were statistically significant difference in the RMS of all muscles according to 5 therapeutic exercise in children with typical development. 3) Significant differences of the RMS between diplegic children and normal children were found in elector spinae and rectus femoris only curl-up exercise. Conclusion:As the above results, we suggest that 5 therapeutic exercises could be used for a core stability or core strengthening program. Depending on the individual needs of children with cerebral palsy, some of exercises may be more beneficial than others for achieving strength.
  • 14.

    The Relationship between Personality, Music Type and MVIC, Power for the Knee Extensor on Inducing Muscle Fatigue

    Yoon, Jung Gyu | 2013, 8(4) | pp.593~600 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Purpose : We investigated the relationship between personality, music type and MVIC, power for the knee extensor on inducing muscle fatigue. Methods : The subjects of this study were 22 healthy students. MVIC(Maximum Voluntary Isometric Contraction) and power in knee extension was measured by PRIMUS RS. Personality types was measured by MBTI(Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) that is an instrument designed to provide descriptive profiles of personality types and preferences. The collected data were analyzed using the independent t-test, MANOVA and Pearson-test. Results : There was no significant differences both MVIC and power of the knee extensor according to personality and music type. The power was significantly increased by increasing the MVIC during a knee extension on inducing muscle fatigue without music type(r= .786~ .896). There was no significant correlation both MVIC and power of the knee extensor according to personality. Conclusion : There was a positive correlation between power and MVIC during a knee extension on inducing muscle fatigue without music type. There was no significant correlation both MVIC and power of the knee extensor according to personality.
  • 15.

    Effect of Distance Between Trunk and Desk on Forward Head Posture and Muscle Activity of Neck and Shoulder Muscles During Computer Work

    Lee Won hwee | 2013, 8(4) | pp.601~608 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of distance between trunk and desk on forward head posture and muscle activity of neck and shoulder muscles during computer work. Methods : Twenty subjects who have healthy conditions were asked to perform computer work in two conditions (distance between trunk and desk was 0 and 15 cm). Forward head angle was analyzed with a SIMI motion analysis system. Surface electromyography recorded the upper trapezius and splenius capitis muscles. The significance of differences in distance between trunk and desk (0cm and 15cm) was tested by paired t-test. The alpha level was set at .05. Results : The results showed that the change of forward head angle was significantly higher during the computer work when the distance between trunk and desk was 15cm than 0cm. The muscle activity of upper trapezius and splenius capitis was also significantly higher during the computer work when the distance between trunk and desk was 15cm than 0cm. Conclusion : Our study suggest that the distance between trunk and desk was should minimized for prevention of forward head posture during computer work.
  • 16.

    Effects of Hamstring Flexibility and Dynamic Stability of Lower Lumbar according to Stretching and Massage Techniques

    Kim Gi Chul | Lee Jeon Hyeong | kwon sang min | 2013, 8(4) | pp.609~617 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    Purpose: This study aims to provide effects of therapeutic techniques as well as basic materials of safety by comparing and analyzing the effects of hamstring flexibility and dynamic stability of lower lumbar according to Stretching and Massage Techniques to adults with reduced the flexibility of hamstring. Methods: This study conducted differential diagnosis through sit and reach test(SRT) and Schober test to select subjects who have shortened hamstring without any spinal problem. Selected subjects were divided into two groups randomly; HSG(Hamstring Stretching Group, n=8) and HMG(Hamstring Massage Group, n=8) and they received treatment for 2 weeks. To take statistics, SRT and dynamic view using x-ray were used. Results: On SRT, HSG and HMG showed significant difference between pre and post test. A comparison of the difference value between HSG and HMG, HSG(9.73±1.78) has more remarkable outcome than HMG(2.78±0.56). Lower lumbar intervertebral disc length test for Intervertebral disc length(IDL)L45 and IDLL5S1 did not show significant differences between two groups and difference value. Conclusion: This study showed that stretching is more effective to improve hamstring flexibility than massage technique. Especially, flexibility increase of the hamstring in vertebral stabilization cannot affect improvement possibility will make a flexibility in order and the intervention and stabilization exercise of the spine.
  • 17.

    The Effects of Exercise-induced Fatigue on Knee Joint Position Sense in the Young, Elderly Adults and Stroke Patients

    권오성 | Seungwon Lee | seo dong kwon and 1other persons | 2013, 8(4) | pp.619~625 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Purpose : The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of muscle fatigue on knee joint position sense in the young, elderly adults, and stroke patients. Methods : The subjects were recruited into three groups; young group(YG)(N=15), elderly group(EG)(N=15), and stroke group(SG)(N=15). Exercise-induced fatigue was achieved by repeated active exercise 60 times on an angle at 10 to 100 degrees of the knee joint with an angle speed of 120°/s, with three sets for 15 minutes. Evaluation was performed for determination of repositioning error using passive angle repositioning (PAR) and active angle repositioning (AAR). Results : Regarding the error score for the knee joint position sense in both the baseline and muscle fatigue, significant increases were observed between the YG and EG (p<.05), and between the EG and SG (p<.01), and between YG and SG (p<.05) in the PAR, YG and SG (p<.05) in the AAR. Conclusion : In particular, the results of this study indicate that management and intervention for elderly adults and stroke patients can result in improvement of proprioception.
  • 18.

    Comparison of Body Composition of College Students after 4week Jump-roping Exercise

    주민 | Lee Myoung Hee | 2013, 8(4) | pp.627~635 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Purpose:The purpose of this study is to identify how the body composition changes after jump-roping exercise. Methods:The subjects are 40 college students, 20 females and 20 males. The subjects were selected among college students who had not taken any drug for more than 4 weeks before the experiment started. The experiment was performed for 4 weeks, from May 23rd to June 13rd, 2012. To collect the data, the vital signs such as pulse, blood pressure, weight), and the body composition were measured before and after the experiment. The data on the body composition were analyzed by the electrical resistance analyzer. Results:Muscle mass was increased and body fat was decreased for both females and males after the exercise. In particular the increase of the muscle mass and the decrease of the body fat for the females were statistically significant. The result that the body fat of the females was decreased significantly more than that of males is interpreted that the body fat of females are comparatively higher than that of males. Additionally the muscle mass of the left arm and leg of the subjects were significantly increased(p<.05). Correlation analysis between general characteristics such as body composition, abdominal obesity and specific muscle areas for both men and women showed generally positive between before and after the jump-roping exercise (p <.05, p <.01). However the correlation between sleeping time and each variable showed negative. Conclusion:A according to the result of this study, jump-roping exercise had a very positive effect on the body composition. The study suggests that college students keep jump roping for a long period to change their body composition favorably.
  • 19.

    The Effects of Task Oriented Training with Suspension Device on Trunk Stability and Gross Motor Function of Children with Spastic Diplegia Cerebral Palsy

    이미선 | Jong-duk Choi | 2013, 8(4) | pp.637~645 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Purpose:The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of using a suspension device for arm reaching activity on trunk stability and gross motor function of children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy. Methods:The subject in this study consisted of 11, GMFCS(Gross Motor Function Classification System)Ⅲ~Ⅳ children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy, all of whom agreed to participate in the study. All subjects were divided into two groups: the experimental group using a suspension device, and the control group using no suspension device. For each group, a thirty-minute intervention was done twice per week during 8 weeks. Before and after intervention, each test was measured using TIS(Trunk Impairment Scale), GMFM(Gross Motor Function Measure) and PRT(Pediatric Reaching Test) to change trunk stability, gross motor function and arm reaching activity. The data were analyzed with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results:All two groups had a meaningful increase in GMFM-Sit data measured before and after intervention. The experimental group had a significant increase from an average of 78.83 to an average of 84.83 in GMFM-Crawling. For both groups, there was a substantial increase in the change in sitting position and arm reaching. Conclusion:According to the results of this study, the arm reaching activity using suspension device had an effect on trunk stability and gross motor function and it changed arm reaching activity.
  • 20.

    The Effects of Squatting Exercise with Gym Ball and Wall on Lower Extremity Muscles Activation

    Oh Tae Young | 2013, 8(4) | pp.647~653 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    Purpose : The purpose of this study was to compare the lower extremities muscle activation between squatting exercise with gym ball and wall for improving muscle strengthening in lower extremities. Methods : Participants were 21 university students(males 10, females 11) who didn’t have any problem with orthopedic surgery. Participants performed squatting exercise with gym ball and wall. Squatting exercise with gym ball were performed using by gym ball behind back, and the gym ball were fixed in back and wall. We asked participants to push back the gym ball slightly to prevent fall of ball. Wall squatting exercise, we ask participants to contact their back in wall slightly in order to prevent trunk flexion during performed squatting exercise. Each squatting exercise had performed until knee joint were flexed at 60 degree, and maintained five seconds. We collected data from E.M.G of Biceps femoris, Gastrocnemius, Vastus medialis and lateralis, Tibialis anterior of lower extremity in isometric phase of knee joint angle 60 degree of each squatting exercise. We analysed data using by ANOVA and independent t-test of SPSS PC ver.20.0 in order to compare the muscle activation between squatting exercise with gym ball and wall. Results : All of lower extremities muscle activation showed more higher value in squatting exercise with gym ball than squatting exercise with wall, especially there was significantly difference of muscle activation in vastus medialis, tibialis anterior between squatting exercise with gymball and with wall. Conclusion : On comprehensively considering the results of the present study, we suggested that squatting exercise with gym ball was more effective method improving lower extremity muscle strengthening
  • 21.

    The Effect of Functional Postural Trunk Exercise on Pain, Activities of Daily Living, Range of Motion, Deep Cranio-cervical Flexor Muscle Endurance in Neck Pain Patient by Acute Whiplash-Associated Disorders

    최현웅 | Suhn-yeop Kim | 2013, 8(4) | pp.655~666 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Purpose : The main objective of this study is observing the effects of the functional postural trunk exercise (FPTE) on deep cranio-cervical flexor (CCF) muscle endurance applied on neck pain patients suffering from the acute whiplash-association disorder (WAD). Methods : The study was tested with 47 patients with neck pain. All patients were equally treated with the ordinary therapy, only experimental group (n=23) was treated with FPTE: assumption of an upright lumbo-pelvic and spinal postural position, adding a neck lengthening manoeuvre in addition. Patients attended physical therapy for 3 times a week , for 4 weeks. Visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, neck disability index (NDI), range of motion (ROM), were recorded both before and after the intervention. Also muscle activity in the CCF test was employed to analyze the changes between before and after. Results : After 4 weeks of training intervention, a remarkable increase in muscle endurance, rotation, extension ROM (p<.05) and decrease in pain and NDI (p<.05) in both groups. Further, the differences between groups were muscle endurance (F=60.350, p<.01), pain, and the left rotation ROM (p<.05). Conclusion : From the results, the experimental group had significant the increase in muscle endurance, and the significant decrease in pain. Whilst further research in this category is necessary, these observations suggest that applying exercise in early diagnosis can be of help to treat the neck pain patients suffering from the WAD.