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2015, Vol.10, No.4

  • 1.

    Effects of Modified Cross-body Stretching on Range of Motion in Glenohumeral Joint

    Koh, Eun Kyung | Do-young Jung | 2015, 10(4) | pp.1~7 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of cross-body stretching (CBS) and modified cross-body stretching (MCBS) on the range of motion (ROM) of glenohumeral joint (GHJ) in healthy subjects. METHODS: Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: CBS group without stabilization of scapula (n=15) and MCBS group with stabilization of scapula (n=15). We measured horizontal adduction and internal rotation ROM of GHJ in pre- and post-intervention. The data were analyzed using the analyses of covariate (ANCOVA) and least significant difference (LSD) post hoc tests (p=.05). RESULTS: In the post-intervention, the MCBS group had a significantly greater increase in horizontal adduction ROM (mean ± SD, 11.46° ± 0.83°) compared to the CBS group (7.81° ± 0.83°) (p=.007) and a greater increase in internal rotation ROM (62.27° ± 0.74°) compared to the CBS group (59.20° ± 0.74°) (p=.004). CONCLUSION: A single session application of an MCBS provides immediate more improvements in both horizontal adduction and internal rotation ROM than CBS. These results suggest that application of MCBS with stabilization of scapula may be a more useful to gain ROM of GHJ than CBS without stabilization of scapula.
  • 2.

    The effect of stair exercise with restriction blood flow on knee extensor muscle

    전재윤 | Min chul Park | 2015, 10(4) | pp.9~14 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: Low-intensity exercise with restriction of blood flow has been proposed as an alternative exercise to secure the disadvantage of a high-intensity resistance exercise. However, studies of how affects the muscle using functional exercise are lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate knee extensor muscle strength during stair exercise of functional exercise with leg blood flow restriction. METHODS: Twenty two healthy young adults with no history of musculoskeletal or neurogical disorder were participated in this study. participant were randomized into either non-restriction group(11 subject) or restriction group(11 subject). The restriction blood cuff attached to the proximal end of the leg. Measurement of knee extensor strength was used by cybex dynamometer. Data analyzed in independent t-test and paired t-test. RESULTS: Knee extensor muscle strength was significantly different between groups. Also, there were significant differences in the strength of knee extensor within the group. CONCLUSION: This study found that stair exercise with restriction of blood flow did influence to knee extensor muscle strength. These results will also be able to promote the effect of increasing the muscle power applied to functional exercise. Henceforth, studies will be made in the intervention method that can be applied to health vulnerable person.
  • 3.

    Validity and Reliability of the knee joint proprioceptive sensory measurements using a smartphone

    myungchul kim | Nam-Jae Kim | 이민수 and 1other persons | 2015, 10(4) | pp.15~23 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: We aims to promote the development of proprioception measurement using smartphones, goniometers, and laser pointers as compared to the conventional use of electrogoniometer measurement. METHODS: Measurements using an electrogoniometer were previously proved to be reliabile and valid. Among E-university students, 20 who had no fracture, operation history, or inflammatory arthritis were examined. These subjects had not performed regular exercise in the past 3 months. Proprioception measurements were performed using four different measurement tools, three times per day, for test-retest analysis. RESULTS: No notable test-retest differences were noted for any of the measurement methods (P>0.05). With regard to the test-retest reliability for each measurement method, we observed that the readings from both the electrogoniometer and smartphone have high reliability (ICC>0.80), whereas the readings from the laser pointer have moderate reliability (ICC>0.60). When assessing the concurrent validity between electrogoniometers with individual measurements, we did not observe any notable difference between the smartphone and electrogoniometer (P>0.05) and these tools in fact showed high correlation (r>0.60, P<0.05) and a moderate reliability (ICC>0.60). Moreover, there was no notable difference in between electrogoniometers and laser pointers (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The findings of this suggested that proprioception can be measured by using smart-phones, and proved that this method has sufficient credibility. Moreover, we noted that the concurrent validity with smartphones was high in comparison with the conventional electrogoniometer, which also indicates the validity and credibility. Based on these findings, we conclude that the measurement of proprioception by using a smartphone can be widely adopted.
  • 4.

    Effect of Using a Cell Phone on Gait Parameters in Healthy Young Adults: Texting and texting while Listening to Music

    Yu Kyung Hoon | JaeHun Shim | Sung-dae Choung and 1other persons | 2015, 10(4) | pp.25~31 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown that healthy young adults reduced gait velocity during texting or talking while walking. It was reported that increasing number of pedestrian accidents were related to distract the environmental attention. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of texting and texting while listening to music on gait parameters. METHODS: Texting and listening to music while walking were assessed in two dual-task condition using 35 healthy young adults. The outcome measurements were assessed in terms of spatiotemporal gait parameters in three walking conditions, namely, comfortable walking speed, walking while texting, and walking while texting and listening to music. To avoid learning effect, subjects were individually blinded to assessment schedule and space. The changes between the three walking conditions were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: When comparing the two dual-task conditions with the single-task condition, it was found that dual-task interference was increased in almost gait velocity, cadence, stride length, step time, double limb support, and single limb support. In addition, walking while texting and listening to music condition negatively was affected gait speed, stride length, and step time more than the texting only condition. CONCLUSION: Walking while texting and listening to music as well as waling while texting may decrease pedestrian safety when crossing streets by diverting the person’s attention away from the street environment.
  • 5.

    A comparison of the effects on abdominal muscles between the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and maximal expiration in chronic stroke patients

    seo dong kwon | 김지선 | 2015, 10(4) | pp.33~38 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: Although the abdominal drawing-in maneuver is commonly used in clinical training for trunk stability, performing this procedure in stroke patients is difficult; instead, maximal expiration can be much easily performed in stroke patients. In the present study, we first aimed to demonstrate the effects of the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and maximal expiration on trunk stability in stroke patients. Moreover, we compared the thickness of the transverse abdominal, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles on the paretic and non-paretic sides. METHODS: We used ultrasonography to measure the change in the thickness of the transverse abdominal, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles on the paretic and non-paretic sides at rest, while performing the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, and while performing maximal expiration in 23 stroke patients. The ratio of muscle thickness between different conditions was estimated and included in the data analysis (abdominal drawing-in maneuver / at rest and, maximal expiration / at rest). RESULTS: The ratio of the thickness of the transverse abdominal, internal oblique and external oblique muscles during maximal expiration was significantly different on the paretic side (p < 0.05). The ratio of muscle thicknesses on the non-paretic side was greater during maximal expiration than during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, although this difference was not significant (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that maximal expiration more effectively increased the abdominal muscle thickness on the paretic side. Hence, we recommend the application of maximal expiration in clinical trunk stability training on the paretic side of stroke patients.
  • 6.

    Comparison of Lumbopelvic Rotation Angle during Active Straight Leg Raise in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain with and without Lumbar Segmental Instability

    유창우 | Suhn-yeop Kim | 2015, 10(4) | pp.39~48 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the degree of lumbopelvic rotation during the active straight leg raise (ASLR) test in chronic low back pain with and without lumbar segmental instability. METHODS: A total of 71 patients with chronic low back pain were recruited for this study. The subjects who tested positive for more than three of the five lumbar segmental instability tests (prone lumbar instability, lumbar passive extension test, anterior posterior mobility test, passive straight leg raise, age) were categorized into the lumbar segmental instability positive group. Patients who tested positive for less than three of the five tests were categorized into the lumbar segmental instability negative group. The lumbopelvic rotation was measured three times during ASLR and a mean was determined. Subjective heaviness during the ASLR was measured on 6 point scale. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference in the lumbopelvic rotation angle between the groups with and without lumbar segmental instability (p<.01). There was no significant difference in the subjective heaviness during ASLR. The mean lumbopelvic rotation angle during ASLR was 13.54±2.86°, and 8.81±2.47° in the positive and negative groups, respectively (p<.01). The cut-off value of the lumbopelvic rotation during was 10.5°, the sensitivity was 82.9%, and the specificity was 80.6%. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that lumbopelvic rotation is more prevalent in patients without lumbar segmental instability. Clinically, this important when diagnosing chronic low back pain with lumbar segmental instability, as the lumbopelvic rotation angle during the ASLR test can be used to aid in diagnosis.
  • 7.

    Effects of Emphasized Initial Contact Auditory Feedback Gait Training on Balance and Gait in Stroke Patients

    김정두 | Yong-Jun Cha | 윤혜진 | 2015, 10(4) | pp.49~57 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of emphasized initial contact gait training on balance and gait ability in hemiplegia patients. METHODS: Twenty-four hemiplegic patients were randomly allocated to an experimental group or control group. All participants received 30-min neurodevelopmental treatment. Furthermore, the experimental group received initial contact-emphasized auditory feedback gait training, whereas the control group received gait training without auditory feedback. The intervention was performed 3 times per week, 20 min per each time, for a total of 6 weeks. Balance was assessed using the center of pressure path length, center of pressure velocity, and limitation of stability path length, whereas gait ability was assessed using the 10-m walking test and functional gait assessment. RESULTS: In both groups, center of pressure path length and center of pressure velocity significantly decreased after training. Compared to the control group, the experimental group showed a 10% significant improvement (p<.05). In the limitation of stability path length of both sides, the experimental group showed a significant increase compared to that before intervention. Compared to the control group, the experimental group showed a 7% significant improvement in results of the 10-m walking test and functional gait assessment (p<.05). CONCLUSION: Emphasized Initial contact gait training is considered an effective treatment for improving gait ability and balance ability in stroke patients.
  • 8.

    Comparison of Visual and Auditory Biofeedback during Sit-to-stand Training for Performance and Balance in Chronic Stroke Patients

    이동현 | 최성진 | ChoiHosuk and 1other persons | 2015, 10(4) | pp.59~68 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the comparison of visual and auditory biofeedback during sit-to-stand training in patients with stroke. Methods: Thirty-five subjects with chronic stroke were divided into three groups: a visual feedback group (12 subjects), an auditory feedback group (12 subjects) and a control group (11 subjects). All Groups received neurodevelopmental treatment, and sit-to-stand training for 30minutes three times a week for four weeks. During the sit to stand training, the experimental groups received visual feedback and auditory feedback, whereas the control group performed sit-to-stand training without feedback. Five times sit-to-stand test (FTSST), motion analysis and postural sway during sit-to-stand were used to evaluate sit to stand performance ability. In addition, Berg balance scale (BBS) was performed for evaluation of balance function in participants. Results: All groups showed significant increase on FTSST and BBS between pre- and post- intervention. The BBS scores in visual feedback group was significant increase than control group. The motion analysis and postural sway, more improvement was observed in the visual and auditory feedback groups compared with the control group. The only visual feedback group was a better performance of midline excursion during sit-to-stand than control group. Conclusion: These findings suggest that sit-to-stand training using a biofeedback may help to improve sit to stand performance and balance ability of stroke patients.
  • 9.

    Effects of Two Different Joint Mobilization Positions on Neck Pain, Function and Treatment Satisfaction in Patient with Acute Mechanical Neck Pain

    이남용 | 송현승 | Suhn-yeop Kim | 2015, 10(4) | pp.69~80 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to apply joint mobilization in a sitting position and in a prone position to patients with acute mechanical neck pain and compare the immediate treatment effects in these two positions. METHODS: After the baseline was assessed, 46 patients were randomly assigned to two groups: experimental group Ⅰ (n1=23) for joint mobilization in the sitting position and experimental group Ⅱ (n2=23) for joint mobilization in the prone position at the symptomatic cervical level. The patients in both groups received treatment by unilateral posterior-anterior gliding for 30 seconds per trial, 10 trials per session, for a total of 5 minutes, and two trials of 10 active extending motions with distraction per trial. RESULTS: In the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, all the pain and physical function variables were significantly improved after intervention in both groups (p<.05). In the Mann-Whitney U test, which compared the differences before and after the intervention between the two groups, experimental group Ⅰ showed significant improvement over experimental group Ⅱ in resting pain (p<.01), satisfaction with the treatment (p=.01), left rotation (p<.01) and CCFE (p<.01). In the analysis of covariance results, experimental group Ⅰ showed significant improvement over experimental group Ⅱ in the most painful motion pain (p<.01) and the most painful quadrant motion pain (p<.01). CONCLUSION: These outcomes suggest that joint mobilization should be applied in sitting positions for patients with acute mechanical neck pain that feel pain during sustained positions, extension or rotation.
  • 10.

    The Study of Asymmetrical of the Serratus Anterior and Lower Trapezius Muscles in Chronic Stroke Patients

    정주리 | Wan-hee Lee | 2015, 10(4) | pp.81~90 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the muscle architecture of serratus anterior and lower trapezius using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) in affected and unaffected side of chronic stroke patients. METHODS: The participants were thirty five patients with stroke hemiplegia in this study. RUSI was used to measure the muscle thickness of the serratus anterior and lower trapezius muscles. We compared the muscle thickness according to affected side and sex, determined the reliability of the measurement image. Independent t-test, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM) were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Significant difference in muscle thickness of serratus anterior was observed between affected and unaffected side (p<.001). Muscle thickness according to gender showed a significant difference in unaffected side of serratus anterior (p<.05). Compare asymmetry ratio of serratus anterior and lower trapezius muscle thickness showed a significant difference (p<.001). ICC for intra-reliability was .944~.962 in serratus anterior and .873~.925 in lower trapezius muscle thickness, respectively. SEM was .001~.004 in serratus anterior and .002~.008 in lower trapezius muscle. CONCLUSION: This study, using RUSI, showed significant difference in muscle thickness of serratus anterior in affected and unaffected side of stroke patients. RUSI is a practical tool for measuring soft-tissue thickness in the scapular region muscle of stroke.
  • 11.

    The Effect of Manual Joint Mobilization on Pain, ROM, Body Function and Balance in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    이남용 | 권춘숙 | 송현승 | 2015, 10(4) | pp.91~99 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate effect of the manual joint mobilization to the patients with knee osteoarthritis and to determine the effect of pain, range of motion, body function and balance after applying it. METHODS: The thirty participants who complained the knee pain were randomly assigned to control (Con) group (n=15) that received the general physical therapy and experimental (Exp) group (n=15) that received the applied the manual joint mobilization and the general physical therapy three times per week, 30 minutes per day for four weeks. It measured the visual analogue scale (VAS), the range of motion (ROM), body function (WOMAC) and balance (TUG). RESULTS: It showed the significantly different between the control group and experiment group in VAS, ROM and WOMAC. After 4 weeks, the experiment group was significantly different from other group in VAS, ROM and WOMAC. But the measurement of balance did not show the significantly difference within group and between groups. CONCLUSION: This results suggest that Manual joint mobilization was effective in pain, ROM, function in patient with knee osteoarthritis.
  • 12.

    Effects of an 8-week vibration exercise program on quadriceps and hamstring maximum strength and balance in male and female college students

    ha kyung jin | Lee Sang-yeol | Choi Seung Jun | 2015, 10(4) | pp.101~106 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Purpose: Application of an oscillating program for the lower extremities is an effective training method for increasing muscle strength. However, no oscillatory program has yet been identified to confirm the effectiveness of oscillation for balance ability and maximum muscle strength. We investigated the effects of an 8-week vibration exercise program on the maximum muscle strength and balance of the lower extremities. Methods: Research subjects participating in the study were 22 male and female college students with no past history of diseases of the nervous or musculoskeletal systems. All subjects were randomly divided into two groups and performed their assigned experimental treatment 3 times a week over a period of 20 min for 8 weeks. Maximum strength of the quadriceps extension, flexion, and balance ability were measured using Biodex System 4 and Biodex balance systems. Results: The 8-week oscillation program resulted in a significant increase in quadriceps extension and flexion strength in both male and female participants (p<.05). The balance ability also showed a significant improvement after the oscillation program (p<.05). The balance value was higher for male 17% than for female 21% (p<.05) participants. Conclusion: An 8-week oscillation program led to an increase in the strength of knee flexion and extension. The balance ability also improved significantly. This positive effect on balance ability was higher in female than in male subjects.
  • 13.

    The Effects of Lower Limb and Trunk Muscle Activation on Seat Angle and Height during Sit to stand and stand to sit

    Kim Byung Jo | LEE SU KYOUNG | Lee Jung Hoon and 1other persons | 2015, 10(4) | pp.107~112 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Purpose: This study investigated the effects of lower limb and trunk muscles activation on seat angle and height during sit to stand and stand to sit. Methods: Subjects were instructed to sit and stand on different angles and heights; 0˚(43cm), 5˚(48cm), 10˚(51cm) and 15˚(58cm). Measurements were conducted from sit to stand and stand to sit for external oblique, transversus abdominis, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscle activation by surface EMG. The muscle activation was measured three times for five seconds in each posture, and the %RVC value was calculated after the exclusion of one second before and after this measurement. This calculation standardized the data from each participant so it could be comparatively analyzed. Result: The external oblique, tibialis anterior, and erector spinae muscles showed significant difference in 10˚(51cm), 15˚(58cm) and 0˚(43cm), rectus femoris, in 15˚(58cm) and 0˚(43cm)(p <.05) during sit to stand. The external oblique, tibialis anterior, and rectus femoris muscles showed significant difference in 0˚(43cm) and 15˚(58cm), erector spinae and vastus medialis muscles showed significant difference in 10˚(51cm), 15˚(58cm) and 0˚(43cm)(P<.05) during stand to sit. Conclusion: The present study findings indicate that the toilet seat angle and height could affect muscle activities of the lower limb and trunk.
  • 14.

    Effect of Shoulder External Rotation on EMG Activity of the Scapular Upward Rotators During Arm Elevation

    Do-young Jung | 원종혁 | 2015, 10(4) | pp.113~121 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of shoulder external rotation on muscle activities of the scapular upward rotators during arm elevation. Methods: Nineteen healthy subjects with no medical history of shoulder pain or upper extremity disorders were recruited for this study. Electromyography (EMG) was used to measure the muscle activities of the serratus anterior (SA), upper trapezius (UP), lower trapezius (LT) and infraspinatus (IS) muscles during arm elevation. The EMG activities were recorded while the subjects performed 90° arm elevation with three different arm positions; palm down (PD), neutral position (NP), and palm up (PU). While seated in a chair, the subject was asked to raise the upper extremity in the sagittal plane in random order. Subjects performed 90° arm elevations in three trials at each arm position. The mean EMG activity normalized by the maximal voluntary isometric contraction was analyzed across three arm positions. Repeated measures one-way ANOVA and the post hoc Bonferroni tests were used to determine the differences in muscle activities among the three arm positions. Results: The EMG activities of the SA and IS were significantly greater in the PU condition than in the other conditions during arm elevation. No significant difference was noted between the NP and PD conditions during arm elevation. Conclusion: These results suggest that shoulder external rotation (palm up position) can be used to activate the SA. Therefore, we recommend a scapular protraction exercise in the palm up position for strengthening the SA.
  • 15.

    Impact of Respiratory Muscle Exercises on Pulmonary Function and Quality of Sleep among Stroke Patients

    조요한 | Lee Sangbin | 2015, 10(4) | pp.123~131 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Purpose: This study attempts to examine the impact of respiratory muscle exercises on the respiratory function and quality of sleep among stroke patients. Methods: A total of 20 stroke patients were randomly divided into a breathing-exercise training group(n=10) and a breathing-device-training group(n=10). Changes in pulmonary function, as well as the quality, were measured before and after the intervention. The breathing exercise was performed three times a week for a total of eight weeks. Breathing-device exercises made use of a lung-capacity-strengthening device and were performed for three times a week for eight weeks. One Flow FVC was used as a measurement tool for the pulmonary function test. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI) and a sleep measurement tool were used for sleep evaluation. Results: In a comparison of changes in pulmonary function before and after the training, the breathing-exercise group and the breathing-device-training group showed a significant difference. In changes of sleeping measure and PSQI, the breathing-exercise group and the breathing-device-training group also showed significant differences. Conclusion: Diverse index analyses confirmed that breathing exercises and exercises using a lung-capacity-strengthening device, were effective in improving respiratory function and quality of sleep among stroke patients experiencing respiratory function disorders and sleep disorders.