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2014, Vol.9, No.1

  • 1.

    The Effects of Treadmill Gait Training with Flexible Derotator of Femur Orthosis on Postural Alignment of Lower Extremities and Gait in Children with Cerebral Palsy: Single Group Rpeated Measure Design

    유현영 | Suhn-yeop Kim | 장현정 | 2014, 9(1) | pp.1~10 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of flexible derotator of femur orthosis (FDO) during treadmill gait training on the quadriceps-angle (Q-angle), lateral pelvic tilt, gait speed, and number of steps in children with cerebral palsy. Methods : Seven children with cerebral palsy who had rotational deformity of the lower extremities participated in this study. We used single group repeated measure design. The procedure consisted of baseline phase, intervention phase, and post-intervention phase. The baseline phase consisted of stretching and strengthening exercise and treadmill gait training without FDO. The treatment phase not only included the same procedures as those for baseline, but also included FDO during treadmill gait training. Postural alignment of the lower extremities was assessed with the Q-angle, and lateral pelvic tilt using the Dartfish software program. A 10-m walk test was used to evaluate gait speed and number of steps. Results : For postural alignment, there was significant differences after the application of FDO (p<.05). For gait ability, there was significant differences in all phases (p<.01). Conclusion : These finding suggest that the application of FDO during treadmill gait training had a positive effect on the improvement of postural alignment and gait ability in children with cerebral palsy having rotational deformity.
  • 2.

    Comparative Effectiveness of Schroth Therapeutic Exercise Versus Sling Therapeutic Exercise in Flexibility, Balance, Spine Angle and Chest Expansion in Patient with Scoliosis

    이준호 | Suhn-yeop Kim | 2014, 9(1) | pp.11~23 | number of Cited : 22
    Abstract
    Purpose: The purpose of this study suggests the exercise programs for improving the function and structure by applying the Schroth exercise method and sling exercise method to the scoliosis patient. Methods: The subjects were 16 patients who were diagnosed with scoliosis. They were randomly assigned either to a Schroth exercise group (n=8) that received Schroth exercise program or to a sling exercise group (n=8) that received sling exercise program. Flexibility, static balance, dynamic balance, and spinal angles were measured by using the modified sit and reach test, one leg standing with closed eyes, functional reach test, and Cobb’s angle, respectively. The chest expansion were calculated using differences of chest circumference between maximum inspiration and maximum expiration measured under armpits, at the junction between the sternum and xiphoid process, and at the waist. Results: Schroth group before and after the intervention there was a difference in the static balance, spine angle, chest expansion (p<.05). sling group before and after the intervention there was a difference in the flexibility, static balance, spine angle, chest expansion (p<.05). There were significantly differences between the both groups for chest expansion thoracic level inspiratory variables at post-exercise. Conclusion: These results revealed that two exercise program improved flexibility, static standing balance, spine angle, chest expansion level and ability used as scoliosis management and intervention. Therefore, it is expected to be used as a method for the treatment and prevention in the process of rehabilitation of patients with scoliosis.
  • 3.

    Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation

    이동률 | Jongsoon Kim | 2014, 9(1) | pp.25~33 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Purpose : The purpose of this was to translate Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation(PRTEE) into Korean and identify the reliability and validity of a Korean version of PRTEE. Method : The subjects of this study were 32 patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis. The subjects were surveyed using a Korean version of PRTEE three times: at the first visit, one week after, and two weeks after. This questionnaire consisted of 15 questions including 5 questions about pain and 10 questions about functions. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to measure reliability and Cronbach's alpha coefficients were used to assess internal consistency. In addition, the validity of the survey results was examined by correlating a visual analogue scale with the outcome of holding without pain. Results : Test-retest reliability of Korea version PRTEE was good total ICC= .962 (CI=.922-,982). Cronbach's alpha value for PRTEE was found to be .955 and it was statistically significant (p<.05). The positive correlation between PRTEE and VAS was moderate to high (r=.753, P=.00) and statistically significant. There was also a low significant negative correlation between PRTEE and PFG (r=-.362, P=.042). Conclusions : The Korean version of PRTEE had reliability and validity. Therefore, it is a useful measure to evaluate the conditions of patients with lateral epicondylitis.
  • 4.

    Correlation of Hip Joint Range of Motion and Femur Head Anterior Mobility with Gait Ability in Stroke Patients

    김영훈 | Suhn-yeop Kim | 장현정 | 2014, 9(1) | pp.35~44 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Purpose : The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships among the hip joint passive range of motion (ROM) and femur head anterior glide (FHAG) mobility on the gait ability in patients with post-stroke hemiparesis. Methods : The participants were 37 patients (30 male, 7 female) living in Daejeon. The ROM of the hip joint was measured by using goniometry and the FHAG mobility was measured by using the Prone Figure-4 test. The walking ability was assessed by using the 10m walk test (10MWT), and the 6-min walk test (6MWT). Results : The FHAG was negatively correlated with hip extension (r=-.554, p<.05) and flexion (r=-.337) on the affected side as well as with hip extension (r=-.480), abduction (r=-.361), and adduction (r=-.426) on the non-affected side (p<.05). The gait ability was correlated with the hip joint external rotation on the non-affected side (p<.05), but showed no significant correlation with the hip ROM on the affected side (p>.05). Conclusion : This study provides evidence that in patients with post-stroke hemiparesis, the FHAG mobility might be correlated with hip extension. Based on these results, the FHAG mobility may be used to determine the hip extension in patients with post-stroke hemiparesis.
  • 5.

    Effect of Different Exercise Intensity on Blood Melatonin Density in Sleep Disordered Rats

    Kim Hee Jung | Kim, dong-hyun | 2014, 9(1) | pp.45~53 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    urpose:In this study, we tried to find out what kind of exercise was more effective in sleep disorder by comparing melatonin in blood after applying low intensity with high intensity exercise to sleep disordered rats induced by experiment. Methods:We used male Sprague-Dawley rats which were 8weeks old and weighted 300g. They were supplied with water and food without any restriction. We kept the room temperature at 25℃ and controld the length of day and night in 12 hours blocks, respectively. We divided the rats 60 into 2 groups. To one group we applied low intensity exercise, and to the other we applied high intensity exercise for 15minutes per day over a period of 4 weeks. We extracted the blood from abdominal aorta before, after exercise, moved into EDTA tube, performed centrifugation. We decanted the serum 200㎕ from the blood into microcentrifuge tube by samples and moved into polypropylene culture tubes with micro pipette. We split enzyme solution 50㎕ into the tubes with melatonin direct kits and make them react at 37℃ for 2 hours. We split assay buffer 50㎕ into each tube and mixed melatonin tracer 50㎕ and melatonin antiserum 50㎕, respectively. After we made them react in room temperature, we decanted the superficial layer with a centrifuge and measured the activity for 1 minute by competitive method with γ-counter equipment. We draw a standard curve through logit-log graph with CPM(counts per minute) and counted the melatonin by B/B0. We conducted independent t-test to examine the homogeneous of melatonin value of before low-intensity and high-intensity exercise. We performed paired t-test to compare before and after low-intensity and high-intensity exercise, respectively. We carried out independent t-test to compare melatonin value after low-intensity and high-intensity exercise. Significance level was .05. Results:The results were as follows; firstly melatonin was more increased in the group who was exposed to high intensity exercise when we compared before to after high and low intensity exercise, respectively. Secondly, high intensity exercise was more effective than low intensity exercise when we compared the two. Conclusion:In conclusion, secretion of melatonin which is the material of sleep improvement could be promoted by high intensity exercise. Low intensity exercise acted as a stress rather than improving sleep and had a negative effect on the secretion of melatonin because the melatonin was affected by stress.
  • 6.

    The Effect of Virtual Reality Training on Lower Extremity Muscle Activation in Elderly

    ChoGyeongHee | Hyungsoo Shin | 2014, 9(1) | pp.55~62 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    Purpose : The objective of this study was to determine the effects of virtual reality training on muscle activation in the elderly. Methods : The subjects were 32 healthy elderly people aged between 65 and 80, who were divided into the VR(virtual reality) training group(n=17) and the control group(n=15). The Virtual reality training group engaged in a 30-minute exercise session using Wii Fit three times a week for eight weeks. Virtual reality training group used the Ski Slalom, Table tile, Balance bubble programs. low-extremity muscle activation of the two groups were measured before and after the intervention. Results : To investigate the effects of the training on lower-extremity muscle activation, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis were measured. The results revealed that the activation of gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior significantly increased(p<.05), which indicates virtual reality training is effective in improving the activation of the muscles involved in the movement of the ankle joint. Conclusion : Virtual reality training is effective in improving the healthy elderly's activation of the muscles involved in the movement of the ankle joint. Thus, virtual reality training can be proposed as a form of fall prevention exercise for the elderly.
  • 7.

    The Influence of Position Change on Autonomic Nervous System Function

    김인배 | 김은경 | Jong-Ho Kang | 2014, 9(1) | pp.63~68 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Purpose:The purpose of this study was to examine the position changes with tilt table on autonomic nervous system using heart rate variability analysis. Methods:Fourty healthy adult males volunteered in this study. The low frequency, high frequency and low frequency/high frequency ratio and mean heart rate, standard deviation of all normal R-R intervals, root mean square of successive differences, heart rate variability index were measured at the tilt table angle of 0。, 45。 and 90。 with pulsoximeter. Data were analyzed one-way ANOVA and LSD post hoc test. Results: The mean heart rate, low frequency and low frequency/high frequency ratio increased significantly at higher angle of tilt table(p<.05). The root mean square of successive differences, heart rate variability index decreased significantly at lower angle of tilt table(p<.05). The standard deviation of all normal R-R intervals, high frequency decreased at higher angle of tilt table did not show significant difference. Conclusion:The symphathetic activity increased significantly at higher angle of tilt table. The parasymphathetic activity decreased at higher angle of tilt table, but the difference were not significant. The autonomic adaptation, balance and heart rate variability decreased significantly at higher angle of tilt table. Based on these results, in the treatment of patients with a change in posture precedence should be carefully treated. Further studies are necessary to determine the most safety and effective methods.
  • 8.

    Comparison of Spatio-temporal Gait Parameters between Paretic and Non-paretic Limb while Stepping over the Different Obstacle’s Heights in Subjects with Stroke

    Jintae-Han | 2014, 9(1) | pp.69~74 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the spatio-temporal gait parameters between paretic and non-paretic limb while stepping over the different obstacle’s heights in subjects with stroke. Methods : Nine subjects with stroke were participated in this study. Subjects were asked to step over obstacles with a different height. 8 camera motion analysis system(Motion Analysis Corporation, Santa Rosa, USA) was used to measure spatio-temporal parameters. The two way repeated measurement ANOVA was used to compare spati-temporal gait parameters between paretic and non-paretic limbs while stepping over a different obstacle’s height(0cm, 10cm, 20cm). Results: Step width, velocity, single supoort time, and double support time were not different among obstacle’s height(p>0.05) but stride length, step length, and cadence were significantly different(p>0.05). In stride length, cadence, and double support time, the interactions between obstacle’s heights and limbs were not different(p>0.05) but it was significantly different in velocity, step length, and single support time(p<0.05). Velocity, stride length, cadence, and double support times were not different between paretic limb and non-paretic limb(p>0.05) but step length and single support times were significantly different between paretic limb and non-paretic limb(p<0.05). Conclusion: These results show that there are differences with spatio-temporal gait parameters among obstacle’s heights and between paretic and non-paretic limb during obstacle crossing in subjects with stroke.
  • 9.

    The Effects of Ankle Strategy Exercise on Balance of Patients with Hemiplegia

    박기현 | 김원복 | 2014, 9(1) | pp.75~82 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect and examine the feasibility of an intervention of ankle strategy exercise on balance of patients with hemiplegia. METHODS: The subject were randomly allocated to three groups: ankle strategy exercise (group A), balance exercise (group B) and control (group C). Group A was received the conventional physical therapy plus ankle strategy exercises for 20 minutes in one session . Group B was received the same conventional physical therapy plus balance exercises for 20 minutes in one session. Two active groups were performed in the session 3 times a week, for a total of 6 weeks. and Group C was only received the same conventional physical therapy. Balance test was assessed using center of pressure (COP) in the anteroposterior (AP), mediolateral (ML) direction, Berg balance scale (BBS) and Timed Up and Go Test (TUG). RESULT: All groups showed improvements in balance parameters. In especial, the Group A was statistically significant differences in almost part evaluation items and showed more improvements in BBS and TUG parameters than Group B and Group C. and moving distance of M-L COP is more improvements than Group B. CONCLUSION: Ankle strategy exercises had more influence on balance than balance exercises and neurodevelopmental treatment.
  • 10.

    The Effects of Task Oriented Circuit Exercise on Balance and Cognition in Mild Dementia Patients

    정은지 | 김원복 | 2014, 9(1) | pp.83~91 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Purpose:The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of task oriented circuit exercise(TOCE) on the balance and cognition in mild dementia patients. Methods:The subjects of the study were 3o patients with mild dementia and assigned to the TOCE(task oriented circuit exercise) group(n=15) and aerobic exercise(AE) group(n=15). TOCE group performed six task three times weekly for 12 weeks. AE group underwent the cycle ergometer and treadmill exercise three times a week during the experimental period respectively. Timed up and go test(TUG), Berg balance scale(BBS) and AP1153 Biorescue were used to assess the parameters for the balance. Korean-mimi mental state examination and Global deterioration scale(GDS) were used to assess the parameters for the cognition. For the statistical analysis, paired t-test and independent t-test were used to compare the differences among two groups. Results:Each group showed improvement in balance and possibility improve on cognition. TOCE group especially, there were significant improvements in limit of stability. Conclusion:The results of the study suggest that TOCE is a more diverse exercise programs introduced in the study. Furthermore, TOCE can be a helpful to improve the balance and cognition in mild dementia patients.
  • 11.

    Age Effects on Center of Mass during Obstacle Crossing

    SON, NAMKUK | Kim, Hyeong-Dong | 2014, 9(1) | pp.91~99 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare three dimensional displacement and peak velocity of the center of mass (COM) during obstacle crossing in young and older adults. Methods 10 young adults (6 males/4 females, 24.6±1.9 years, age range: 22.0-26.9) and 10 older adults (1 male/9 females, 76.9±5.1 years, age range: 65.2-81.2) participated in the study. Both groups crossed an obstacle, which is 10% of leg length, and COM was measured using motion analysis system. Independent t-test was used to find significant differences between two groups. Results: The older adults showed significantly greater and faster COM displacement and peak velocity in mediolateral (M-L) direction as compared with young adults (p<.01 and p<.001 respectively). However, the young adults showed significantly greater and faster COM displacement and peak velocity in anteroposterior (A-P) direction as compared with older adults (p<.05 and p<.001 respectively). Furthermore, the young adults showed faster peak velocity of COM in vertical direction as compared with older adults (p<.001). However, no significant difference was found in the COM displacement in vertical direction between two groups. Conclusion: Greater and faster COM displacement and peak velocity in M-L direction in older adults were due to compensatory adjustment for appropriate contact on base of support of swing limb. Thus, the motion of the COM in M-L direction may be a crucial factor to identify risk of falls in older adults.
  • 12.

    5 Repetition Sit-to Stand Test of Stroke patients and Healthy Older

    Kwon,Mi-Ji | 2014, 9(1) | pp.101~106 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Purpose:This study was to provide reference data and examine stroke and healty older differences in sit-to-stand test. This study were to determine utility of the 5 repetition sit to stand for discriminating between fallers and non-fallers, identifying an appropriate cutoff score to delineate between the groups. Methods:Ninety-five participants were recruited. Seventy-two individuals with stroke and twenty-three healthy older agreed to participate in the study. Falls were recorded using a self-administered questionnaire. The 5 repetition sit to stand test measured the time taken to complete t repetitions of the sit to stand maneuver. The time from the initial seated position to the final seated position after completing five stands was the test measure. A cutoff score regarding 5 repetition sit to stand performance in fallers vs. non-fallers, stroke patients vs. healthy older and <60 vs. ≧60 age groups was determined using and ROC curve. Results:Cutoff score of 9.9 seconds were found to be discriminatory between healthy older and subjects with stroke. Cutoff score of 15.5 seconds were found to be discriminatory between fallers and non-fallers. Cutoff score of 18.3 seconds were found to be discriminatory between <60 and ≧60 age groups. Conclusion:The 5-repetition sit-to stand test is quick, easily administered measure useful for gross determination of fall risk in people with stroke.
  • 13.

    Correlations between Craniovertebral Angle(CVA) and Cardiorespiratory Function in Young Adults

    Lee Myoung Hee | 주민 | 2014, 9(1) | pp.107~113 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Purpose:The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between craniovertebral angle (CVA) and cardiorespiratory function (VO2max and VCO2max) in young adults. Methods:For this study, the students of D college were questioned and 50 members of D college were participated in our research.. Side-view pictures of each subject were taken in standing positions, in order to assess forward head posture (FHP) by measuring the craniovertebral angle. The craniovertebral angle was measured as the angle between a horizontal line at C7 and a line from the tragus of the ear to the spinous process of C7. And VO2max and VCO2max were measured by Quark CPET (cosmed co, USA) while the subjects were performed the treadmill running task of a intensity to set with respiratory mask. Subjucts were Then Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated to estimate the relationship between craniovertebral and cardiorespiratory function (VO2max and VCO2max) using SPSS for window. Results:There was a significant positive correlation between craniovertebral angle and VO2max during treadmill running task (r=0.528, p<0.05). And there was a significant positive correlation between craniovertebral angle and VCO2max during treadmill running task (r=0.566, p<0.05). Conclusion:.Foreward head posture is related to cardiorespiratory function, and it has a negative correlation with cardiorespiratory function.
  • 14.

    The Investigation of Pain and Spine Shape in Elementary School Students

    Kim, Eun-ja | 2014, 9(1) | pp.115~123 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    PURPOSR: This study was to investigate of pain and spine shape in elementary school students. The aim of this study was to prevent pain and spinal misalignment is to provide basic data and the need for regular screening for elementary school students. METHODS: This study had a survey research about pain and spine shape by using questionnaires and Formetric 4D. Subjects were 301 Elementary School StudentsRESULTS: In the presence or absence of pain and the presence of pain was in a high proportion and many of them indicated the back as a pain area, As a result of the spine shape contour, pelvic tilt was normal and trunk inclination was asymmetric as well as thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis were diminished. There was a significant difference in relationship of trunk inclination according to painCONCLUSION:The asymmetric of trunk inclination influenced the pain, In contrast, the pain did not influence thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis in diminished. but, the diminution in thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis are potential sources of pain. Regular checkups are necessary to prevent elementary school students from a change of spine shape and a pain, Moreover, education of maintaining normal posture should be followed.
  • 15.

    Effects of the Trunk and Neck Extensor Muscle Activity According to Leg Positionon in Bridging Exercise

    조현래 | 정다은 | Chae, Jung Byung | 2014, 9(1) | pp.125~132 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Purpose:This study aims to determine the optimal knee joint angle and hip joint angle for minimizing the cervical muscle tension and maximizing the muscle activity of the trunk during the bridging exercise for trunk stabilization. Methods:The bridging exercise in this study included seven forms of exercise: having a knee joint flexion angle of 120°, 90°, 60°, 45° and hip joint abduction angle of 15°, 10°, 5°. The posture of the bridging exercise was as follows. To prevent the increase of hyper lumbar lordosis during the bridging exercise, the exercise was practiced after maintaining the lumbar neutral position through the pelvic posterior tilting exercise. Results:The abduction angles did not result in statistically significant effects on the cervical erector, external oblique, rectus abdominis and erector spinae muscles. However, in relation to the knee joint angles, during the bridging exercise, statistically significant results were exhibited. Conclusion:The knee joint angle affected the muscle activity of the neck muscle. The greater the knee joint angle, the lower the load placed on the neck muscle. In contrast, the load increased as the knee joint angle decreased. In addition, the muscle activity of the neck muscle and trunk muscle increased as the knee joint angle decreased.