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2015, Vol.10, No.1

  • 1.

    Comparison of Diagonal Shoulder Exercises with and Without Distal Wrist and Finger Movement

    안소윤 | Se-Yeon Park | Jwa-Jun Kim | 2015, 10(1) | pp.1~7 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of distal movement on shoulder muscle activation during diagonal pattern of exercises. METHODS:Seventeen healthy male participants volunteered to participate. Five muscles of shoulder were investigated during standing performance of diagonal shoulder exercises with and without visual trace. Two patterns of the diagonal exercises were used as diagonal 1 flexion and extension (D1F-E), and diagonal 2 flexion and extension (D2F-E). Two way repeated measures analysis of variance was used, which the factor was the presence of distal movement and exercise variations. RESULTS:The average muscle activity values of the lower trapezius and anterior deltoid are higher with the D2F-E, compared to the D1F-E (p<.05). The distal movement effect was observed within included all muscles except the lower trapezius, which the values are significantly greater in exercise with distal movement (P<.05). All significant increase of the muscles during the exercise with distal movement condition showed over 0.9 for the observed power in present study. CONCLUSION:Present result suggested that the diagonal pattern of exercise with distal movement has additional advantages of activating the scapulothoracic muscle as well as glenohumeral muscles. In addition, the D2F-E exercise pattern is effective for activating lower trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles.
  • 2.

    The Effects of Manual Passive Exercise Performed by Physical Therapists on Autonomic Nervous System

    김인배 | 김충유 | 김은경 and 2other persons | 2015, 10(1) | pp.9~14 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ten minutes of manual passive exercise performed by physical therapists on autonomic nervous system. METHODS:Thirty-five healthy adults, both male and female, were chosen as subjects for this study. The autonomic nervous system was measured by heart rate variability (HRV),before and after passive exercise using the following measurements: mean heart rate (mean HRT), low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) components, the LF/HF ratio, root mean square of the successive differences (RMSSD), and the HRV index. The exercise was performed on the subjects by a physical therapist with seven years of experience specializing in the nervous system. The exercise was conducted at the mid-range of motion on the upper and lower limbs of the subjects for two minutes and thirty seconds and for a total of ten minutes. RESULTS:There was a significant increase in the LF component. The mean HRT and the LF/HF ratio both increased, but these increases were not significant. The HF component, RMSSD, and HRV index all decreased, but these decreases were not significant. CONCLUSION:In conclusion, mid-range manual passive exercise does not induce stress on the autonomic nervous system. It can safely be performed by a physical therapist.
  • 3.

    Effects of Chest Expansion Resistance Exercise on Chest Expansion and Maximal Inspiratory Pressure in Patients with Stroke

    Chang-beom Kim | Jong-duk Choi | 2015, 10(1) | pp.15~21 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:This study compared the effects of chest expansion resistance exercise (CERE) and breathing retraining (BRT) on stroke patients’ chest expansion and maximal inspiratory pressure(MIP), thereby intending to present an effective intervention method for enhancing their respiratory functions. METHODS:The subjects were 30 stroke patients and randomly and equally assigned to a CERE group (10), a BRT group (10), and a control group (10). The intervention was applied to each group five times per week, 30 minutes per each time, for six weeks. A tapeline was used to measure upper and lower chest expansion and MIP prior to and after the intervention and the results were compared. RESULTS:After the intervention, the upper and lower chest expansion was considerable in the CERE group (p<.01), significant in the BRT group (p<.05) but was not significant in the control group (p>.05). According to the post-hoc test result, the upper and lower chest of the CERE group and the BRT group significantly expanded compared to that of the control group (p<.05) and the upper and lower chest of the CERE group statistically significantly expanded relative to that of the BRT group (p<.05). According to the MIP evaluation result, the CERE group saw considerable improvement (p<.01) and the BRT group underwent significant changes (p<.05), but there were no significant changes in the control group (p>.05). The post-hoc test result was that the CERE group and the BRT group saw significant improvement compared to the control group (p<.05) and the CERE group experienced statistically significant enhancement relative to the BRT group (p<.05). CONCLUSION:As an intervention for respiratory function improvement, CERE is considered effective for strengthening respiratory muscles and promoting chest expansion through manual resistance by a therapist.
  • 4.

    Comparative Study of Text Entry Speed and Accuracy Using the Three Different Keyboard Type in Students with Cerebral Palsy: Case Study

    Jeong Dong-hoon | 2015, 10(1) | pp.23~35 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:People with physical disabilities such as cerebral palsy usually experience obstacles when interacting with computer through conventional keyboard because of their motor disabilities. The purpose of this study is empirically compare of text entry(alphabet and word) speed and accuracy using the three different keyboard type on four students(male 2 and female 2) with cerebral palsy. METHODS:This research design used a replicated single-case experimental approach to compare the individual performance. An alternating treatments design was used to examine the effectiveness of standard QWERTY keyboard and alternative keyboard(mini and big keyboard) on computer access for students with cerebral palsy. To avoid changes in posture that influence a keyboard character entry training and evaluation was carried out using his sitting in a wheelchair. Compass software program used in this study as an assessment tool to measure speed and accuracy when performance of text entry(alphabet and word). This was repeated until the stable status of reaction time. RESULTS:As a result, the alternative keyboard seems to be the most effective device for students with cerebral palsy to perform text entry. But various factors such as peculiarity of motor disabilities, experience and preferences of the user are heavily related. CONCLUSION:Thus, we must perform the objective and systematic assessment for computer access and if sustained training is accomplished, it could to improve speed and accuracy of text entry(alphabet and word).
  • 5.

    The Effect of the Physical Therapy Treatment Room Environment Using Microwave Diathermy on the Autonomic Nervous System of Human Body

    신한기 | 이태규 | 전재윤 and 2other persons | 2015, 10(1) | pp.37~43 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the physical therapy treatment room environment using microwave diathermy on the autonomic nervous system of human body. METHODS:Participants were 24 healthy adults. Standard deviation of all normal R-R intervals(SDNN), root mean square of successive differences(RMSSD), low frequency(LF), high frequency(HF), LF/HF ratio were compared in microwave irradiation and non-irradiation group. Data were analyzed in Wilcoxon’s signed-ranks test and Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS:Standard deviation of all normal R-R intervals (SDNN), root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), low frequency(LF), high frequency(HF), LF/HF ratio were not significantly different in microwave irradiation group. Standard deviation of all normal R-R intervals(SDNN), root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), low frequency(LF), high frequency(HF), LF/HF ratio were not significantly different in microwave non- irradiation group. Standard deviation of all normal R-R intervals(SDNN), root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), low frequency(LF), high frequency(HF), LF/HF ratio were not significantly different between two groups. CONCLUSION:There was no significant change in the sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system regardless of the presence of microwave irradiation. There was no significant change in the autonomic nervous system adaptability regardless of the presence of microwave irradiation.According to this study, microwave diathermy does not have significant effect on the autonomic nervous system.Future study is necessary to investigate the long term effect of the physical therapy treatment room environment using microwave diathermy on the autonomic nervous system of the human body.
  • 6.

    The Effects of Passive Coping Strategies in Pain and Function After Whiplash Injury

    조현표 | Kim, Young-min | 2015, 10(1) | pp.45~52 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of pain and function according to the high and low manual passive coping strategies after whiplash injury. METHODS:The study was tested with 30 patients with neck pain. Coping was measured at after 10 days using the Pain Management Inventory. Group was divided into high passive(experimental) and low passive(control) group. All patients were equally treated with the ordinary therapy. Patients attended physical therapy for 3 times a week, for 6 weeks. Visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, Pain Disability Index (PDI), neck disability index (NDI), were recorded both before and after the intervention. RESULTS:Each coping strategy group were evaluated after 6 weeks. VAS has been significantly reduced in both groups ((p <.05). PDI and NDI was significantly decreased after the experiment before. In the experimental group (p <.001), the control group showed no significant difference. In the comparison between groups VAS was significantly reduced compared with the control group (p <.05), PDI and NDI was significantly reduced compared with the control group (p <.001). CONCLUSION:Low passive coping strategy predicts neck pain and disability recovery. It may be beneficial to assess and improve coping strategy early in whiplash injury.
  • 7.

    The Effects of the Combined Exercise Program on PhysicalFitness and Related Hormone in Elderly Women

    임창훈 | koyumin | 2015, 10(1) | pp.53~61 | number of Cited : 16
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:This study examined the effect of the combined exercise program on physical fitness and related hormone in elderly women. METHODS:The subjects included 40 elderly women who reside at B city. Upon thire agreements, the subjects were divided into either an experimental group and the control group. there 20 subjects in each. The combined exercise program was conducted during the 8 weeks, and the experimental group was underwent its associated program 5 times a week. there wear 2 subjects from each group that were excluded. The physical fitness wear measured and the related hormone(growth hormone, DHEA) were taken with blood serum density. RESULTS:After 8 weeks for intervention, there were statistically significant differences between in physical fitness and growth hormone, DHEA in experimental group(p<.05). however, this difference was not significantly different in the control group. Futher, there wear statistically significant difference between two group of all item(p<.05). CONCLUSION:The findings of this study show that combined exercise program helps the physical fitness and increase of growth hormone, DHEA in elderly women. In conclusion, the regular combined exercise program for 8 weeks is effective for increase physical fitness and related hormone in elderly women, and positive influence upon, thereby being thought to be able to lower risk in aging and weakness.
  • 8.

    Changes of α-Motor Neuron Excitability after Low-Intensity Exercise with Transient Restriction of Blood Flow

    Jongsoon Kim | 2015, 10(1) | pp.63~69 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:Low-intensity exercise with transient restriction of blood flow to muscle could be an alternative rehabilitation method which avoids the problems associated with conventional high-intensity exercise. However, the mechanism of low-intensity exercise with transient restriction of blood flow is not clearly known. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of improvement of muscular function after low-intensity exercise with transient restriction of blood flow using H-reflex analysis. METHODS:Twenty one healthy young adults with no medical history of neurological or musculoskeletal disorder voluntarily participated in this study. The α-motor neuron excitability of the triceps surae was assessed using the H-reflex. The amplitude of the M-wave and H-reflex were measured across three conditions: rest, after low-intensity exercise without restriction of blood flow and after low-intensity exercise with restriction of blood flow. The subjects performed low-intensity ankle plantar flexion exercise at their own pace for one minute without or with transient restriction of blood flow achieved by a sphygmomanometer cuff on popliteal fossa at a pressure of 120㎜ of mercury(120 ㎜Hg). RESULTS:No significant changes of the excitability of the α-motor neuron were obtained across three different conditions. CONCLUSION:This study found that low-intensity exercise with transient restriction of blood flow did not influence to α-motor neuron excitability of the triceps surae. From the results, I could come to the conclusion that further study will be required.
  • 9.

    Comparison of Difference of the Gluteus Medius Muscle Fiber Thickness during maximum muscle contraction between Chronic Low Back Pain with Gluteus Medius Weakness and Healthy Subject

    이상욱 | Suhnyeop Kim | 양진모 and 1other persons | 2015, 10(1) | pp.71~82 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:The aim of this study is to compare changes in the thickness of the gluteus medius muscle fiber between chronic low back pain(clbp) with gluteus medius weakness and healthy subject. METHODS:Ultrasound imaging was used to measure in the thickness of each fiber of the gluteus medius muscle based on maximal muscle contraction during abduction motion of the hip joint in a healthy group (11 subjects) and a chronic CLBP group (21 subjects). An independent t-test was performed to analyze the difference of thickness in each fiber of the gluteus medius muscle and the rate of changes in the fibers in the two groups. RESULTS:The fiber thickness changes in the gluteus medius muscle were significantly lower for the posterior fiber in the CLBP group compared to the healthy group (p<0.01). The changes in rate of difference of thickness the posterior part of the gluteus medius muscle was significantly lower in the CLBP group than in the healthy group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION:The findings of this study CLBP patients with weakness of the gluteus medius muscle that lower for the posterior fiber’s difference of thickness and rate of change in the CLBP group compared to the healthy group. Indicate that rehabilitation of CLBP patients with weakness of the gluteus medius muscle should consider the functions of posterior fiber of the gluteus medius muscle.
  • 10.

    Comparison of Forced Vital Capacity and Maximal Voluntary Ventilation Between Normal and Forward Head Posture

    Jintae-Han | 고민지 | 김영주 | 2015, 10(1) | pp.83~89 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to investigate the vital capacity and maximal voluntary ventilationin subjects with forward head posture (FHP). METHODS:Twenty-eight subjects participated in this study (normal 14, FHP 14) and were resident in B city. The mean age, height and weight of subjects was 22.80yrs, 169.36cm and 62.79kg. Subjects were asked to breath maximally for FVC and repeatedly for MVV during 12 seconds. The variables of data were collected as follows: Forced Vital Capacity(FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in One Second(FEV1), FEV1/FVC, Maximal Voluntary Ventilation(MVV). Each trial was performed by 3 times and we used the means to analyze the data. The mann-whitney U test and independent t-test were used to compare the vital capacity between normal and FHP subjects. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 21.0 for window versionand p-values less than 0.05 were used to identify significant differences. RESULTS:The FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC and MVV of FHP subjects were decreased more than that of normal subjects and the difference was statistically significant between two groups. CONCLUSION:The vital capacity of subjects with FHP was generally lower than normal subjects. This study shows that the vital capacityof subjectswith FHP could be decreased due to the bad neck posture that weakens the respiratory accessory muscles of neck.
  • 11.

    A Study on the Actual Output and Thermal Effect in Tissue Mimicking Phantom by the Material of the Ultrasonic Transducer

    유상현 | Wonjae Choi | Seungwon Lee | 2015, 10(1) | pp.91~97 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:In this study investigated the thermal effect in tissue mimicking phantom by the material of the ultrasonic transducer in low intensity sonication. METHODS:The material of the ultrasonic transducer was made of ceramic, stainless steel, aluminum. Korea Testing Laboratory was measured of the three kinds of materials the total output of the ultrasonic transducer. Each material was measured core temperature and the actual output depending on the type of transducer. Agarose tissue mimicking phantom and silicone tissue mimicking phantom was made. Transducers made of three kinds of materials were emitted in the phantom. It is shown as a graph about time and temperature and the surface temperature rising speed and deep temperature rise rate was investigated. RESULTS:Ceramic transducers were highest output. Higher than the stainless steel transducer, aluminum had the lowest total output. Deep temperature was the highest in the ceramic transducer, and the surface temperature was the highest in the stainless steel transducer. Thermal images of ceramic transducer showed that a valid output is formed deeper wider than the metal. CONCLUSION:Ceramic transducer is confirmed the excellence than the metal transducer in deep thermal effect and the actual output of the ultrasound.
  • 12.

    The Effect of The preparation and Review Times on the Some Items of The gross Motor Function Measure evaluation capacity of the College Students

    Lee, Han-Suk | Eunjoo Kim | 2015, 10(1) | pp.99~105 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to investigate the differenceof GMFM evaluationcapacity according to the preparation and review times on the college students. METHODS:58 subjects among physical therapymajor studentswere recruited. The group was constructed the fourgroupsbypreparation and review times. The firstgroup was less than 1hour, the second group wasmore than 1 hour ~ less than 2 hours, the third group was more than 2 hours ~ less than 3 hours, the fourth group was more than 3 hours that was preparation and reviewtimes. The students were performed GMFM evaluation capacity after they learned the normal motor development for 5 weeks and evaluation method. They continued the preparation and review learning about the lesson during 5 weeks. RESULTS:The group of more than 3 hours was the highest and next order was the group of more than 1 hour ~ less than 2 hours, group of less than 1hour on GMFM evaluation capacity. CONCLUSION:Preparation and review times improved the GMFM evaluation capacity of students. Therefore, Emphasizing the preparation and review of learning is proper way to increase the evaluation capacity. In addition, the professor should create the appropriate teaching strategies using preparation and review times to upgrade a learner's ability.
  • 13.

    The Effects of Stabilization Exercise with Abdominal Breath on Balance and Oswestry Disability Index for Low Back Pain Patients

    Ho-Hee Son | 2015, 10(1) | pp.107~113 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:This study was to investigate the effect of stabilization exercise with abdominal breath on Balance and Oswestry Disability Index for Low Back Pain Patients. METHODS:The subjects were 18 low back pain patients in their twenties. The subjects were randomly assigned into experimental group and control group. Control group and experimental group both participated in 30 minutes of stabilization exercise for 8 weeks(5 times/week), and experimental group participated in stabilization exercise with abdominal breath. The subjects were tested balance and pain using BioRescue and Oswestry Diability Index respectively, before and after intervention. RESULTS:The experimental group showed a statistical significance in movement areas of the body's center(p<.05), but there was no significant differences between groups (p>.05). The experimental group showed a statistical significance in movement distances of the body's center with eyes open(p<.05), and there was significant differences between groups(p<.05). Both groups showed a statistical significance in ODI between pre and post test(p<.05) but there was no significant differences between groups(p>.05). CONCLUSION:As a result, the group participating in stabilization exercise with abdominal breath had a more effective improvement than the control group. Therefore, the stabilization exercise with abdominal breath may be used improving balance and pain in low back pain patients.
  • 14.

    Changes in Posterior Cerebral Artery Blood flow Velocity Following Head rotation and body Positioning

    Min chul Park | Jongsoon Kim | 2015, 10(1) | pp.115~120 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:Vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) should be carefully assessed in patient for whom manipulation of the cervical spine is to be undertaken. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in posterior cerebral artery blood flow velocity following head and body positioning by transcranial doppler ultrasonography (TCD) in healthy subjects . METHODS:Twenty two healthy female (mean age 20.77 ±1.30 yrs.) participants volunteered to participate in the study. None of the participants had a history of neck pain or headache within the last 6 months. To evaluate the cerebral blood flow, we measured the mean flow velocity of the posterior cerebral artery unilaterally (right side). The blood flow velocity was measured under 3 different head positions (in a neutral head position, ipsilateral head rotation and contralateral head rotation position) and 2 different body conditions (supine position and sitting position). RESULTS:The mean blood flow velocity of posterior cerebral artery was decreased in body positioning from supine to sitting (p<.05), but the decreased rate of blood flow velocity in posterior cerebral artery did not change significantly between ipsilateral head rotation and contralateral head rotation (p>.05). CONCLUSION:These result of our study show that body positioning (sitting and supine) affect the blood flow velocity in posterior cerebral artery.