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2014, Vol.9, No.4

  • 1.

    Effect of Gym-ball Exercise Program to Pelvis and Spine of the 20's Woman

    오승현 | Yoo Kyung Tae | 2014, 9(4) | pp.339~345 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Purpose : This study is to investigate the effect of 4 weeks of gym ball exercise on the pelvis and spine of women in 20s. Methods : Randomly selected 10 of 20 subjects are allocated to experimental group who will practice gym ball exercise while the rest 10 subjects are allocated to control group. Values for pelvic obliquity DL-DR, pelvic torsion DL-DR, pelvic rotation, kyphotic angle ICT-ITL (max), and lordotic angle ITL-ILS (max) were measured through recording using 3-dimensional image analyzer as a preliminary inspection. Gym-ball exercise was implemented 3 sessions a week for 4 weeks. Each session consisted of 10 minutes of warm up exercise, 30 minutes of main exercise, and 10 minutes of cool down exercise totaling 50 minutes. Post inspections were measured after exercise. Results : Experimental group showed statistically significant difference in pelvic obliquity DL-DR, pelvic torsion DL-DR, and kyphotic angle ICT-ITL (max)(p<.05) and values of pelvic obliquity DL-DR showed statistically significant difference between two groups (p<.05). However, pelvic rotation, lordotic angle ITL-ILS (max) did not show a significant difference. Conclusion : These results showed that gym-ball exercise has positive effect in the pelvis Obliquity, torsion and spine kyphotic angle and expected to have positive effect on the body balance, body lineup, and coordination.
  • 2.

    Effect of Shoes Sole Form on Knee and Ankle Muscle Activity

    윤세원 | lee Jeong-Woo | 최명심 | 2014, 9(4) | pp.347~354 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Purpose : This study was to examine changes in muscle activity of lower extremity shoes sole form (high heels, shoes with curved out sole, house shoes). Methods : The subjects of this study were 12 women in their twenties. They put three kinds of shoes (high heels, shoes with curved out sole, house shoes) and walked 5m. The muscles activities of lower extremity muscles (rectus femoris, vastus medialis, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius medial part) were measured using a wireless electromyogram (EMG). Rectus femoris was attached to 1/2 position at the distance between ASIS and knee bone and vastus medials was attached to 2㎝ from upper inside of knee bone. Tibialis anterior was attached to 75% position above line connecting knee joint and ankle joint and gastrocnemius medial part was attached to 35% position above knee joint and ankle. Results : It was found that there were significant differences in changes of muscles activities of lower extremity muscles (rectus femoris, vastus medialis, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius medial part) on shoes sole forms (p<.05). All lower extremity muscles were showed high muscles activities, when high heels wear (p<.05). Wearing shoes with curved out sole was showed high muscle activity of tibialis anterior and lower muscle activity of gastrocnemius medial part compared with wearing house shoes (p<.05). Conclusion : Shoes sole form should be considered when patients with knee and ankle joint problems choose shoes because muscles were showed different activities according to shoes sole forms.
  • 3.

    The Changes of Balance Performance by Low-Dye Taping Application on Flexible Flatfoot

    엄주리 | Dongchul Moon | Jongsoon Kim | 2014, 9(4) | pp.355~361 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Purpose : The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effect of low-Dye taping on balance performance in subjects with flexible flatfoot. Methods : Fifteen asymptomatic volunteers who had flexible flatfoot(mean±SD age, 21.7±1.81years; height, 164.80±7.57cm; weight, 56.47±10.48kg) were participated for this study. Navicular drop test was used to evaluate pronation of foot in three different conditions; non-weight bearing position without low-Dye taping, weight bearing position without low-Dye taping, weight bearing position with low-Dye taping. And balance performance(anterio/posterior, medial/lateral, and overall) was evaluated using the Biodex Balance System in three different conditions; one-leg standing without low-Dye taping, one-leg standing with low-Dye taping, and one-leg standing with low-Dye taping in one week later. Repeated-measures analysis of variance(ANOVA) was used to assess navicular height and balance performance across the three testing conditions. Results : Significant and clinically meaningful improvement in navicular height was found after application of the low-Dye taping. However, there was no statistically significant change in balance performance. Conclusion : The results of this study provide evidence to suggest that low-Dye taping does not affect balance performance.
  • 4.

    Effect of Auditory Biofeedback Training and Kicking Training on Weight-bearing ratio in Patient with Hemiplegia

    전현주 | 이진수 | 김기종 and 2other persons | 2014, 9(4) | pp.363~373 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    Purpose : The purpose of this study was of scale using auditory biofeedback training and kinging training on walking speed and weight bearing ratio in patients hemiplegia with stroke to determine of the effects of such training would be maintained even after stopping the intervention. Methods : The 30 subject were classified into three groups : 12 times, 3 times a week receiving the control, the experimental group scale using auditory and kicking training for 4 weeks. In addition, all subjects in the control group and experimental groups received the same general exercise treatment 12 times, 3 times a week for 4 weeks, and underwent follow-up tests. The significance of differences between the control group and the experimental groups was analysis by repeated-ANOVA, Interaction time and groups was analysis by repeated-ANOVA. In case where there were differences, post-hot tests were conducted using repeated measure ANOVA. Results : There were significant differences in 10 m walking speed and weight bearing ratio between the control group and experimental group after the performance of the scale using auditory training and kicking training. Scale using auditory biofeedback training 4 weeks was more effective than kicking training. After 8 weeks weight bearing ratio maintained on scale using auditory training. Conclusion : These finding suggest that the scale using auditory biofeedback training and kicking training has positive effects on hemiplegia with stroke.
  • 5.

    Study on Knowledge of the Elderly's physical, psychological and social aspects among College Students in Physical Therapy

    Chung-Joa Ahn | myungchul kim | 김승균 and 1other persons | 2014, 9(4) | pp.375~389 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Purpose : The purpose of this study is to develop medical services for the elderly and qualitatively enhance physical therapy for them by analyzing korean students' knowledge of the elderly. Methods : A total of 1027 male/female undergraduate students majoring in physical therapy were selected to examine the knowledge of the elderly. The knowledge of physical, psychological, and social aspects were investigated and measured by FAQ I of palmore (1988) and a scale developed by Yunjin et al (1982). T-test, One-way-ANOVA and Scheff test were used. Result : The percentage of the students who correctly answered the questions on the elderly was 53.6%. In particular, the higher error rates were seen in the social(56.9%) and psychological(57.6%) aspects compared in the physical (33.7%) aspects. Those who answered the questions correctly were over 30s (63.69%, p=0.000), seniors(57%, p=0.000)and grown in cities(53.91%, p=0.001). In addition, students who took lessons on the elderly (57.71%, p=0.032)and had experiences in voluntary services (54.09%, p=0.023) were significantly higher in answering the questions correctly. Conclusion : When students learned about the elderly, social and psychological aspects should be reinforced. The knowledge levels of the elderly can be elevated though voluntary services. It is thought that a follow-up study would be continuously neede to improve physical therapists' knowledge on the elderly and quality of available services.
  • 6.

    The Effect of Gluteal Taping on Posture and Balance during Standing in Children with Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy

    서혜정 | JoongHwi Kim | 손국경 and 1other persons | 2014, 9(4) | pp.391~398 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Purpose:The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of gluteal taping on posture and balance during standing in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy(CP). Methods:The subjects of this study were 13 children(six females. seven males; mean aged 8.5) with hemiplegic CP who were gross motor function classification system(GMFCS) Level I. The change of posture and balance during standing before and after gluteal taping were measured using inclinometer, gross motor function measure, and functional reaching test. The collected data were analyzed using the paired t-test. Results:The results of this study were as follows : 1)There were statistically significant decrease in the ant. tilt angle of pelvis after gluteal taping in children with hemiplegic CP(p<.05). 2)There were statistically significant increase in functional reaching test after gluteal taping(p<.05). 3)There was no statistically significant difference in gross motor function measure, but significant increase in one leg standing was observed(p<.05). Conclusion:As the above results, we suggest that gluteal taping could be effective on improving body alignment and dynamic balance ability during standing in children with hemiplegic CP. Further studies will be required for the short and long term effects of gluteal taping on improving postural symmetry and balance.
  • 7.

    The Effects of Respiratory Muscle Training on Respiratory Function, Respiratory Muscle Strength, and Cough Capacity in Stroke Patients

    조명래 | Kim, Nan-Soo | Jung JuHyeon | 2014, 9(4) | pp.399~406 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract
    Purpose : The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of respiratory muscle training on respiratory function, respiratory muscle strength, and cough capacity in stroke patients. Methods : This study used a nonequivalent control group pre-post test design. We recruited thirty-four stroke patients (16male, 18female), who were assigned to intervention(n=17), or control(n=17) groups. Both groups participated in a conventional stroke rehabilitation program, with the intervention groups also receiving respiratory muscle training 20 minutes a day, three times a week, for 4 weeks. Respiratory function (Forced Vital Capacity) and respiratory muscle strength(Maximal Inspiratory Pressure, Maximal Expiratory Pressure) were assessed by spirometry(Pony Fx, Cosmed Srl, Italy). Cough capacity(Peak Expiratory Flow) was assessed using a peak flow meter(MPE 7200, Carefusion, UK). The collected data were analyzed by independent and paired t-tests. Results : The intervention group showed a significant increase in the forced vital capacity(FVC), maximal inspiratory pressure(MIP), maximal expiratory pressure(MEP) and peak expiratory flow(PEF) at the end of the program, while the control group showed no significant changes. Conclusion : This study showed that respiratory muscle training increased respiratory function, respiratory muscle strength, and cough capacity in stroke patients and prevented a decrease in cough capacity. These findings suggest that respiratory muscle training effect on respiratory function, respiratory muscle strength and cough capacity for rehabilitation in patients with stroke.
  • 8.

    Influence of heel insole and visual control on body sway index with high-heeled shoes.

    Yoon, Jung Gyu | 2014, 9(4) | pp.407~413 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: We investigated the influence of heel insole and visual control on body sway index with high-heeled shoes. METHODS: The subjects of this study were 61 healthy students. None of the participants had any orthopedic or neurologic alterations. C90 area, C90 angle, trace length, sway average velocity were measured using a force plate by BT4. The variables were measured both with insole and without insole when wearing high-heeled shoes under the conditions of eyes open and eyes closed. The collected data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and paired t-test. RESULTS: When wearing high-heeled shoes with insole under the conditions of eyes open, trace length, C90 area, velocity were significantly more decreased than without insole(p<.01). When wearing high-heeled shoes with insole under the conditions of eyes closed, only C90 area was significantly more decreased than without insole(p<.05). When wearing high-heeled shoes with insole under the conditions of eyes open, trace length, C90 area, velocity were significantly more decreased than under the conditions of eyes closed(p<.01). CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that the use of high-heeled shoes with insole supported from heel to midfoot more increased static balance than without insole under the conditions of eyes open.
  • 9.

    Comparison of Effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation(TENS) and San-Yin-Jiao(SP6) Acupressure on Primary Dysmenorrhea

    Oh, Yeong Taek | 2014, 9(4) | pp.415~424 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effect of high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation(TENS) and San-Yin-Jiao(SP6) acupressure on primary dysmenorrhea. Furthermore, the difference in effectiveness between the two methods were compared. METHODS: Twenty-six students participated in this study, and were randomly assigned to a high-frequency TENS group(experimental1, n=9), a San-Yin-Jiao(SP6) acupressure group(experimental2, n=9), and no treatment group(control, n=8). They were assessed and treated on the first day of their menstruation. The TENS protocol included applying 20 minutes of stimulation with a frequency of 100Hz, 100μsec pulse width. Four electrodes were placed on the skin 3 cm from midline at T12-L1 and S2-3 paravertebral muscles. San-Yin-Jiao(SP6) acupressure should be applied with the thumb for 10 minutes(8 seconds pressure and 2 seconds rest) on the SP6 acupoint. This procedure should be repeated for the other foot. Dysmenorrheal pain measured two pain assessment tools(VAS, DPT) pre-treatment; immediate post-treatment; 30minutes, 1, 2hours; and 3, 4, 5, 6, 24 hours after the VAS test were added. RESULTS: The results showed significant differences in pain assessments(VAS, DPT) after treatment for subjects of experimental group1(p<.05) and experimental group2(p<.05), whereas the between-group comparison found no statistically significant differences. CONCLUSION: This result supports the idea that using two methods could be effective in pain reduction among students who suffered from primary dysmenorrhea.
  • 10.

    Effects of Visual Biofeedback on Movement Patterns of Neck Lateral Bending and Muscle Activation of Sternocleidomastoid during Neck Rotation in Adults with Forward Head Posture

    No-yul Yang | Jaeseop Oh | 2014, 9(4) | pp.425~432 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate that the differences in sternocleidomastoid muscle activity, neck rotation angle, neck lateral bending angle and neck lateral bending onset time between conditions with and without visual biofeedback during neck rotation. Method: Ten male and four female adults with condition of forward head posture were recruited in this study. Subjects conducted to left and right maximal neck rotation under the conditions with and without visual biofeedback. During neck rotation, kinematic data of neck rotation, neck lateral bending movement, and electromyography activities of bilateral sternocleidomastold muscles were collected. Differences in dependent variables between conditions with and without visual biofeedback were analyzed using paired t-test. Results: There were significant decreases in lateral bending angle, while lateral bending movement onset time was delayed significantly when applying visual biofeedback(p<.05). However, there were no significant differences in the activation of left and right sternocleidomastoid muscles and neck rotation angle between conditions with and without visual biofeedback(p>.05). Conclusion: These findings suggest that visual biofeedback may be effective for axial rotation of cervical spine during neck rotation in adults with forward head posture.
  • 11.

    The Immediate Effects of 975-nm GaAlAs Low-level Laser Therapy on Myofacial Triger Point of Upper Trapezius Muscle in Subjects with Rounded Shoulder Posture

    Kim Byung Jo | Lee Jung Hoon | 2014, 9(4) | pp.433~438 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Purpose: The purpose of our study was to compare a 975-nm, 500-mW GaAlAs low-level laser therapy versus placebo low-level laser therapy with regard to the immediate changes on the myofascial trigger point of the dominant upper trapezius muscle in subjects with rounded shoulder posture. Methods: Thirty-two male college students with rounded shoulder posture and shoulder pain consented to participate in the experiment. The subjects were randomly assigned to a 2-minute procedure with either an active GaAlAs low-level laser or a placebo GaAlAs low-level laser. The pressure-pain threshold and visual analog scale on tenderness at 3 kg were measured with an algometer before and after the laser treatments. Results: The active GaAlAs low-level laser group showed significant changes in pressure-pain threshold and visual analog scale on tenderness at 3 kg (p<0.05). The placebo GaAlAs low-level laser group showed no significant changes in either pressure-pain threshold or visual analog scale on tenderness at 3 kg (p>0.05). Conclusion: An immediate effect was observed in pressure-pain threshold and visual analog scale on tenderness at 3 kg following a 2-minute application (857.14 J/cm2) of a 975-nm, 500-mW GaAlAs low-level laser to the myofascial trigger point of the dominant upper trapezius muscle in patients with rounded shoulder posture.
  • 12.

    Effect of Direction of Gliding in Tibiofibular Joint on Angle of Active Ankle Dorsiflexion

    Koh, Eun Kyung | 원종혁 | Do-young Jung | 2014, 9(4) | pp.439~445 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was to investigate the effect of direction of gliding in the tibiofibular (TF) joint on angle of active ankle dorsiflexion (AADF). METHODS: Fifteen subjects with no medical history of lower extremities were recruited in this study. The digital dynamometer was used to maintain the same gliding force in each condition. The angle of AADF was measured by using the electronic goniometer. Subjects were instructed to perform the AADF in three trials during the each gliding in the TF joint by the examiner. The conditions were no gliding and four directions of gliding in the proximal (anterior-superior: A-S vs posterior-inferior: P-I) and distal (posterior-superior: P-S vs. anterior-inferior: A-I) TF joint. A repeated measured ANOVA was used to compare angle of the AADF in each TF joint. The paired-sample t tests with Bonferroni correction were used in order to Post hoc pair-wise comparisons. The significant level was set at 0.016(0.05/3). RESULTS: In distal TF joint, the angle of AADF in the A-I direction of gliding was significantly lower than those in no gliding and P-S direction of gliding (p<0.01). In proximal TF joint, the angle of AADF was significantly lower than those in no gliding and A-S direction of gliding (p<0.01). Although there was no significant differences, angle of AADF were largest in the P-S direction of gliding among four conditions. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that gliding technique of TF joint would be required to improve the angle of AADF in subjects with limitation of ankle dorsiflexion
  • 13.

    Effects of Inclination Treadmill Training with Dynamic Stretching on the Spasticity and Gait of Chronic Stroke Patients

    대전대학교 대학원 물리치료학과 | Jong-duk Choi | 2014, 9(4) | pp.447~454 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of inclination treadmill training with dynamic stretching on the spasticity and gait of chronic stroke patients. METHODS: Twenty two subjects were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (EG, n=11) or a control group (CG, n=11). Both groups participated in a standard rehabilitation program; in addition, the EG participated in inclination treadmill training for 20 min per day, five times per week, for 4 weeks, and the CG participated in treadmill walking training for 20 min per day, five times per week, for 4 weeks. Outcome measurements, recorded before and post intervention. Walking ability was measured using the 10m walking test (10MWT) and Timed up and go (TUG) test. Spasticity of the medialis gastrocnemius was measured using a myotonometer. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed the both groups for walking ability and spasticity after the training program. The results of the study were follows: 10MWT and TUG was significantly increased in both groups (p<0.05) and it was also found to be significant between groups after intervention (p<0.05). Spasticity was significantly increased in both groups (p<0.05) and it was also found to be significant between the groups after intervention (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that inclination treadmill training improves gait ability and reduces spasticity of the medialis gastrocnemius. Inclination treadmill training may be used as an easy, effective and accessible way to improve the walking ability and decrease spasticity in stroke patients. Further studies are necessary to generalize the findings of this study.
  • 14.

    Effects of the Graston Technique and Self-Myofascial Release on the Range of Motion of a Knee Joint

    KIM, DO HYUN | Tae-ho Kim | Do-young Jung and 1other persons | 2014, 9(4) | pp.455~463 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Graston and self-myofascial release (SMR) techniques on knee joint flexibility, hamstring, and quadriceps strength. METHODS: Twenty subjects with hamstring shortness participated in this study. The subjects were assigned randomly to one of two groups: The Graston technique (GT) group received intervention using a Graston instrument for one minute, and the SMR group performed self-exercises using a foam roll for one minute. The range of motion (ROM) of the knee joint was measured by active knee extension test, and a handheld dynamometer was utilized to collect the hamstring and quadriceps muscle strength. This experiment was performed by two physical therapists. The significant level was set at α=0.05. RESULTS: The results were as follows: 1) The ROM of the knee joint and quadriceps muscle strength were significantly increased in both groups. 2) Hamstring muscle strength was significantly reduced in both groups. 3) There were no significant differences between the GT group and SMR group for any variable. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that SMR is an effective and easy technique for restoring proper muscle length and strength in subjects with hamstring shortness. We recommend that SMR technique be used for treat hamstring shortness in clinical setting and home-program.
  • 15.

    Study on the Awareness and the Necessity of Home and Visiting Physical Therapy

    김진희 | 이광재 | 2014, 9(4) | pp.465~474 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    PURPOSE : This study aims to provide basic materials to re-establish terms and to build the institutional framework for the home and visiting physical therapy. METHODS : For such purpose of the study conducted the research that targeted the physical therapists, who were working at the rehabilitation hospital located in Gyeonggi-do as for the survey questionnaires as to the need and awareness of development of the adequate insurance fee of home physical therapy and visiting physical therapy. RESULTS : The survey result shows the awareness is low on the term separation in referring the home physical therapy and the visiting physical therapy. On the question regarding the performance obligation in the current system of the home and the visiting physical therapies, the answers for the recognition are shown to be 58% and 88.1% while no significant differences according to ages and working periods are found in all questions (p>.05). In the meanwhile, on the question regarding necessities of the home and the visiting physical therapies, answers agreeing the necessity is shown as 96.3%. And, on the question regarding the expected effect, the score shows to be very high with 40.5 points out of 50 points and significant differences according to the age and the working period (p<.05). CONCLUSION : It directly reflects the result, as the age and the working period are longer, the necessity shows to be higher.
  • 16.

    Effects of Close Kinetic Chain Resistant Exercise of Lower Extremity on the Gait with Stroke

    문상훈 | Kim, Young-min | 2014, 9(4) | pp.475~483 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of close kinetic chain resistant exercise of lower extremity on the gait with stroke patients. Methods: The subjects were 50 patients who were diagnosed with cerebrovascular accident. They were randomly assigned either to a close kinetic chain resistant exercise of lower extremity group(study group)(n=25) or open kinetic chain resistant exercise of lower extremity exercise group(control group)(n=25). Gait abilities were measured by using Timed Up & Go(TUG) test, Functional Gait Assessment(FGA) and spatio-temporal gait variable that were velocity, cadence, stride length, double limb support by 3 axises wireless accelerometer and sway angle of center of mass by same instrument. Results: Study group and control group before and after the intervention there were significantly difference in TUG, FGA, spatio-temporal gait variables and sway angle of center of mass(p<.05). There were significantly different between study group and control group for all variables at post-exercise. Conclusion: When all is said and done it is expected to be used as a method for the treatment and prevention in the process of rehabilitation of patients with stroke. In its final analysis when applying resistant exercise of lower extremity to stroke patients’ gait, close kinetic chain is more effective than open kinetic chain.
  • 17.

    Comparison of the Rehabilitation Program after Rotator Cuff Repair by Time Closed Chain Exercise

    Hyun-seung Song | Suhnyeop Kim | 2014, 9(4) | pp.485~492 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the pain, range of motion (ROM), upper extremity task performance, and functional levels of patients after rotator cuff repair according to the timing of a closed chain exercise thereby presenting basic data for an effective rehabilitation program. METHODS: The intervention was applied three times per week, one hour per day, for four weeks to 40 participants, 78 of whom had undergone rotator cuff repair. The participants were divided into four groups and assigned to usual general physical therapy and an open chain exercise. Group I consisted of the open chain exercise only. The closed chain exercise was applied to group II after the 4 times, group III after the 7 times, group IV after the 10 times. Measurement were used ROM, visual analogue scale (VAS), box and block test (BBT), and shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI).A one-way analysis of variance was conducted to test differences. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the internal/external rotation between group I and group II. The VAS significantly differed between group II and group I, group III, and group IV. The BBT results of group II and group I were significantly different compared to those of group IV. The SPADI significantly differed between group II and group I and between group II and group IV. CONCLUSION: The closed chain exercise was effective for patients following rotator cuff repair from the second week after active exercise was prescribed, verifying its applicability in rehabilitation programs.