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2014, Vol.9, No.3

  • 1.

    The comparison of muscle activation of waist and lower limb during lifting a object from floor according to foot position in twenties wearing a skirt

    Lee, Han-Suk | 김준호 | 박정소 and 1other persons | 2014, 9(3) | pp.243~248 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Purpose: This study was aim to the change of muscle activities of lower extremity and waist during lifting a small object on the floor according to different foot position of women in their twenties wearing a skirt. Methods: 9 women in their twenties wearing a skirt were selected and were measured the muscle activities of medial gastrocnemius (MG), tibialis anterior (TA), vastus lateralis (VL) and iliocostalis (IC) when they lifted a small object on the floor. The two different foot position employed were “both feet posed straight side by side” (condition 1) and “both feet posed diagonally to 45 degree" (condition 2) used. The order of feet position was selected randomly and the subject took a rest for 30 min between tests to prevent muscle fatigue. We calculated the mean and standard deviation of muscle activities and used Mann-Whitney U test to compare the difference between the two foot positions with SPSS(IBM Korea)Results: The muscle activity of condition 2 was greater than that of condition 1 in right side of TA, VL, and IC and left side of TA, VL, MG and IC. The right side of TA, VL and left side VL were significant difference between condition 1 and condition 2(p<.05). Conclusion: We suggest “both feet posed straight side by side” position is better if a woman wearing a skirt lift the small object and it will help prevent the low back and lower limb problems in the future.
  • 2.

    The Effects of Trunk and Lower Extremity Muscle Activation on Straight Leg Rising by Various Ankle Joint Rotation Angle

    Lee Sang-yeol | 김미진 | 안보경 and 3other persons | 2014, 9(3) | pp.249~253 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    [Purpose] This study intends to examine the effects of change of anatomical position of the ankle joint in open kinematic chain, an appropriate position for selective muscle training, on vastus lateralis obliques, rectus femoris, vastus medilais obliques, and rectus abdominalis muscle activation and to present an effective method of muscle training for patients and normal people. [Methods] The participants of this study were Korean healthy adult in their 20s. The 8 channel surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activation while the subjects raised their legs under each condition. Under each condition, while the subjects raised the leg to hip joint flexion at 60° along the arch. [Result] The analysis result of muscle activation by each section and position during leg rising. There were significant differences. [Conclusion] For independent strengthening of each muscle, muscle activation was measured according to leg raising angles and the result differed according to each section and position. If this study result is applied to muscle training for patients who need selective muscle training, more effective muscle strengthening will be made possible.
  • 3.

    The Effects of TENS Applied to Affected Lower Extremities on Balance in Stroke Patients

    Lee,Kyu-Lee | Jang Sang Hun | 2014, 9(3) | pp.255~262 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Purpose : This study was to investigate the effectiveness of TENS on balance in stroke patients by analyzing some components such as foot pressure, limit of stability and velocity sway after providing somatosensroy input using TENS. Methods : Twenty five subjects participated and were randomly divided into two groups, TENS group (n=13) and control group (n=12) by the computer program. Interventions were given to subjects 5 days a week for four weeks. TENS group were treated with TENS for 60 minutes in addition to the conventional therapy which included 30-minute exercise and rehabilitation ergometer training for 15 minutes. Control group performed only conventional therapy. TENS was applied on the skin of soleus, tibialis anterior, tensor fascia latae and vastus medialis in affected side. Foot pressure, limit of stability and velocity sway for balance test were measured using Biorescue. Results : TENS group was significantly increased limit of stability and foot pressure in affected side more than control group. And in eye closed condition, TENS group was significantly decreased velocity sway more than control group. Conclusion : The application of TENS is effective to improve the somatosensory input of affected side and to increase the motor function and balance ability.
  • 4.

    The Immediate Effect of Ankle Balance Taping using Kinesiology Tape on the Weight-bearing Ankle Dorsiflexion Range of Motion and the Dynamic Balance in Asymptomatic Subjects

    Kim Byung Jo | Lee Jung Hoon | Jintae-Han | 2014, 9(3) | pp.263~270 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate changes in the weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) and the dynamic balance in asymptomatic subjects using the modified Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) after ankle balance taping (ABT) and placebo ABT with kinesiology tapeMethods: A total of 23 active participants (11 men, 12 women) volunteered for this study. Ankle flexibility was assessed using the weight-bearing lunge test, and dynamic balance was assessed using the modified SEBT. Participants were asked to respond to questions regarding their perception of stability, reassurance, and confidence when performing modified SEBT. Results: The weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion ROM did not show a significant decrease after real ABT or placebo ABT compared to the ROM prior to ABT. The anterior, posterolateral, and posteromedial reach distances of SEBT did not increase significantly after real ABT or placebo ABT compared to the distances prior to ABT. However, the participants’perception of stability, reassurance, and confidence, when performing SEBT with real ABT, was increased compared to that during the control trial. Conclusion: This study showed that although real ABT did not immediately improve the reach distances in the 3 directions during modified SEBT, it improved the participants’perception of stability, reassurance, and confidence without decreasing weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion ROM.
  • 5.

    The Effects of Different Types of High Heels and Walking Velocity on Muscle Activation of the Paraspinal Muscles

    Lee, Joong-Sook | Han, Dong-wook | 2014, 9(3) | pp.271~278 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE : This study researched the effects of different types of high heels on the muscles surrounding the cervical spine, the thoracic spine, and the lumbar spine by analyzing muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles during walking while wearing high heels. The high heels were all of the same height: 8㎝. METHODS : The 28 subjects in this experiment were females in their 20s with a foot size of 225-230㎜. To measure the muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles, EMG electrodes were attached on the paraspinal muscles around C6, T7, and L5. The muscle activation during walking while wearing 8㎝ high wedge heels, setback heels, and french heels was measured. The measurements were performed 3 times each and the mean value of the result was used for analysis. Two kinds of velocity were used in this study. One of the velocity was 2.5 ㎧. The other was 3.5 ㎧. RESULTS : The muscle activation of paraspinal muscles increased significantly according to increase of walking velocity. But there was no significant difference according to the heel types. CONCLUSION : In view of the results, the height of heels and the velocity of walking are more convincing variables than the width of the heels on the muscle activation of paraspinal muscles. So wearing high heels is not recommended for those who have pain or functional problem of cervical and lumbar vertebrae.
  • 6.

    Relationship between Hip Medial Rotation Range of Motion and Weight Distribution in Patients with Low Back Pain

    김상규 | 김원복 | Young Uk Ryu | 2014, 9(3) | pp.279~284 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE : This study intended to verify whether there was actual correlation between weight-bearing asymmetry and a limitation in hip joint rotation range in patients with low back pain. METHODS : Thirty five low back pain patients voluntarily participated this study. For each participant, hip joint medial rotation symmetry rate and the weight-bearing symmetry rate were calculated. The correlation between the two variables was investigated. RESULTS : A decrease in the left hip joint medial rotation range of motion (ROM) was observed more often than a reduction in the right hip joint medial rotation ROM. However, similar number between right and left side was observed in ground reaction force more weighted. The coefficient between the passive hip joint medial rotation symmetry rate and the weight loading symmetry ratio was –0.19 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION : The present study demonstrated a weak correlation between the hip joint medial rotation ROM and the weight distribution of both feet. Such result suggests that careful evaluation by separating each element is needed in treating patients with low back pain. Future research should take into account asymmetric alignment and abnormal movement in different joints of the body as well as asymmetry in the bilateral hip joint rotation and the unilateral weight supporting posture.
  • 7.

    Clinical Criteria to Perform the Step through Step Gait with a Cane in Chronic Stroke Patients

    김원복 | 이중호 | 2014, 9(3) | pp.285~291 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Purpose:The purpose of this study was to propose clinical criteria to differentiate patients who are able to perform the step-through-step gait pattern in chronic stroke patients. Methods:Sixty patients with chronic stroke patients participated this study. To differentiate patients who could perform the step-through-step gait pattern, age, gender, and causes of stroke were noted, a Chedoke-McMaster (CM) damage list, Fugl-Meyer (FM) assessment scales and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) were determined. A 10 meter gait test and Timed Up and Go (TUG) test were conducted to determine the differences in gait speed and dynamic balance between patients walking with or without canes in the step-through-step gait pattern group. Results: There was no significant statistical difference in age, gender, and stroke type between all subjects. There were significant differences in the CM scale for postural and lower extremities, and FM scale for lower extremities and BBS. The dynamic balance ability and gait speed showed significant differences between the subjects in the step-through-step gait pattern with or without a cane during gait. Conclusion: CM and FM scales for the lower extremities and postural control, as well as BBS scales, can be used as criteria to differentiate patients who are able to perform the step-through-step gait pattern. These results can also be used to provide beneficial information to patients that are walking with canes.
  • 8.

    The Effect of Functional Training Using a Sliding Rehabilitation Machine on the Mobility of the Ankle Joint and Balance in Children with CP

    박주완 | 김원복 | 2014, 9(3) | pp.293~299 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Purpose:The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of functional training using a sliding rehabilitation machine (SRM) on the mobility of the ankle joint and balance in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods:The subjects consisted of 11 children who were diagnosed with spastic CP. They carried out the functional training using the SRM for 30 minutes, three times a week, for 8 weeks. Before and after all of the training sessions, the subjects were tested using the Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) and Gross Motor Function Measurement (GMFM), range of motion (ROM) in the ankle joint, the pennation angle of the gastrocnemius muscle and the fascicle length of gastrocnemius muscle were measured to determine the mobility of the ankle joint and balance ability. Results:There were significant differences between the pre-test and post-test in the PBS and GMFM. The ROM of the ankle joint was significantly increased after the functional training using the SRM. Moreover, the fascicle length was increased and the pennation angle was decreased after the functional training using the SRM, but the difference was not significant. Conclusion:These results suggest that functional training using the SRM may have some effect on the mobility of ankle joint and balance in children with CP. According to the results, this study could present an approach to the rehabilitation or treatment of children with CP.
  • 9.

    Measuring Thresholds of Serum Lipid Level related to Hypertension and Age Using Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve in Korean Adult

    Kim Seong Gil | 박소현 | 2014, 9(3) | pp.301~305 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Purpose : The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal thresholds of serum lipid level related to hypertension according to age in Korean adults. Methods : In total, 564 adults who visited the health examine center in general hospital were included. The blood pressure and lipid profiles of low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL), triglyceride(TG) were measured. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to establish optimal thresholds between blood pressure and lipid profiles. Results:The optimal TG cutoff point were 110.50(mg/dl) in the 18-39 and 81.50(mg/dl) in the 40-59 age group, and optimal cutoff point of LDL were 126.50(mg/dl) in the 40-59 age group and 111.00(mg/dl) in the 60 and over. There was a negative correlation between HDL and hypertension, a higher HDL decreased hypertension. The optimal cutoff point of HDL was 49.50(mg/dl) in the 18-39 age group. Conclusion:The thresholds of hypertension were lower in LDL and TG with aging. This result indicated that elderly people needs to concern more about their lipid profiles to maintain healthy cardiovascular function.
  • 10.

    Effects of High-intensity Intermittent Training and Moderate-intensity Training on Cardiopulmonary Capacity in Canoe and Kayak Paddlers during 8 weeks

    김아람 | Shin Won Seob | 2014, 9(3) | pp.307~314 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high intensity intermittent training on cardiopulmonary capacity in canoe and kayak paddlers. METHODS: A total of 16 canoe and kayak paddlers were participated in this study. Experimental group(n=8) was performed high-intensity intermittent training and control group(n=8) was moderate intensity training. All subjects performed a treadmill test in order to compare the difference before and after the intervention. Finishing the test, all subjects were measured to their heart rate(HR), forced vital capacity(FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second(FEV1) and forced expiratory ratio(FEV1/FVC). Recovery of heart rate(RHR) was calculated using the HR. HR and pulmonary flow values was measured before and during the intervention period per 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. To compare the differences over time between experimental group and the control group, used(time×group) two-way repeated measures ANOVA. One-way repeated ANOVA was performed to determine where differences over time within-group. RESULTS: One-way repeated ANOVA revealed a significant difference in the experimental and control group. In experimental group, %RHR3min and FEV1 were significantly increased after 4 weeks(p<.05). Also, %RHR1min, FVC and FEV1/FVC were significantly increased after 6 weeks(p<.05). In control group, %RHR1min, %RHR3min, FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC were significantly increased after 6 weeks(p<.05). CONCLUSION: Not only moderate training but also high-intensity intermittent training contributes to cardiopulmonary capacity in canoe and kayak paddlers. Although high-intensity intermittent training is very short time, the training has high degree of efficiency. Therefore, developed this training in the future, it will be better to improve the cardiopulmonary capacity for athletes and healthy people.
  • 11.

    Correlation between Weight Bearing Ratio and Functional Level for Development of Pressure Sensor Biofeedback in Stroke Patient

    Young Moon | 김미선 | Jong-duk Choi | 2014, 9(3) | pp.315~324 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Purpose : This study aimed to determine the correlation of weight bearing ability at the affected side with balance and gait abilities for the development of pressure biofeedback based equipment to stroke patients. Methods : This study included 35 patients with stroke patient. The tests were conducted to determine the weight bearing ratio while pushing a step forward the affected side, static balance ability using the total length of COP(Center of pressure), sway velocity of COP, COP velocity at the X and Y axis. Functional reaching test (FRT), berg balance scale (BBS) were used to assess the dynamic balance ability and timed up and go test (TUG), 10m walk test (10mWT) were used assess the gait ability respectively. In order to determine the correlation between measured variables, bivariate correlation analysis was conducted. Results : A significant correlation of the weight bearing ratio were shown with COP total length and velocity(r=-.34), Y-axis velocity(r=-.39), FRT(r=.42), BBS(r=.54), TUG(r=-.39), and 10m walking test (r=-.42). Conclusion : This study result showed that as patients with stroke had more weight bearing ratio at the affected side, not only their static and dynamic balance abilities increased more but also functional gait ability improved more. These results mean that, to improve stroke patients’ static, dynamic balance ability and gait ability, weight bearing training with the affected side foot placed one step forward necessary for gaits are important.
  • 12.

    Effects of Eight-Week Pilates Training on Elderly People’s Dynamic and Static Balance Abilities

    Choi Jung Hyun | 2014, 9(3) | pp.325~331 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Purpose:Improving elderly people’s balance ability through pilates which may be easily applied in ordinary life is considered an important intervention method for elderly people. Therefore, this study examines the effects of pilates training on elderly people’s static and dynamic balance abilities and provides clinical data to improve this ability. Methods:The pilates program was applied to 19 elderly subjects three times per week for 8 weeks. Their training level took into consideration their age and was set so that the rating scales of perceived exertion became 13 to 14. Prior to the initiation of the experiment, the subjects had an adaptation period in order to practice the order and motions of pilates. After the adaptation period, the subjects received training. The program was conducted three times per week, for eight weeks. Their dynamic balance ability was observed through the timed up and go (TUG) test and tandem walk test (TWT), and their static balance ability was evaluated by the center of pressure (COP) area, medial–lateral displacement, and anterior–posterior displacement. Results:The results of the TUG test and TWT and evaluations of the COP area and medial–lateral displacement were significantly different after the pilates exercise program compared to those before the program began. Conclusion:The results show that an 8-week pilates exercise program is an effective method to increase elderly people’s static and dynamic balance abilities. In addition, the application result of the pilates exercise program will provide useful information for future research on elderly people’s balance ability.
  • 13.

    Comparison of Abdominal Muscle Activity after Sling and Swiss-Ball Exercises in Asymptomatic Adults

    Lee Myoung Hee | Kim, Byungkon | 2014, 9(3) | pp.333~338 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate any changes in abdominal muscle activity after curl-up and jack-knife exercisse using a sling and swiss-ball. Methods: Sixteen asymptomatic subjects were randomly assigned into either a sling exercise group (SG) or swiss-ball exercise group (SBG). Subjects performed curl-up and jack-knife exercise using sling and swiss ball. Activity of abdominal muscles (rectus abdominis and external oblique) was assessed using surface electromyography (EMG) and normalized maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) before and after exercises. The significance of differences between the SG and the SBG was evaluated by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: There was an increase in activity of all abdominal muscles after the curl-up and jack-knife exercises for 6 weeks. However, there was not a significant difference between the SG and the SBG after curl-up exercises (p>.05). There was also not a significant difference between the SG and the SBG after Jack-knife exercises (p>.05) except for the right external oblique muscle (p<.05). Conclusion: Exercises on an unstable surface using a sling and swiss ball are effective ways of abdominal muscle exercise.