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2016, Vol.11, No.1

  • 1.

    Effects of Trunk Control Exercise Performed on an Unstable Surface on Dynamic Balance in Chronic Stroke Patients

    Jang Jun-young | Suhnyeop Kim | 2016, 11(1) | pp.1~9 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study compared the effectiveness of trunk control exercise performed on an unstable surface with that of general balance exercise on dynamic balance in the patients with chronic stroke. METHODS: The persons of this study were thirty-seven chronic stroke patients were recruited and randomly divided into 2 groups; (1) those who performed trunk control exercise on a foam roll and (2) those who performed general balance exercise. The exercises were performed 5 times a week for 4 weeks. To determine the effectiveness of the 2 types of exercises, we measured dynamic balance at the beginning of the exercises and again after 4 weeks at the completion of exercises program. RESULTS: After 4 weeks of exercise, both the groups showed increased Berg’s balance scale and timed-up-and-go test (p<.001) scores. However, Trunk control exercise group was more effective than general balance exercise group was in increasing the Berg’s balance scale (p<.01) and timed-up-and-go test (p<.05) scores. CONCLUSION: We suggest that trunk control exercise may be effective in increasing the balance ability of patients with chronic stroke than general balance exercise. Thus, trunk control exercise is important for such patients. Further studies are needed for better understanding of the effectiveness of trunk control exercise in chronic stroke patients.
  • 2.

    The Impact of Lower Extremity Strengthening Exercise with Step Box and Elastic Band on Balance Ability and Lower Extremity Muscular Strength in Community-living Elderly Individuals

    김두섭 | 최임순 | Suhnyeop Kim | 2016, 11(1) | pp.11~21 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was examined the effects of aerobic exercise using a step box and lower extremity strengthening exercise with an elastic band on the balance ability and lower extremity muscular strength in elderly subjects. METHODS: Forty-one healthy adults were randomly divided into experimental group 1 (Exp 1, n=14), experimental group 2 (Exp 2, n=14), and a control group (n=13). The Exp 1 conducted lower limb strengthening exercise using an elastic band and the Exp 2 performed aerobic exercise with a step box 50 minutes per day, twice per week, for eight weeks. RESULTS: There was significant increase in the Exp 1 and Exp 2 in comparison of the change of lower limb muscle strength according to measurement time (p<.05). But there was no significant difference according to intervention methods. In one-leg standing test change among the three groups after the intervention, the Exp 1 and Exp 2 saw significant improvement compared to the control group (p<.05) but there was no significant difference according to intervention methods. The change of the functional reaching test results, the Exp 1 and Exp 2 saw significant improvement according to the time of measurement. In the change of the Timed Up and Go test, there was significant improvement in the Exp 1 and Exp 2 compared to the control group (p<.01), but there was no significant difference according to intervention methods. CONCLUSION: Exercise to lower extremity strengthening program accompanied with aerobic exercise is considered more effective in dynamical balance and ability to walk.
  • 3.

    Relationship between the Severity of Radiographic Features and Degree of Pain and Dysfunction in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    김대훈 | 장현정 | 전재균 and 1other persons | 2016, 11(1) | pp.23~34 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the relationship between the severity of radiographic features and pain and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). METHODS: Seventy-eight subjects (14 men, 64 women) with KOA, between the ages of 41 and 83 years (mean age, 61.29 years), were included. All the subjects diagnosed with KOA were scored for severity of radiographic KOA according to the Kellgren-Lawrence (K/L) grade, visual analogue scale (VAS), knee joint range of motion (ROM), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), maximum muscle power (MMP), and sit-to-stand (STS) and one-leg standing (OLS) tests. Associations among the K/L grade, diagnosis, pain, and function were examined by correlation analysis. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the K/L grade, and the VAS, STS test time, and WOMAC scores (p>.05). There were no significant differences between the K/L grade, bilateral ROM, MMP, and left OLS test time (p>.05). However, there was a significant difference between the K/L grade and right OLS test time (p<.05). The K/L grade was negatively correlated with the left OLS test time(r=-.24, p<.05) and with the right OLS test time (r=-.307, p<.01). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that radiographic KOA was not associated with pain, knee MMP, ROM, and STS test time, but had a weak negative correlation with OLS test time.
  • 4.

    The Effects of passive stretching exercise of the scalene muscles on forced vital capacity

    변성학 | Han, Dong-wook | 2016, 11(1) | pp.35~43 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of passive stretching exercises of the scalene muscles known as respiratory accessory muscles, on forced vital capacity. METHODS: Ten of the participants were randomly selected as an experiment group to perform passive stretching exercises on the scalene muscles. Ten additional students were selected randomly as a control group. The forced vital capacity was assessed by using a digital spirometer (Pony FX, COSMED Inc, Italy) both before and after the passive stretching exercises were performed. Subsequently, passive stretching exercises of the scalene muscles were performed in the experimental group. There were no interventions to the control group. RESULTS: As for the forced vital capacity (FVC), the experiment group showed significant increase in items of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV₁), peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory volume in 1 second/vital capacity (FEV₁/VC), and maximal expiratory flow 75%(MEF 75%) after the scalenemuscles passive stretching exercises were performed. The control group, however, showed no change. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that passive stretching exercises of the scalene muscles could be helpful for forced vital capacity improvement.
  • 5.

    The effects of balance training on balance pad and sand on balance and gait ability in stroke patients

    Song Gui-Bin | 박은초 | 2016, 11(1) | pp.45~52 | number of Cited : 23
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of balance training on balance pad and sand on balance and gait ability in stroke patients. METHODS: Sixty stroke patients were divided into a Balance Pad group(BPG, N = 20), a Sand group (SG, N = 20) and a Hard Ground group (HGG, N = 20) randomly. The subjects in the Hard Ground group stood in a comfortable position, faced a therapist, then threw a Swiss ball back and forth. They then performed balance training in which they raised and lowered their ankles while facing forward or moved objects from one table to another. The BPG performed same tasks in HGG, on an unstable surface using a balance pad. The SG performed same tasks on sand ground. All groups received training 30min per day, five times per week, for eight weeks. RESULTS: After intervention, all groups showed significant increases balance and gait components. And the BPG and the SG showed significant increase in weight distribution rate, Sway length and BBS compared with the HGG, but there was no significant difference in Cadence, Stride length among three groups. CONCLUSION: According to the results of this study, balance training on unstable surface using balance pad and sand was more effective in improving balance in stroke patients.
  • 6.

    The effect of abdominal drawing-in maneuver and pelvic floor muscle contraction in individuals with and without low back pain

    윤혜진 | 김지선 | 2016, 11(1) | pp.53~60 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify differences in the thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA) and pelvic floor muscles (PFM) between those with (LBP) and without low back pain (non-LBP). The standardized methods of contraction for the TrA and PFM were used to perform the abdominal draw-in maneuver (ADIM) and pelvic floor muscle contraction (PFC), respectively. METHODS: This study included 27 young men and women, who were verbally instructed regarding the maneuvers (LBP, n=14; non-LBP, n=13). For all subjects, TrA and PFM thickness were evaluated by ultrasonography during ADIM and PFC. RESULTS: The results of this study showed that TrAthickness increased during ADIM and PFC to a greater degree in the non-LBP group than in the LBP group (p < 0.01). PFM thickness increased more during PFC in the non-LBP group than in the LBP group (p < 0.05). Both groups showed greater increases in TrA thickness during ADIM than during PFC (p < 0.01), and greater increases in PFM thickness during PFC than during ADIM (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that receiving verbal instructions on how to use each muscle for a specific maneuver was more beneficial than other verbal instruction. Further studies are needed determine how our results may be applied beneficially in research on this topic.
  • 7.

    Effect of virtual reality training using 3-dimensional video gaming technology on spatiotemporal gait parameters in older adults

    Yongwoo Lee | 2016, 11(1) | pp.61~69 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the virtual reality training (VRT) using 3- dimensional video gaming technology on spatiotemporal gait parameters in older adults. METHODS: The study participants were divided into two groups: the VRT group and the control group. Those in the VRT group were enrolled in a VRT, which was conducted for 60 min per day, two times a week, during the 6-week research. The Wii-Fit balance board game was used for the VRT intervention. The VRT consisted of 6 different types of games, namely, jogging, swordplay, ski jump, hula hoop, tennis, and step dance. A 3-dimensional TV was used for 3-dimensional display. Participants in both the groups received 3 sessions of fall prevention education, at the first, third, and fifth weeks. Their gait parameters were measured by using OptoGait. RESULTS: After 6 weeks of the VRT, the spatial gait parameters of the participants, that is stride length and step length, were significantly improved compared with those of the control group participants (p<0.05). The temporal gait parameters, such as velocity, cadence, stride time, and step time, also showed improvement after the completion of the VRT training (p<0.05). Both the temporal and spatial gait parameters of the VRT group participants showed improvement after 6 weeks of the program compared with those of the control group participants (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The VRT using 3-dimensional video gaming technology might be beneficial for improving gait parameters to prevent falls among older adults.
  • 8.

    Effects of Therapeutic Exercise on Posture, Pain and Asymmetric Muscle Activity in a Patient with Forward Head Posture: case report

    Yoo Kyung Tae | Lee Hoseong | 2016, 11(1) | pp.71~82 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this case report was to determine the effect of therapeutic exercise on posture, pain, and muscle activity in two patients with forward head posture (FHP). METHODS: A-31-year-old male (patient A) and a 19-year-old women (patient B) presented with FHP, neck pain, and headache. The therapeutic exercise program consisted of cervical mobilization, deep cervical flexors strengthening, and cervical extensors stretching, for 40 min/d, 2 d/week, for 8 weeks. Neck pain (VAS), neck disability (NDI), cervical range of motion (CROM), lateral view of cervical spine X-ray (indicating the FHP), and asymmetrical neck and shoulder muscular activity ratio were measured before, after 4 weeks, and after 8 weeks of corrective exercise. RESULTS: VAS and NDI decreased in patients A and B after exercise compared to before the program. CROM increased in patients A and B at flexion, extension, side bending, and rotation after exercise compared to before the program. FHP decreased in patients A and B at distance after exercise compared to before the program. In addition, asymmetrical neck and shoulder muscles activity ratio improved in patients A and B after exercise compared to before the program. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated in a case report that therapeutic exercise increases ROM, decreases pain and disability of neck, FHP, and asymmetry muscle activity ratio in patients with FHP. These finding have clinical implications for therapeutic exercise in patients with FHP.
  • 9.

    Which exercise is the most effective to contract the core muscles: abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, or Kegel exercise?

    김지선 | Yang-Hyun Kim | Eun-Na Kim and 2other persons | 2016, 11(1) | pp.83~91 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: There are several methods, such as the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM), maximal expiration (ME), and Kegel exercise, to strengthen the core muscles. However, to date no study has been conducted to compare the effects of the ADIM, ME, and Kegel exercise on the transverses abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO), external oblique (EO), and pelvic floor muscles (PFMs). The purpose of this study was to find out which of the three aforementioned exercises is most effective for contracting the core muscles. METHODS: The thickness of the TrA, IO, EO and PFMs was measured by ultrasonographic imaging during the ADIM, ME and Kegel exercise in 34 healthy participants. RESULTS: There was the significant difference between ADIM and Kegel exercise in the thickness of the TrA (p<0.05). There were the significant differences between ADIM and ME and between ME and Kegel exercise in the thickness of the IO and PFM (p<0.01). There was no significant activation in the thickness of the EO (p>0.05). Measurement reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and the standard error of measurement (SEM). An ICC value of >0.77 indicated that reliability measurements was good. CONCLUSION: Kegel exercise was the most effective exercise for the TrA and the PFM, and ME was the most effective exercise for the IO muscles.
  • 10.

    The Effect of Corrective Exercise in a patient with knee joint valgus deformity: A single-subject A-B-A experimental design

    Lee Hoseong | Kim Ah-Ram | 2016, 11(1) | pp.93~105 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of corrective exercise on hip joint range of motion, lower limb alignment, radiographs of hip and knee joints, and quadriceps muscle activity in a patient with knee joint valgus deformity. METHODS: A single-subject A-B-A experimental design was used to determine the effects of therapeutic exercise. The single-subject was a 27-year-old male, who presented with knee joint valgus deformity. Corrective exercise program was performed for 40 min/day twice a week for 12-week. Range of motion (hip flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, and external rotation), lower limb alignment test (Q-angle, rear foot alignment, and leg length), standing anterior-posterior radiographs (neck shaft angle and knee joint space), and quadriceps muscle activity of both lower limbs were measured before (A 1), after 6 weeks (B 1) and after 12-weeks (B 2) of corrective exercise and after 6 weeks of exercise completion (A 2). RESULTS: Hip range of motion increased in all directions of both sides at B 2 and A 2 compared to at A 1. Q-angle of both side and leg length discrepancy decreased at B 2 and A 2 compared to at A 1. Neck shaft angle and knee joint space of both sides improve at B 2 and A 2 compared to at A 1. Quadriceps of both side muscle activities improved at B 2 and A 2 compared to at A 1. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that corrective exercise increases range of motion, and improves lower limb alignment and muscle activity in a patient with knee joint valgus deformity.
  • 11.

    The Immediate Effects of Foot-bath at Diverse Temperatures on the Stress of Students in the Department of Physical Therapy who Experience Clinical Practice

    신한기 | Jong-Ho Kang | 2016, 11(1) | pp.107~114 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study is to apply foot therapy at diverse temperatures to students in the Department of Physical Therapy who are experiencing clinical practice to find the most effective foot-bath temperatures for stress relief. METHODS: Sixty four students in the department of physical therapy who were undergoing the course on clinical practice participated in the present study. SDNN, TP, LF, and HF were measured to compare the control group, cold group, tepid group, and the hop group. The data were analyzed through analysis of covariance and paired t-tests. RESULTS: Although SDNN increased in the cold group and the tepid group, the differences were not statistically significant. TP and LF showed statistically significant increases in the cold group. In comparisons between the groups, the cold group showed statistically significant increases compared to the control group and the hot group. Although the tepid group also showed increases, the differences were not statistically significant. HF statistically decreased in the hot group. In comparisons between the groups, statistically significant differences appeared between the cold group and the hot group. CONCLUSION: Cold foot-bath was the most effective therapy on the stress of students in the department of physical therapy who were experiencing clinical practice. Tepid foot-bath had the same directivity but showed no statistically significant difference. Hot foot-bath was shown to rather increase stress.
  • 12.

    Comparison of the Effects of Task-oriented training and Virtual reality training on upper extremity function, balance ability, and depression in stroke patients

    Song Gui-Bin | 박은초 | 2016, 11(1) | pp.115~125 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of task-oriented training and virtual reality training on upper extremity function, balance ability, depression in stroke patients. METHODS: Forty stroke patients were randomly allocated into a task oriented training group (TTG, n = 20), a virtual reality training group (VRG, n = 20). Both groups received the usual physical therapy. In addition, TTG patients underwent task training such as sweeping the table, cup stacking, carrying wood block. VRG patients underwent virtual reality training using X-box kinect. Both groups received 30 minutes of training per day, five times per week, for twelve weeks. RESULTS: After intervention, both groups showed significant improvement on upper extremity function, balance ability, and depression. VRG showed more improvement on upper extremity function, balance ability, and depression than TTG. CONCLUSION: According to the results of this study, task-oriented training and virtual reality training are feasible and suitable for stroke patients. And virtual reality training is more effective method than task oriented training.
  • 13.

    The Effects of Stage-based Training and Core Exercises on Cobb’s Angle and Trunk Length in Scoliosis Patients: A Case Study

    Mi-Sun Kim | Lee Myoung Hee | Ik-Hwan Kim | 2016, 11(1) | pp.127~132 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of stage-based training, including core exercises, on scoliosis patients. METHODS: Two patients with scoliosis participated in the study. Both patients participated for eight months and were trained for an hour three times a week. The training program consisted of stretching and strengthening, as well as core exercises, and was divided into five stages. The Cobb angles and trunk lengths of the subjects were measured after one month, two months, and four months of training. Measurements were also taken after the subjects completed training. All of the measurements were taken using Formetric 4D. RESULTS: The Cobb’s angle of subject A, which was 41° before training, measured 30° following training. The Cobb’s angle of subject B also improved from 41° prior to training to 34° after training. Furthermore, the trunk lengths of both subjects improved. The trunk length of subject A increased from 438 ㎜ to 450 ㎜ and, and the trunk length of subject B increased from 433 ㎜ to 458 ㎜. CONCLUSION: This study has shown that stage-based training and core training can be used as effective treatments for scoliosis patients.
  • 14.

    Action observation training enhances upper extremity function in subacute stroke survivor with moderate impairment: a double-blind, randomized controlled pilot trial

    김창현 | 방대혁 | 2016, 11(1) | pp.133~140 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study’s aim was to investigate the effects of an action observational training in subactue stroke patients with moderate impairment. METHODS: 22 participants (men=13, women=9) with hemiparesis were randomly assigned to action observation training group or task-oriented training group. Patients in both group underwent a patient-specific multidisciplinary rehabilitation program. Participants in the action observation group (mean age, 62.78±9.85) were asked to watch the video scene, in the knowledge that they would then attempt to perform the same movement task after watching. The control group (mean age, 61.49±8.64) practiced the same tasks, without watching the video. To evaluate upper limb function, the upper extremity part of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment upper extremity and the Box and Block Test were used. The modified Barthel index was used to assess ADLs, and the modified Ashworth scale were used to assess spasticity in the upper extremity. RESULTS: The action observational training group exhibited greater changes in the Fugl-Meyer assessment upper extremity (P<0.05; 95% CI, 0.929 – 6.403), the Box and Block test (P<0.05; 95% CI, 0.086 – 5.913), and the modified Barthel index (P<0.01; 95% CI, 2.483 – 12.627) between groups. And the modified Ashworth scale (P>0.05; 95% CI, -0.402 to 0.624) did not show significantly different between groups. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that action observational training may be more helpful to improve upper-extremity function than physical training only in subactue patients with moderate impairment after stroke.