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2016, Vol.11, No.2

  • 1.

    Immediate Effects of Local Vibration on Ankle Plantarflexion Spasticity and Clonus of both the Gastrocnemius and Soleus in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury

    ahn mun cheol | Changho Song | 2016, 11(2) | pp.1~11 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to assess the effects of local vibration on ankle plantarflexion spasticity and clonus in patients with spinal cord injury. METHODS: The subjects were 14 inpatients with complete or incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) whose scores were higher than 1 on the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and Spinal Cord Assessment Tool for Spastic Reflexes (SCATS) scale of paraplegia. A randomized single-blind cross-over design was used. Vibration treatment involved a single application of vibration for 10 min in the sitting position, and placebo treatment involved the patient remaining in the sitting position for 10 min. One day after treatment, vibration and placebo treatments were crossed over. Spasticity was measured by using the MAS, and resistance force, by using a hand-held dynamometer; clonus was gauged by using the SCATS scale and clonus burst duration. Additionally, the burst maximal frequency and voluntary ankle dorsiflexion angle of the triceps surae were measured. RESULTS: The application of vibration treatment in the sitting position significantly reduced the MAS scores and resistance force, but significantly increased the dorsiflexion angle of the ankle joint (p<0.05). Furthermore, the vibration treatment diminished the clonus burst duration and SCATS score significantly (p<0.05). Although it reduced the burst maximal frequency of the lateral gastrocnemius and medial soleus, this was significant only for the lateral gastrocnemius. The placebo treatment did not significantly affect any of the test parameters. CONCLUSION: Vibration treatment in the sitting position was effective in cases of spasticity and clonus caused by SCI.
  • 2.

    The Study of Correlationship of the Fukuda Stepping Test to Determine Type of Idiopathic Scoliosis Curve

    Lee Sang-yeol | 조맑은 | 고민지 and 2other persons | 2016, 11(2) | pp.13~16 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The Fukuda test can be used at home and in school to diagnose scoliosis at an early stage and prevent serious curvature of the spine. This study aimed to use the Fukuda test to detect scoliosis. An additional aim was to invoke the national interest in imbalanced postures and habits, which result in scoliosis, by providing data obtained in periodic assessments. METHODS: The study consisted of 35 idiopathic scoliosis patients (22 in right lumbar spinal region and 13 in the left lumbar spinal region). The distance of displacement and angle of displacement were measured following the Fukuda test. A correlation analysis was then used to examine the distance of displacement and angles of displacement and rotation with regard to the direction of the curve in scoliosis. RESULTS: There was a significant negative correlation (p<0.00) between the direction of the curve in scoliosis and the angle of displacement, but there was no correlation between the cobb's angle and distance of displacement or between the cobb's angle and angle of rotation. CONCLUSION: The Fukuda test did not capture changes in spinal curvature such as the cobb's angle, or subsequent changes in the muscles. Thus, the Fukuda test is not suited to examining the direction or status of the thoracic curve in scoliosis patients. Simple methods to objectively measure scoliosis need to be developed.
  • 3.

    Effects of Health-Promoting Behaviors on the Subjective Well-being of Physical Therapists

    Lee In Hak | 권춘숙 | 2016, 11(2) | pp.17~24 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of health-promoting behaviors on the subjective well-being of a physical therapist. METHODS: Survey data were collected from 247 physical therapists in Daejeon city. The baseline for healthpromoting behaviors was determined using Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP), subjective well-being was determined using Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), quality of life was measured using the SF-36 (Short-Form 36), and pain level was determined using the Quadruple Visual Analogue Scale (QVAS). Healthpromoting behaviors and related factors were analyzed using an average comparative analysis (t-test), and the factors relevant to subjective well-being and health-promoting behaviors were evaluated using correlation analysis (Pearson's correlation coefficient). Factors affecting health-promoting behaviors were evaluated using stepwise multiple regression analysis (stepwise multiple regression). RESULTS: The mean score for health-promoting behavior was 3.73, with emotional support having the highest score (3.90) and regular meals having the lowest score (3.16 points; p<0.01). Health-promoting behavior was significantly correlated with positive emotions and negative emotions are subjective well-being, negative emotions and pain were noted (p<0.01). Health-promoting behaviors showed a significant correlation with quality of life (r=0.04), positive emotions (r=0.21; p<0.01), negative emotions (r=0.16; p<0.05), and pain level (r=0.016). The results of this study showed that health-promoting behaviors are significant predictors of subjective well-being in physical therapists (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Physical therapists have to maintain their health by avoiding infections. Regular exercise is the most important factor among all health-promoting behaviors.
  • 4.

    A Comparison of the Trunk Muscle Activity According to the Direction of Upper Extremity Lifting using Elastic Band

    이현옥 | BAE WON SIK | 신재욱 | 2016, 11(2) | pp.25~31 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the trunk muscle activity according to the direction of upper extremity lifting using elastic band. METHODS: Thirty three healthy individuals participated in this study. Each subject performed upper extremity lifting using elastic band on two different directions (straight and diagonal). And then we compared the muscle activity of respective trunk muscles of both directions. In order to examine the muscle activity of trunk muscle, we used the electromyogram to measure peak and mean torque in shoulder 90 degree flexion with sitting position. Electromyographic activities were recorded from the external oblique, internal oblique, rectus abdominis, and erector spine muscles during upper extremity lifting. RESULTS: As a result, first, there was significant difference between two directions. The muscle activity of ipsilateral external oblique and contralateral internal oblique is significantly increased in both straight and diagonal directions (p<0.05). Second, the muscle activities of external oblique and internal oblique of both side showed significant difference in diagonal direction (p<0.05). Third, the muscle activity of erector spine of both side showed significant difference in straight direction (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Through this study, it is important that implement diagonal direction exercise at sitting positions to help increasing muscle activity of ipsilateral external oblique and contralateral internal oblique on patients when activating the trunk muscle or stabilizing the trunk.
  • 5.

    Effect of the Breathing Methods in Accordance with Surfaces during Bridging Exercises

    BAE WON SIK | KeonCheol Lee | 2016, 11(2) | pp.33~40 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of stable and unstable surfaces on abdominal muscle thickness and changes in trunk muscle thickness in accordance with breathing methods during bridging exercises. METHODS: Bridging exercise on a stable surface, bridging exercise on an unstable surface, bridging exercise using a drawing-in maneuver on a stable surface, bridging exercise using a drawing-in maneuver on an unstable surface, bridging exercise using bracing on a stable surface, bridging exercise using bracing on an unstable surface. In sequence, the muscles' thickness was measured three times before and after each exercise, and the measured value was averaged. RESULTS: There were significant differences in internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles' thickness in the drawing-in maneuver in both stable and unstable surface (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in external oblique muscle's thickness in the bridging exercise in both stable and unstable surface. The type of surface did not have a significant influence on the abdominal muscles' thickness. CONCLUSION: As a result of the study, the drawing-in maneuver had a greater effect than bridging or bracing maneuver on muscle thickness. We suggest that drawing-in maneuver will be more effective in a person with a weak abdominal muscle.
  • 6.

    Comparison of Multimodal Posture of Healthy Adults on the Usage Rate of the Superficial Neck Muscles during Head and Neck Rotation

    hwang,Tae-Yeon | 송현승 | 이남용 | 2016, 11(2) | pp.41~52 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to compare the levels of usage of the superficial neck muscles during head rotation in forward head posture and in multimodal postures for improvement of cervical rotation movement impairment. METHODS: To acquire electromyography (EMG) signals from the sternocleidomastoid (SCM-M), upper trapezius (UPT-M), and the splenius capitis (SPC-M) muscles, 11 subjects practiced right rotation of the head in forward head postures (FHP), upright sitting postures (USP), upright sitting postures with supported arms (SUP), standing postures with the arms leaning against the wall (WSP), and four feet postures (FFP), respectively. RESULTS: The left SCM-M was used significantly more in the FFP compared to the FHP, but not in other postures (p<0.01). The left UPT-M was used significantly more in all postures other than the FHP. The right SPC-M was used significantly more in the FFP (p<0.001) and significantly less (p<0.05) in the SUP compared to the FHP. CONCLUSION: During the rotation of the head, although the usage of the SPC-M significantly decreased in SUP compared to FHP but the usage of the SCM-M and UPT-M did not decrease significantly in other postures compared to FHP. Further research is necessary to prove the hypothesis that special postures may reduce the activity of the superficial neck muscles during head rotation.
  • 7.

    Influence of the Supplementary Ki-hap Technique and Verbal Encouragement on Abdominal Muscle Activation during Crunch Exercise in Healthy Subjects: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    김형근 | Kim Chang-Yong | Jeong-Hyeon Kang and 1other persons | 2016, 11(2) | pp.53~62 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a supplementary Ki-hap technique and verbal encouragement on the activation of abdominal muscles during performance of crunch exercise in healthy subjects. METHODS: 93 subjects were randomly allocated to three group, crunch exercise group (CG), crunch exercise with Ki-hap group (CKG), and crunch exercise with Ki-hap and verbal encouragement group (CKVG), with 31 subjects in each group, respectively. The interventions were conducted over three trials in each group, and measurements were performed on each subject by one examiner in three trials. The activation of rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and internal oblique (IO) muscles were evaluated using electromyography (EMG) during performance of crunch exercise with non-Ki-hap, Ki-hap and Ki-hap combined with verbal encouragement. RESULTS: Our results showed a significantly greater increase in the EMG patterns of all muscles during performance of crunch exercise in the CKG (p<0.05) compared to the CG and CKVG. The results also showed that there were significantly greater increase in the activation of EO and IO muscles in those of the CKVG (p<0.05) compared with the CG. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated that addition of the Ki-hap technique and verbal encouragement during performance of crunch exercise, at the same time, would suggest positive evidence for improving activation of abdominal muscles.
  • 8.

    Clinical Feasibility of Otago Exercise Program to Improve the Balance and Gait Ability: In Chronic Stroke Patient, Randomized Controlled Trial

    Hyun-seung Song | 윤태원 | 2016, 11(2) | pp.63~70 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to conduct an Otago exercise program with stroke patients in a clinical setting and ascertain its effects on balance and walking ability. METHODS: The participating subjects were 45 people who had been diagnosed with stroke. They were assigned to two groups (Otago exercise; OE, n=22; balance exercise; BE, n=23), and the exercises were conducted for three sessions per week for eight weeks. The main balance outcomes were evaluated using the timed up and go test (TUG) and the four step square test (FSST), while walking ability was evaluated using the 10 m walk test (10MWT), direction change ability was measured using the figure 8 of walk test (F8WT), and the decrease of fear was evaluated using the modified falls efficacy scale (MFES). RESULTS: In the analysis results, the Otago exercise group showed significant increases in TUG, FSST, 10MWT, and F8WT within the both groups. There were significant differences in all variables between the OE group and the BE group at the post-intervention evaluation, but there was no significant difference between the groups with respect to the 10MWT. This study showed that conducting Otago exercise in stroke patients increased the main outcomes for TUG, FSST, F8WT scores, but not for 10MWT. CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrated that Otago exercise would be useful to improve balance and gait for stroke patients who want to improve their abilities and activities of daily living.
  • 9.

    Deltoid Middle Fiber of the Isometric Contraction According to Elastic Band and Dumbbell on Various Shoulder Abduction Angle

    Min chul Park | Lee Sang-yeol | 2016, 11(2) | pp.71~76 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare isometric contraction of deltoid middle fiber between elastic band and light dumbbell on various shoulder abduction angle. And this study intends to examine the compare with isometric contraction on deltoid middle fiber in various abduction angle of shoulder joint. METHODS: The participants of this study were Korean healthy adult in their 20s (n=60). The 8 channel surface electromyography was used to measure activity of the deltoid middle fiber at isomeric contraction on various abduction angle: 0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, 120° of shoulder joint using elastic band: red color Theraband and dumbbell: 2㎏. The data used in the analysis of the present study was the root mean square. RESULTS: The deltoid middle fiber activation was not significantly different between elastic band and dumbbell at each abduction angle. The deltoid middle fiber activation significantly increased as more to increased shoulder abduction angle in elastic band and dumbbell. CONCLUSION: The elastic band and dumbbell was to provide the similarly load to the deltoid middle fiber isometric contraction on all of the shoulder abduction angle. The deltoid middle fiber activation increased as more to increased shoulder abduction angle in elastic band and dumbbell. These results may be an important reference in development of exercise on shoulder joint.
  • 10.

    Validity Study of Dynamic Balance Abilities Measure using a Smartphone

    Han Seul-ki | 이상용 | Dae-Hee Lee and 1other persons | 2016, 11(2) | pp.77~82 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of dynamic balance measurements using a smartphone. METHODS: Thirty subjects were selected out of Y-university students without fractures, operation history, and inflammatory arthritis who had not started regular exercise during the past three months. Their dynamic balance ability was measured by the Biodex Balance System (Biodex Medical Systems, Inc., USA) using smartphones. The smartphone utilized in this study was the Galaxy Note4 LTE (SM-N910K, Samsung, Korea), and the application was the Sensor Kinetics pro (Ver.2.1.2, INNOVENTIONS Inc, US). The dynamic balance ability was measured in triplicate. RESULTS: With eyes closed, a low level of correlation (r>0.30, p<0.05) and low reliability (ICC>0.60) were determined between the roll value of the smartphone gyroscope versus the medial/lateral score of the Biodex Balance System. With eyes closed, a low level of correlation (r>0.30, p<0.05) and low reliability (ICC>0.60) were determined between the total value of the smartphone gyroscope versus the total score of the Biodex Balance System. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that using a smartphone can generate highly limited data regarding balance ability. They are unlikely to replace the existing more expensive devices entirely. However, smartphones may be highly useful in environments in which an expensive device is not available or when dynamic balance ability should be measured immediately or within a few hours.
  • 11.

    The Effects of Dual-task Action Observation Physical Training on the Walking Ability and Activities of Daily Living in Chronic Stroke Patients

    LEE HYUN MIN | 이정아 | 2016, 11(2) | pp.83~91 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of dual-task action observation training (AOT) and single-task AOT related with daily living task on walking ability and ADL performance in chronic stroke patients. METHODS: Twenty-seven chronic stroke subjects were included in the study. They were randomly assigned to three task categorieds as follows: whole dual-task AOT or partial dual-task AOT or single-task AOT rehabilitation. Whole dual-task AOT observed the movement at once and partial dual-task AOT observed the movement divided into 4 parts related functional gait and activities of daily living task for 2 minutes 30 seconds. Single-task AOT observed the movement related functional gait for 2 minutes 30 seconds. Both groups had physical training session for 12 minutes 30 seconds. The study was conducted for four weeks, with three training sessions a week, for twelve weeks. All subjects were evaluated for their walking ability and activities of daily living through devices, 10m walking test (10MWT), dynamic gait index (DGI), and Korea-Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI). RESULTS: A significant improvement of walking ability and ADL performance happened among dual-task AOT subjects, compared with a single-task AOT subjects, during the 4-weeks course treatment. The results of the study showed statistically significant differences in 10MWT (p<0.05) and DGI (p<0.05), and K-MBI (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that dual-task AOT has a positive additional impact on recovery of walking ability and ADL performance in chronic stroke patients.
  • 12.

    Effects of A Combined Functional Electrical Stimulation with Action Observation Training for Balance and Gait Performance in Stroke Patients

    Kang Kwon Young | TAEYOON, KIM | 2016, 11(2) | pp.93~102 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the functional effects of action observation plus functional electrical stimulation (FES) treatment on the weight distribution indexes (heel and toe; right and left), stability indexes, gait velocities, and stride lengths of stroke patients. METHODS: The subjects, who were all more than six months post stroke, were randomly divided into two groups of ten each: an experimental group and a control group. TETRAX (Tetrax Interactive Balance System) and GAITRite (GAITRite™ computerized gait analysis system) were measured at baseline, six weeks after treatment. Participants in both the groups received functional electrical stimulation treatment, but the experimental group was provided with additional action observation. Independent t-tests were used to compare the differences between the groups, and repeated measured two-way ANOVA was used to compare the interaction between the groups. RESULTS: The result of the interactions between the groups and the periods showed significant increases in the weight distribution indexes (heel and toe; right and left), stability indexes, gait velocities and stride lengths (p<0.05). However, a comparison between the groups showed no significance in the weight distribution indexes (heel and toe), stability indexes, and stride lengths (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Action observation plus functional electrical stimulation treatment should be considered as a therapeutic method for physical therapy for stroke patients to improve the weight distribution indexes, stability indexes, gait velocities, and stride lengths.
  • 13.

    Content Validity for a New Korean Version of Pediatric Functional Muscle Testing

    서혜정 | JoongHwi Kim | 2016, 11(2) | pp.103~114 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was first to develop a Korean version of pediatric functional muscle testing for children with a motor developmental disorder who have a communication problem and who are aged below five years, and also to verify the content validity. METHODS: First, the preliminary study was conducted to verify the reliability of pediatric functional muscle testing, developed by Venita in Korea. Based on the results of the study, the primary evaluation items were selected and modified. Second, the first test of content validity was conducted through a panel discussion, and a second investigation of content validity was carried out by utilizing the Item Content Validity Index (I-CVI). In this study, we selected only 0.78 or more items from I-CVI. RESULTS: Based on the results of the preliminary study, 19 primary evaluation items were selected. Based on the results of the first and second content validity tests, 15 tertiary evaluation items for the Korean version of pediatric functional muscle testing were determined. CONCLUSION: This study developed a new Korean version of pediatric functional muscle testing and suggested that it will be a useful tool to measure muscle strength for Korean children with a motor developmental disorder and a communication problem, aged below five years.
  • 14.

    The Effect of Physical Activity Program for Elderly with Dementia on Cognitive Function: Meta-Analysis of Studies in Korea

    Lee, Han-Suk | 박유정 | 2016, 11(2) | pp.115~121 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: Many studies have reported the improvement of cognition through physical activity among subject with dementia. This study aimed to whether the current studies supports that physical activity intervention is efficacious on cognitive performance in subject with dementia. METHODS: Two independent reviewers searched National assembly library, RISS, KISS (2005-2015) using the concepts of dementia, exercise, and physical activity. We included randomized controlled trials that examined the efficacy of physical activity in subject with dementia. A meta-analysis was performed to estimate the effect sizes cognition with CMA (Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, version 2.2.064) soft-ware program. Nine randomized controlled trials were included, providing data from 133 individuals and excluding those failing to criteria of this study. RESULTS: The meta-analysis showed that physical activity intervention had a rather small effect sizes of 0.36 (95% confidence interval 0.14-0.59) on cognition performance in subject with dementia. Outcome measurement were MMSE-K (Mini-mental state examination Korean version) and LOCTA (Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment). We found heterogeneous among studies and there was difference between the studies (Q = 19.63, d(f)=12, I2= 38.88). CONCLUSION: The present analysis suggests that physical activity interventions have the low effect sizes on cognition performance in subject with dementia Further studies will be required to develop the various programs for improving the cognitive performance in subject with dementia.
  • 15.

    Correlation Between Muscle Strength, Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Muscle in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    신승오 | Kim, Nan-Soo | 2016, 11(2) | pp.123~130 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to determine correlations between grip and lower limb muscle strength and pulmonary function and respiratory muscle in children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: Subjects were 17 children with cerebral palsy. Inclusion criteria for participation were having GMFCS from Ⅰ to Ⅲ grade and ability to independently blow into a spirometer. Pulmonary function and respiratory muscle were measured with a spirometer. All subjects performed maximal expiratory flow maneuvers using a spirometer in order to determine their forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and FEV1/FVC, and maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximum expiratory pressure (MEP). Muscle strength was measured in terms of grip strength and lower limb muscle strength in terms of knee extension strength with a dynamometer and manual digital muscle tester respectively. Data were analyzed using Person product correlation. RESULTS: Grip strength significantly positively correlated with FVC (r=0.95, p<0.01), FEV1 (r=0.95, p<0.01), PEF (r=0.84, p<0.01), MIP (r=0.65, p<0.01) MEP (r=0.71, p<0.01) and lower limb strength with FVC (r=0.72, p<0.01), FEV1 (r=0.69, p<0.01), PEF (r=0.54, p<0.05), and MEP (r=0.69, p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Grip and lower limb muscle strengths of children with cerebral palsy were positively correlated pulmonary function and respiratory muscle.
  • 16.

    Effects of Scapular Stabilizing Exercise on Resting Scapular Position of Breast Cancer-related Lymphedema Patients

    안소윤 | 김좌준 | 하해정 | 2016, 11(2) | pp.131~139 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to confirm the effect of exercise combined with scapular stabilizing on resting scapular position (RSP) in breast cancer-related lymphedema patients. METHODS: A total of 20 patients with lymphedema after mastectomy participated in the study. All assessments of the patients edema sides (ES) and non-edema sides (NES) were evaluated. The assessment tools used wad RSP. RSP are; 1) scapular index, 2) 8th thoracic spines process (T8S) to inferior angle of scapular (IA) distance, 3) standing pectoralis minor (PM) distance, and 4) PM index (PMI). All patients carried out a scapular stabilizing exercise seven times a week for 8 weeks. The collected data were analyzed with PASW 18.0. The statistical significance (α) was 0.05. RESULTS: According to the results, all the variable between the ES and NES for RSP were statistically significant (p<0.05) in the pre-test. After the exercise, the differences in T8S to IA distance and the PMI between the ES and NES weren't statistically significant. The results of the RSP showed a significant improvement in T8S to IA distance, standing PM distance, and PMI. CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that, performing the scapular stabilizing exercise had a significant effect on improving RPS in breast cancer-related lymphedema patients.