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2015, Vol.10, No.2

  • 1.

    The Reliability and Validity of Hip Range of Motion Measurement using a phone Operative Patient

    Sun-Wook Park | 김명수 | 배효선 and 1other persons | 2015, 10(2) | pp.1~7 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:The aims of this study were to assess the intra-tester and inter-tester reliability and validity of hip range of motion using a smart phone in hip operative patients. METHODS:Twenty-five patients (eight total hip arthroplasty and seventeen femur neck fracture) participated in this study. The range of motions in active and passive hip flexion, abduction and external rotation were measured with a goniometer and smart phone over two times by two observers. The intra-tester and inter-tester reliability were evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1). The validity was measured by Pearson’s correlation coefficient. RESULTS:The intra-observer reliability was good in all measured items (ICC>0.78). The inter-observer reliability was high with ICC (>0.90). All correlation coefficients of smart phone and goniometer was greater than 0.85 and showed a significant positive correlation (p<0.01). CONCLUSION:The range of motion measurement with a smart phone showed acceptable reliability. Therefore, it could be convenient and have economical benefits to measure the range of motion of the hip joint using a smart phone.
  • 2.

    Influences of Shoe Heel Height on Isometric Shoulder Abductor Strength and EMG Activities of Selected Shoulder Muscles

    Duck-won Oh | 2015, 10(2) | pp.9~16 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:The objective of this study was to identify the effects of shoulder abduction strength and EMG activities of the selected scapular and shoulder muscles during isometric shoulder abduction. METHODS:Thirty-four healthy young females were recruited for this study. Surface EMG equipment with inline force sensor was used to determine the shoulder abductor strength and the activity of the serratus anterior (SA), upper trapezius (UT), lower trapezius (LT), and middle deltoid (MD) during three shoe heel height conditions: (1) barefoot, (2) 3-cm shoe heel height, and (3) 7-cm shoe heel height. RESULTS:Isometric shoulder strength showed statistically significant difference among the conditions (p<0.05), and post-hoc test showed lower strength during the 7-cm condition (49.98±17.56 kg) than during the barefoot (44.97±20.15 kg) and 3-cm conditions (36.59±17.07 kg). Furthermore, EMG activities of the SA, UT, and MD appeared to be statistically significantly different among the conditions, with lower values in the 7-cm condition compared to the barefoot condition (p<0.05). EMG ratios (MD/UT and SA/UT) were lower during the 7-cm condition than during the barefoot condition (p<0.05). CONCLUSION:These findings suggest that isometric shoulder abduction strength and EMG activities of scapular and shoulder muscles may be adversely changed with increasing shoe heel height.
  • 3.

    Effect of Active Intervention after Kaltenborn’s Cervical Joint Mobilization on The Cervical Spine Alignment and Muscle Activity in Patients with Forward Head Posture

    이강진 | Jung-suk Roh | Houng-sik Choi and 3other persons | 2015, 10(2) | pp.17~27 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of three interventions (intervention by passive range of motion exercise plus manual cervical traction, Mulligan’s joint mobilization, and strengthening exercises) after Kaltenborn’s joint mobilization on the cervical spine alignment, and muscle activity in patients with a forward head posture. METHODS:The subjects were 39 students from H University in Chungnam and C University in Jeonbuk. The subjects in each group attended training sessions three times a week for four weeks. We used one-way ANOVA and Scheffe’s post hoc test to compare values between groups, and used paired t-test to compare the values of the dependent variables within groups. RESULTS:The results showed that the active intervention group experienced a significant increase compared to the passive intervention group in terms of the craniovertebral angle, cervical lordosis angle, and had significant decreases compared to the passive intervention group in terms of the upper trapezius muscle activity. The active intervention group also had significant increases in craniovertebral angle and decreased anterior scalene muscle activity than the active-assistive intervention group. The active-assistive intervention group had significant decreases compared to the active intervention group in terms of the serratus anterior, levator scapulae, and splenius capitis muscle activity. CONCLUSION:It appears that the subjects with a forward head posture had significant improvements in the cervical lordosis angle, cranial rotation angle, craniovertebral angle, and muscle activity after intervention by Mulligan’s joint mobilization (active-assistive intervention component) and strengthening exercises (active intervention component) after applying Kaltenborn’s joint mobilization.
  • 4.

    The Exception Case about the Diagnose Forward Head Posture using the CranioVertebra Angle, CranioRotation Angle and Cobb angle : a Case Report

    박한규 | Lee Sang-yeol | Tae-ho Kim | 2015, 10(2) | pp.29~34 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:The purpose of present study was to introduces an exceptional case in measurement methods(CVA, CRA and Cobb angle) to identify the FHP with verified reliability and validity. Subjects: Three males aged 30 years were recruited: A Normal, B and C who have FHP. METHODS:All the subjects were measured CVA, CRA and Cobb angle with the Photogrammetry and Radiography. RESULTS:The results revealed that it is not enough for measurement methods to identify the FHP using CVA, CRA and Cobb angle. On Photogrammetry values; CVA had 65°, CRA was 148°of Normal subject A and CVA had 61°, CRA was 149°of FHP subject B and CVA had 51°, CRA was 149°of FHP subject C. On Radiography values; CVA had 73°, CRA was 148°and Cobb was 50°of Normal subject A and CVA had 70°, CRA was 150° and Cobb was 53°of FHP subject B and CVA had 61°, CRA was 153°and Cobb was 31°of FHP subject C. CONCLUSION:The reliable CVA, CRA and Cobb angle use methods from the previous studies might not be suitable for the diagnose the FHP. We think that it is necessary to have more detailed evaluation methods and the radiography is also needed for clear evaluations because of some possible exceptions.
  • 5.

    Comparison of between Upper Thoracic Manipulation and Cervical Stability Training on Range of Motion and Neck Disability in Patients with Chronic Mechanical Neck Pain

    Lee ByoungKwon | 양진모 | Kyung-Hwan Kang | 2015, 10(2) | pp.35~45 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:The aim of this study is to investigate how upper thoracic manipulation and cervical stability training affects cervical range of motion and neck disability index of patients with chronic mechanical neck pain. METHODS:30 patients with chronic mechanical neck pain, and randomly divided into the upper thoracic manipulation and the cervical stability training group. Upper thoracic manipulation group was conducted to the upper thoracic manipulation, and cervical stability training was conducted to the cervical stability training. Intervention period was 6 weeks, and 3 sessions, each of which was run for 5~10 minutes. The subjects were measured neck range of motion before and after intervention by electro-goniometer. Neck disability index was used to measure neck disability index Korean version. RESULTS:Comparison within groups, there were significant difference in neck range of motion before and after intervention, and Neck disability index significantly reduced in the cervical stability training group. The comparison between groups, there were no significant difference in neck range of motion and neck disability index. CONCLUSION:Upper thoracic manipulation and cervical stability training to the patients with chronic neck pain was helpful to improve neck range of motion and cervical stability training was helpful to improve neck disability index.
  • 6.

    Physical Activities and Health-related Quality of Life of Individuals Post Stroke

    Young-Eun Choi | Kim Jihye | 2015, 10(2) | pp.47~54 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the physical activities of individuals post-stroke and their HRQL, as well as to determine whether their functional abilities contribute to their amounts of physical activity. METHODS:The study’s subjects included 90 individuals post-stroke. Their amounts of physical activity were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and their HRQL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-form Health Survey (SF-36). In addition, the functional abilities of the subjects were measured. For the measures of physical activities and the HRQL, Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to identify the strengths of the associations between the measures. A hierarchical linear regression model was used to determine whether physical activities had independent impacts on the HRQL. RESULTS:This study found that the physical activities performed by the subjects affected the SF-36 physical component score (PCS) (12%). However, the physical activities and the SF-36 mental component score (MCS) showed no statistically significant relationship, whereas functional abilities and physical activities had a statistically significant relationship (r = .57~.86, p<.001). CONCLUSION:The present study identified a correlation between physical activity and the PCS. Therefore, individuals post-stroke should be encouraged to carry out more physical activities, including more frequent walking activities.
  • 7.

    The Differences of Shoulder Muscle Activity Onset Time according to Body Tilting Angle in Push-up Exercise

    Yongho Cho | 김승억 | choi jin ho | 2015, 10(2) | pp.55~61 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to investigate recruiting order and onset time around shoulder muscle during the push-up according to the body tilting angle. METHODS:Twenty healthy young adult subjects were recruited for this study. They had no neurological and musculoskeletal disease. We used the sEMG for recording onset time of shoulder muscles. Shoulder Muscles were anterior deltoid(AD), posterior deltoid(PD), pectoralis major(PM), upper trapezius(UT). Body tilting angle were measured at 0 degree, 30 degree and 60 degree by using tilting table. Muscles contraction onset time were set by the push-up performed 3 times respectively. Mean of 3 measurements were used. And initiate onset time was decided by the Mean ± 2 SD in the threshold, more than 25ms. RESULTS:There were significant difference at 0 degree, 30 degree and 60 degree(p<.05). Muscles onset time were same order at 0 degree, 30 degree. UT occurred first of all contraction at 0 degree and 30 degree. And then contracted AD, PD, PM. But, at 60 degree, AD was the first contraction, and PM, UT, PD. CONCLUSION:Muscle recruitment order and onset time according to the body tilting was shown the difference when you do push-up. Therefore, this result, shoulder muscle recruitment pattern of according to the body tilting is different and it has to make effective shoulder exercise program.
  • 8.

    The Effects of Lumbar Stabilization Exercise on Muscle Activity and Isokinetic Muscle Strength of Female Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain

    Bang, Hyun-Soo | 2015, 10(2) | pp.63~71 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:The purpose of this study to investigate the effects of exercise on lumbar stabilization in muscle activity and isokinetic muscle strength of female with chronic low back pain. METHODS:The candidates was chose to twenty women in their 30s and 40s complaining back pain for over 12 weeks and consist of 10 people for lumbar stabilization and general physical therapy group(PL group), another 10 people for general physical therapy group(GP group). Lumbar stabilization exercise was conducted for 8 weeks and was comprised of 60 minutes for two times a week. In order to examine the effects of lumbar stabilization, results in the present study were analyzed maximal voluntary isometric contraction(MVIC) using electromyogram to measure muscle activity and isokinetic performance including peak torque and average power at the pre to post. RESULTS:The following are results in this study. The MVIC and isokinetic muscle strength were gradually increased in all group. As the result of the test of the MVIC and isokinetic muscle strength, the difference of lumbar stabilization and general physical therapy group is statistically more significant than that of general physical therapy group. CONCLUSION:In the present study, results indicate that lumbar stabilization helps to improve the muscle activity and isokinetic muscle strength.
  • 9.

    The Comparison of Ultrasound Images on Trunk Muscles According to Gender

    Lim Jae Heon | 최수희 | 서삼기 | 2015, 10(2) | pp.73~80 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:The purpose of this study is to compare ultrasound images of trunk muscles according to gender in healthy subjects. METHODS:Twenty six subjects(13 males and 13 females) were enrolled in this study. The thickness of trunk muscles was measured for transverse abdominis (TrA), external oblique abdominis (EOA), internal oblique abdominis(IOA), and multifidus (MF) using ultrasound. The thickness of the muscles was measured for the length of cross-section except for fascia. The muscle thickness wasmeasured at the both side, then the mean value was calculated. Also, each of trunk muscle wasanalysed by echodensity, white area index. RESULTS:As a results, there was significant difference in muscle thickness of EOA, IOA according to gender (p<0.05). The male was significant increase than female of EOA, IOA in muscle thickness. There was significant difference in echo intensity of TrA, MF according to gender(p<0.05). The female was significant increase than male of TrA, MF in echo intensity. There was significant difference in white area index of EOA according to gender(p<0.05). The female was significant increase than male of EOA in white area index. CONCLUSION:The findings of this study suggest that healthy male have a greater EOA, IOA trunk muscle thickness than female. However, the difference of muscle quality between male and female was showed through thisexperiment. Therefore, the ultrasonography images will be useful tool for seeing quantitative and qualitative difference of trunk muscles according to gender.
  • 10.

    The Effect of Morton’s Foot on Static Balance Ability

    Jintae-Han | 고민지 | 김영주 and 2other persons | 2015, 10(2) | pp.81~87 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:According to advanced research, the effect of foot type on balance is 3 type. There are squared foot, morton’s foot and Egyptian foot. Above all, Morton’s foot accounts for 22% of people. The purpose of this study is to find the effect of Morton's Foot on Balance Ability. METHODS:Twenty healthy woman participate in this study(Mean age:23.93; Mean height: 163.35; Mean weight: 56.20) . They doesn’t have musculoskeletal or neurogical disorder. Ten of participants have morton’s foot group, and another ten person are normal foot group. Measurment of balance was used by Balance trainer(BT4) and balance pad(AIREX). Data analyzed in 3 way ANOVA. RESULTS:In foot type and support type of variables, Morton’s foot was significant differences in C90 area and Velocity. There was no significant difference between foot type and visual condition. In support type and visual condition of variables, unstable support significantly decreased in Tracelength, C90area and Velocity. If we find out correlationship of foot type, visual condition and support condition, There didn’t have relationship each other. CONCLUSION:This study found that correlationship of foot type, visual condition and support condition. But, there are no significant differences. Nevertheless, These results will also be able to offer baseline data about Morton’s foot study in future.
  • 11.

    The Effect of Neck Assistive Device Considering Mckenzie Type Subjects with Forward Head Posture

    Lee, Han-Suk | Lee,Woo-Cheol | 김준호 | 2015, 10(2) | pp.89~94 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:The aim of this study was to determine the effect of device considering Mckenzie type for the subjects with forward head posture (FHP). METHODS:The subjects were 35 patients with FHP(mean age was 23.7 ± 2.8 years; mean height; 172.1 ± 11.7, mean weight; 65.8 ± 13.9, mean NDI(Neck Disability Index; 3.7 ±3.2, mean FHP; 6.7 ± 2.2). We measured the posture with the Body style S-8.0(LU Commerce, South Korea) to evaluate the FHP. We collected the surface EMG(Myosystem 1400, Noraxon, USA) data to quantify changes in normalized activation levels of muscles in SternoCleidoMastoid muscle(SCM), Scalenus Anterior(SA), Trapezius upper fiber(TU) and Splenius Cervicis(SC), during the subjects were instructed to glide their head into a “chin-in” position for a retraction without and with device. RESULTS:The condition with device significantly decreased the %RVC of SA(90.84±40.54), SCM(74.98±43.65) and TU(67.60±47.83) compared to the condition without device(SA;100.39±56.32, SCM;119.03±109.26, Trapezius;80.55±39.27). But the %RVC of capitis(65.87±47.83) with device was increased(70.82±52.78). There was significant difference in the %RVC between SCM and Trapezius muscle in two conditions. CONCLUSION:New device for FHP reduces the EMG activities of the TU, SCM and SA muscle. We have to develop the function of feedback to facilitate the motion in the future.
  • 12.

    Study on an Electrode Attachment Method Suitable for Underwater Electromyography Measurements

    Han Seul-ki | Park jung seo | Taek-gil Nam | 2015, 10(2) | pp.95~98 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE:This study was conducted to devise a method of preventing water infiltration into the surface electrodes during EMG measurements underwater and on the ground and to check the reliability of Electromyography (EMG) measurements when underwater. METHODS:Six healthy adults were selected as subjects in this study. The measurements in this study were conducted in pool dedicated to underwater exercise and physical therapy room in the hospital building. An MP150 (Biopac Systems, US, 2010) and a BioNomadix 2-channel wireless EMG transmitter (Biopac Systems, US, 2012) was used to examine the muscle activity of rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius of dominant side. The subjects repeated circulation tasks on the ground for more than 10 min for enough surface electrode attachment movement. After a 15-min break, subjects performed the circulation task underwater(water depth 1.1m, water temperature 33.5°C, air temperature 27°C), as on the ground, for more than 10 min, and the MVIC of each muscle was measured again. SPSS v20.0 was used for all statistical computations. RESULTS:The maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) values between the underwater and on the ground measurements showed no significant differences in all four muscles and showed a high intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of >0.80. CONCLUSION:We determined that EMG measurements obtained underwater could be used with high reliability, comparable to ground measurements.