Korean | English

pISSN : 1975-311X / eISSN : 2287-7215

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 0.54
Home > Explore Content > All Issues > Article List

2014, Vol.9, No.2

  • 1.

    Comparison of Current Density on Iontophoretic Transdermal Delivery of Methylene Blue in Rat Skin

    Lee Jae Hyoung | 김진경 | Kwon Pil Seung and 1other persons | 2014, 9(2) | pp.133~140 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of current density on penetration depth, tissue concentration and transdermal transport of methylene blue(MB) by iontophoretic transdermal delivery. Methods: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 1 ㎃(0.11 ㎃/㎠), 2 ㎃(0.22 ㎃/㎠), 4 ㎃(0.44 ㎃/㎠), and 8 ㎃(0.89 ㎃/㎠) groups. These rats were exposed to anodic iontophoresis of 1% MB using a direct current for 15 minutes. The penetration depth were measured using light microscopy from cryosections of skin tissue. The tissue concentration and transdermal transport were measured using biochemical analysis from target skin tissues. The data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance. Results: The significant differences in the penetration depth, tissue concentration and transdermal transport were detected among the groups(p<.001). Post hoc comparisons of the penetration depth, tissue concentration and transdermal transport of he 2 ㎃, 4 ㎃, and 8 ㎃ iontophoresis groups were greater than in the 1 ㎃ iontophoresis group(p<.05). There was no significant difference, however, among 2 ㎃, 4 ㎃, and 8 ㎃ iontophoresis group. Conclusion: There was no difference in the efficiency of iontophoresis from 2 ㎃(0.22 ㎃/㎠) to 8 ㎃(0.89 ㎃/㎠). Higher current density can cause skin injury and discomfort sensation. In general, 0.5 ㎃/㎠ is proposed to be the maximum iontophoretic current which should be used on human. The appropriate current amplitude should be selected by considering the safety current density and the depth of the target tissue.
  • 2.

    Change of Cervical Angle According to Smartphone using Time

    Soo-Han Kim | Ko-Un Kim | 2014, 9(2) | pp.141~149 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    Purpose : This study uses X-rays investigate how university students' smart phone use affects the cervical vertebral angle. Methods : Ninety-two randomly selected students agreed to participate in this study. The participants' number of hours of smart phone use was gathered using a questionnaire. An X-ray of the participants' cervical vertebrae was taken, and the cervical vertebral angle was measured using the Cobb and the absolute rotation angle (ARA) method. Also, the relation between pain and hours of smart phone use was identified using a visual analog scale (VAS). Using SPSS ver18, the relationships among the cervical vertebral angle and the items in the questionnaire were identified and a frequency analysis, an independent t-test, and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) were calculated. Results : The study showed that an increase in the number hours of smart phone per day led to cervical lordosis(p<0.05). The relationships between points of smart phone addiction and cervical vertebral angle have a negative correlation (p<0.05). Therefore, there are the higher smart phone addiction points, the decrease the cervical vertebral angle. Conclusion : The results of the study showed that increase in smart phone use lead to cervical lordosis, and smart phone addiction scores resulted in decreased in the cervical vertebral angle.
  • 3.

    Effect of 840 ㎚ Light-Emitting Diode(LED) Irradiation on Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Osteoarthritis in Rats

    Seung-Joo Jekal | Kwon Pil Seung | 김진경 and 1other persons | 2014, 9(2) | pp.151~159 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether light-emitting diodes (LED) irradiation could be effective in a noninvasive, therapeutic device for the treatment of osteoarthritis(OA). Methods: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: Vehicle control (saline); monosodium iodoacetate-injection (MIA); LED irradiation after MIA injection (MIA-LED); indomethacin-treatment after MIA injection (MIA-IMT). OA was induced by intra-articular injection of 3 ㎎ MIA through the patellar ligament of the right knee. Vehicle control rats were injected with an equivalent volume of saline. The LED was irradiated for 15 min/day for a week after 7 days of MIA treatment. To compare with the effect of LED irradiation, the indomethacin was administrated 20 ㎎/㎏ twice a week orally after 7 days of MIA treatment. Knee joints were removed and fixed overnight in 10% neutral buffered formalin and decalcified by EDTA for 2 week before being embedded in paraffin. The assessment of OA induction were monitored by knee movement and radiographic finding. Histologic analysis were performed following staining with hematoxylin and eosin, safranin O–fast green, or toluidine blue, picrosirius red, and histologic changes were scored according to a modified Mankin system. Apoptotic cell in tissue sections was detected using TUNEL method. Results: Radiographic examination could not show the differences between the MIA-treated and the MIA-LED-treated rats. In the histologic analysis, however, LED irradiation prevented cartilage damage and subchondral bone destruction, and significantly reduced mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration and pannus formation. LED irradiation also reduced apoptosis of cartilage cells, but it prevented apoptosis of infiltrated inflammatory cells in synovium. In addition, LED irradiation showed an increase of collagen production in the meniscus. Conclusion: These results suggest that the 840 ㎚ LED irradiation would be a suitable non-thermal phototherapy for the treatment of OA, as a cartilage protection and anti-inflammatory modality.
  • 4.

    Wheelchair-based New Millennium Health Gymnastics: Muscle Activity and Upper Limbs Coordination by Elbow Exercise Velocity

    이강진 | Tack-hoon Kim | 2014, 9(2) | pp.161~170 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Purpose : This study concerns the wheelchair-based rehabilitation of elderly people, investigating muscle activity and coordination of upper limbs during wheelchair-based new millennium health gymnastics with varying elbow exercise velocity. Methods : Twelve elderly people participated in new millennium gymnastics twice per week during 12-weeks. The group was separated into 0.4, 1.0, and 1.6 Hz groups (controlled by the metronome speed). Range of motion was measured by electrogoniometer, electromyography signals used root mean square values. The data application was normalized using reference voluntary contraction (%RVC). Upper limb (wrist and elbow joint) data gathered while standing up after the “falling on hips” was investigated in terms of coordination of angle-angle plots. One-way ANOVA, paired t-test and Scheffe's post hoc comparisons, were used for statistical analyses. Results : There were results taken before and after the experiments. The results demonstrated a significant improvement in the triceps brachii and flexor carpi radialis of the 0.4 ㎐ group (p<.05). There was significant difference in the triceps brachi of the 1 ㎐ group. No significant differences were found in all muscles of the 1.6 ㎐ group. Muscle co-activation indexes of the 0.4 ㎐ group were larger than the others. The 0.4 ㎐ graph was turning point synchronized clockwise. The 1 ㎐ graph was out of phase with the negative slope. The 1.6 ㎐ graph was turning point synchronized counterclockwise, and uncontrolled factor phase was offset on angle-angle plots. Conclusion : It is found that improvement of muscle activity and upper limbs coordination of elderly people using wheelchair-based new millennium gymnastics is optimal with elbow exercise velocity with a frequency of 0.4 ㎐.
  • 5.

    The Effects of Home Visiting Physical Therapy on the Motor Function, Activity of Daily Living, and Pain for Disabled Veterans

    권춘숙 | Suhnyeop Kim | 장현정 | 2014, 9(2) | pp.171~179 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Purpose : The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of physical therapy provided at home on the motor function, activity of daily living (ADL), and level of pain in veterans men with disabilities, and to provide the information. Methods : The participants were 108 patients men with disabilities living in the cities Seoul, Pusan, Daegu, Gwangju and Daejeon; they performed physical therapy at home-provided by physical therapy services- that included therapeutic exercise for 50 minute, 1~2 times a week for 24 weeks. The motor function was measured by using motor assessment scale (MAS) and ADL, the level of pain were recorded both before and after physical therapy. The data form both before and after physical therapy were analyzed by using the paired t-test. All statistical tests in this study were performed with the level of significance set at .05. Results : After 24 weeks of physical therapy, we observed significant improvement in the MAS and ADL scale, as well as significant decrease in the level fo pain in the participants (p<.01). Significant improvement was also observed in the Mas and ADL scale, as well as a decrease in the level of pain among participants with stroke and spinal disease (p<.05). Conclusion : The findings of this study show that physical therapy provided at home can lead to an improvement in the motor function as well as improved ADL and pain control; physical therapy also has positive effects in relieving symptoms of veterans with disabilities.
  • 6.

    The effects of rhythmic sensorimotor training in unstable surface on balance ability of elderly women

    Lee, Han Ki | 이준철 | 송근호 | 2014, 9(2) | pp.181~191 | number of Cited : 16
    Abstract
    Purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of sensorimotor training in unstable surface on balance ability of elderly women. Method : Total of 40 subject were recruited from two separated institution for elderly women in Changwon and conveniently allocated into experimental and control groups. Twenty women were included into experimental group and another twenty women were into control group. Experimental group performed sensorimotor training in unstable surface and control group were only activities of daily living during eight weeks. To assess static balance ability used One leg stance test(OLST) and to assess dynamic balance ability used timed up and go test(TUGT) and Functional reach test(FRT).Results : Control group did not show any difference in balance ability. However static balance ability in experimental group improved on hard or soft surface only eye open condition. Also dynamic balance ability in experimental group improved TUGT or FRT. Conclusion : Sensorimotor training in unstable surface improved balance ability of elderly women.
  • 7.

    The Effect of Treadmill Exercise on the Expression of IL-1β in the Spinal Cord in Osteoarthritis Rats

    박수진 | 최영철 | 2014, 9(2) | pp.193~200 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Purpose : This study examined the effects of treadmill exercise of diverse intensities on the expression of IL-1β(interleukine-1β) in the spinal cord in osteoarthritis rats. Methods : The authors applied treadmill exercise of diverse intensity for 4 weeks to Sprague-Dawley rats to which intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate(MIA, 3㎎/50㎕, diluted in saline) was applied in the right knee joint to induce osteoarthritis. The four-week exercise was not applied to the control group(CG, n=15), while exercise of applicable intensity was applied to the low-intensity exercise group(LEG, n=15), moderate-intensity exercise group(MEG, n=15), and high-intensity exercise group(HEG, n=15) for four weeks. Observations were made of expression of IL-1β in the spinal cord in osteoarthritis rats using western blot analysis. Results : There were significant differences(p<.05) in the comparison of expression of IL-1β in the spinal cord between the four groups involved. And the LEG and MEG had reduced expression of IL-1β significantly than the CG(p<.05); in particular, the MEG showed the lowest expression. On the other hand, the HEG had more elevated expression of IL-1β significantly than the CG(p<.05). Conclusion : As a result, factors that induce neuropathic pain such as IL-1β are reduced; thus, the recovery of damaged neurons is improved and neuropathic pain is reduced. Further, when prescribing exercise to treat osteoarthritis patients, exercise of moderate intensity suitable for patients’ physical conditions, rather than high intensity, maximizes the effects of this therapy.
  • 8.

    Inter-rater·absolute reliability and concurrent validity of Tinetti-gait scale(Korean version) in stroke patients

    Seung Heon An | 이동건 | lee yunbok and 1other persons | 2014, 9(2) | pp.201~211 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    Purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate the inter-rater·absolute reliability and the concurrent validity of the Tinetti-gait scale that was translated into Korean for chronic stroke patients. Method : Fifty-two patients with post-stroke participated in this study. Inter-rater reliability was analyzed by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC3,1) and Kappa coefficient, and absolute reliability was analyzed by the Standard Error of Measurement (SEM), and the Minimal Detectable Change (MDC). Concurrent validity was analyzed by correlating between the Tinetti-gait scale and physical functions. The physical functions were measured by using the Dynamic Gait Index(DGI), 10m walking test(10WT), One Leg Standing Test of affected/non-affected side(OLST), Sit to Stand test(STS), (Fugl Meyer assessment of Lower Extremity(FM-LE). Results : The inter-rater reliability of the Tinetti-gait scale was high; ICC(3,1) =.91 (95% CI=.85∼.95) (very reliable), the range of Kappa coefficient were .73∼.92 (substantial∼good). The inter-rater agreement of the each item in Tinetti-gait scale ranged from .74 to .92 (95 % CI=.59∼.95) (reliable∼very reliable). The SEM and MDC were .56 and 1.55, respectively. In the results of concurrent validity, there were moderate positive correlation between Tinetti-gait scale and DGI (r=.78), 10WT (r=.74), OLST (r=.65∼.73), FM-LE (r=67). And there was moderate negative correlation between Tinetti-gait scale and STS (r=-79) (p<.01). Conclusion : The Tinetti-gait scale(Korean version) was a reliable and valid tool to measure gait ability in patients with chronic stroke. Thus, it could be a useful tool for examining a gait ability of post-stroke patients. Further study should be conducted to investigate the usability to predict fall risk of post-stroke patients of the Tinetti-gait scale.
  • 9.

    The Effect of Patient-Selected, Task-Oriented Training on Activities of Daily Living, Quality of Life, and Depression in Stroke Patients

    최성진 | Shin Won Seob | 2014, 9(2) | pp.213~222 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to determine the effect of patient-selected, task-oriented training on activities of daily living, quality of life, and depression for stroke patients. METHODS: This study included 40 stroke subjects, randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a control group. Both the experimental group and the control group included 20 stroke patients. Patients from the experimental group selected and performed task-oriented training. In the exercise program, the patient chose two categories from six categories and trained for 30 minutes a day, three times a week, for four weeks. Patients from the control group performed conventional task-oriented training. Outcomes were measured using the Korean version of a modified Barthel Index (K-MBI), the Korean Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (K-IADL), the Stroke-specific Quality of Life (SS-QOL), the Short Form 8 (SF-8), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), both before and after training. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the before- and after-intervention data of the K-MBI and the K-IADL (p<.05) for both groups. Also, there were more significant improvements in the experimental group compared to the control group (p<.05) for the SS-QOL, SF-8 and BDI. CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that patients-selected, task-oriented training had positive effects on stroke patients’ activities of daily living, quality of life, and depression.
  • 10.

    Effects of Closed and Open Kinetic Chain Exercises on Knee Extensor Strength and Balance in Patients with Early Stroke

    권오국 | Shin Won Seob | 2014, 9(2) | pp.223~231 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of closed and open kinetic exercises on knee extensor strength and balance in patients with early stroke. METHODS: Thirty patients with early stroke participated in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups: an open kinetic chain (OKC) exercise group (n=10), a closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercise group (n=10), and a control group (n=10). All participants received conventional physical therapy for 30 minutes. In addition, the two experimental groups (OKC and CKC) participated in a 30-minute knee strengthening training program. Training for the experimental groups was carried out three times a week for four weeks. Outcomes such as knee extensor strength and balance ability (Tetrax, Functional Reaching Test, Timed Up and Go Test) were measured before and after training. RESULTS: There were significant differences in knee extensor strength and balance ability between the pre- and post- treatment of all groups (p<.05). The improvement of knee extensor strength was significantly higher in the OKC group than in the other groups (p<.05), and the improvement of dynamic balance was significantly higher in the CKC group than in the other groups (p<.05). CONCLUSION: These results showed that both open and closed kinetic chain exercises are effective in the improvement of knee extensor strength and balance ability. This study suggests that open and closed kinetic exercise training is an effective training for strength and balance in patients with early stroke.
  • 11.

    The Effects of Bridge Exercise with Contraction of Hip Adductor Muscles on Thickness of Abdominal Muscles

    KeonCheol Lee | BAE WON SIK | 김지혁 | 2014, 9(2) | pp.233~242 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    PURPOSE : The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between the hip adductor muscles and abdominal muscles during bridge exercise. METHOD : Participants who met the criteria for this study(n=36) were divided into the three groups. The first experimental group performed normal bridge exercises and the second group performed bridge exercises with the contraction of the hip adductor muscles and the control group didn’t perform any exercise. Transversus abdominis muscle thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging with a special transducer head device, at pre exercise, after 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks. RESULT : Data were analyzed using repeated ANOVA with the level of significance set at ⍺=.05. Transversus abdominis muscle thickness was influenced by contraction of the hip adductor muscles during bridge exercise in people without lower back pain. Compared with normal bridge exercise, transversus abdominis muscle thickness significantly increased in thickness during bridge exercise with contraction of the hip adductor muscles(p<.05). CONCLUSION : The results from this study showed that contraction of the hip adductor muscles during bridge exercise increased change in the transversus abdominis muscle thickness. These results can be a good source to prevent low back pain due to hip adductor weakness. Therefore, inducing activation of hip adductor with abdominal stabilizing exercise is more effective in patients with low back pain.