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2016, Vol.11, No.4

  • 1.

    Effects of Abdominal Breathing and Thoracic Expansion Exercises on Head Position and Shoulder Posture in Patients with Rotator Cuff Injury

    하나라 | 신형민 | myungchul kim and 1other persons | 2016, 11(4) | pp.1~9 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of abdominal breathing and thoracic expansion exercises on craniovertebral and cranial rotation angles in patients with rotator cuff injury. METHODS: This study enrolled 19 patients with rotator cuff injury, and ten and nine of the patients were randomly placed in abdominal breathing and thoracic expansion exercise groups, respectively. After pain treatment in each group, breathing exercise was conducted thrice a week for four weeks. The patients were recorded by using a digital camera and Image J (version 1.46, National Institutes of Health, USA), an angle measurement program, was used to analyze changes in the craniovertebral angle, cranial rotation angle, and sagittal shoulder posture. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences in the craniovertebral angle were found in both the abdominal breathing and thoracic expansion exercise groups (p<.05). A significant difference in cranial rotation angle was found in the thoracic expansion exercise group only (p<.05). No statistically significant differences in sagittal shoulder posture were found in both groups (p>.05). CONCLUSION: Although abdominal breathing and thoracic expansion exercises did not effectively change sagittal shoulder posture, the exercises were effective in improving craniovertebral and cranial rotation angles. Therefore, abdominal breathing and thoracic expansion exercises are suggested as effective exercise programs for forward head posture.
  • 2.

    Effect of Non-elastic Taping on Ankle Dorsiflexion and Activity of the Triceps Surae Muscles While Vertical Jumping

    김근수 | 원종혁 | Do-young Jung | 2016, 11(4) | pp.11~17 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: There are several standard interventions for managing Achilles tendinitis, including eccentric exercise and calf muscle stretches, orthoses, electrotherapy, and taping. However, no study has determined the effect of non-elastic taping on deloading the Achilles tendon while vertical jumping. Therefore, this study determined the effect of non-elastic taping on ankle dorsiflexion and the triceps surae muscle activity while vertical jumping in healthy subjects. METHODS: The study recruited 17 participants. A motion analysis system was used to measure the angle of ankle dorsiflexion and wireless surface electromyography was used to measure the soleus and gastrocnemius activities while vertical jumping. Non-elastic taping was applied on randomized leg side. All subjects performed maximal effort vertical jumps without and with non-elastic taping, with three trials for each condition. The mean peak dorsiflexion and muscle activities during the three trials were calculated and paired t-tests were used to compare the mean values without and with non-elastic taping. Significance was defined as (p<.05). RESULTS: The maximum angle of ankle dorsiflexion and activity of the gastrocnemius muscle decreased significantly when non-elastic tape was applied (p<.05), while there was no significant difference in the soleus activity between no-taping and taping (p>.05). CONCLUSION: We introduce non-elastic taping as a method to decrease maximum ankle dorsiflexion and gastrocnemius activity while vertical jumping.
  • 3.

    Horse Riding Simulator Affect the Posture Alignment of Young Adults with Forward Head Posture

    Chu-Yi Hong | Nam-Jin Jung | 나상수 and 1other persons | 2016, 11(4) | pp.19~26 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of correction on posture parameters between a horse riding simulator exercise and a conventional exercise occurring in an open linear chain linking the head to the pelvis in the sagittal plane of young adults with a forward head posture. METHODS: In this study, 30 subjects were randomly divided into two groups of 15 subjects each, were assigned to the horse riding simulator exercise or the neck exercise group and they performed exercise 30 minutes per each round two times a week for six weeks. To determine the subjects’ forward head posture, the three angles and three distances were measured. RESULTS: The forward head angle and head distance results showed a significant change between pre and post intervention in both group. The horizontal distance between acromion and tragus results showed a significant change between pre and post intervention in neck exercise group (CG), but no significant change in horse riding simulator exercise group (EG). The averages of each measured values of EG and CG before and after were compared, but there are no significant different between groups. CONCLUSION: Although the effects of the horse riding exercise were lower than those elicited by the neck exercise, the results demonstrated that the horse riding simulator exercise improved posture alignment for subjects with forward head posture. Therefore, the horse riding simulator exercise can constitute an appropriate alternative exercise for subjects with forward head posture.
  • 4.

    Immediate Effects of Active Stretching Versus Passive Mobilization of the Upper Cervical Spine on Patients with Neck Pain and ROM

    Sang-Hak Kim, | choi jin ho | lee kwan woo | 2016, 11(4) | pp.27~32 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study compared the immediate effect of a passive mobilization of upper cervical spine (Kaltenborn’s joint mobilization) and an active upper cervical stretching (Olaf’s Auto-stretching) on patients with neck pain and ROM. METHODS: Twenty-three subjects were randomized selected in the passive group (Kaltenborn’s joint mobilization) included twelve subjects and the active group (Olaf’s Auto-stretching) included eleven subjects. VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) was measured before and after neck rotation performance. DUALER IQ PRO (JTECH Medical, U.S.A.) was used to measure the neck ROM. Mean value of double measurement was used before performance and after performance. SPSS version 18 was used to compare values independent t–test and paired t-test were used to compare pain and ROM. RESULTS: There are significant difference in the pain and the ROM in both of two group (p<.05). But there are no significant difference pain and ROM between two groups. CONCLUSION: Both of the passive mobilization of upper cervical spine and the active upper cervical stretching are effected on symptom improvement of patients with neck pain reduction and ROM increasing. Especially active upper cervical stretching is more economical, because it has similar effects with the passive mobilization, help to maintain the treatment effect of therapist by themselves and can help to save medical expenses of patients.
  • 5.

    Effects of Circuit Aerobic Exercise on Gait Endurance and Pulmonary Function inPatients after Chronic Stroke

    박종준 | 최윤희 | Yong-Jun Cha | 2016, 11(4) | pp.33~39 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a circuit aerobic exercise program positively affects pulmonary function and gait endurance in chronic stroke patients. METHODS: Twenty-four chronic stroke patients were allocated equally and randomly to an experimental group (n=12) or a control group (n=12). All participants received 60 minutes of comprehensive rehabilitation treatment, the experimental group additionally performed a circuit aerobic exercise for 30 minutes, while the control group additionally performed a general aerobic exercise, i.e., gait training on the treadmill for 30 minutes. These 30-minute exercise sessions were held three times per week for six weeks. Pulmonary function was assessed using forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV), and gait endurance was assessed using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). RESULTS: In the both groups, FVC, FEV1, MVV, and 6MWT were significantly increased after training. Members of the experimental group showed significant improvements in FVC, FEV1, and MVV, and significantly greater improvements than controls (p<.05). However, 6MWT improvements were not significantly different in the two groups (p>.05). CONCLUSION: The devised circuit aerobic exercise program offers an effective rehabilitation aerobic exercise for improving pulmonary function and gait endurance in patients after chronic stroke.
  • 6.

    Effects of Intensive Neuro Rehabilitation Intervention on the Motor Function Recovery and Balance in Stroke Patients

    Je-Hyeok Lee | Jong-duk Choi | 2016, 11(4) | pp.41~47 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of differences in exercise time arrangement on the functional recovery of the lower limbs and balance of stroke patients. METHODS: The subjects of this study were 100 patients who were hospitalized in two hospitals located in Gyeonggi-do. Before the experiment, 60 of these patients who met the inclusion criteria and did not meet the exclusion criteria were randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 30), whose exercise time was concentrated, and a control group (n = 30), whose exercise time was diffuse. The two groups underwent six weeks of physical and occupational therapy four times a day for five days a week. One session of therapy took 30 minutes, including three sets of physical therapy and one set of occupational therapy. The rest time between the sessions was different for each group. The experimental group had five minutes of rest between each therapy session, and the control group had two hours of rest time between each session. The Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA), an assessment of each patient’s limit of stability (LOS), and a timed up and go test (TUG) were used as test tools. RESULTS: Both groups showed statistically significant increases in their FMA results, LOS measurements, and TUG results. The FMA results of the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group. CONCLUSION: Thus, concentrated exercise time was more effective than diffuse exercise time for the recovery of motor function.
  • 7.

    The Short-Term Effects of Difference Frequency of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Pain Relief using c-fos Expression in Spinal Cord with Knee Osteoarthritis Rats

    Koo Hyun-mo | 나상수 | 2016, 11(4) | pp.49~54 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different frequencies (4㎐ and 100㎐) of transcutaneous electrical nerve simulation (TENS) on pain relief using c-fos expression in the spinal cord of rat osteoarthritis to investigate the appropriate frequency for pain relief. METHODS: Total of 30 Sprague-Dawley rats was used and randomly divided 2 groups according TENS frequency and applicate the TENS during 3 period (3 days, 7 days, 10 days). The induction of osteoarthritis by 3mg monosodium iodoacetat was injected into the right knee joint of rats. Three days later, commercially available TENS unit was used for stimulation was set to 20minutes on 3, 7, 10 days after surgery. Western blot analysis system was used to detect immunoreactive proteins. The thickness of the bands were photographically measured by Scion Image. RESULTS: When investigating the c-fos expression of TENS on spinal cord in OA knee over 10 days, between-groups differences in c-fos expression reached a significant level by day 10. For within-groups comparisons, the c-fos expression decreased significantly across days in low- and high-frequency TENS groups. CONCLUSION: Whether at low- and high-frequency, the TENS as a therapy obtained beneficial effects of pain relief and TNES at high-frequency is more beneficial effects on the pain relief when TENS applied at injury site.
  • 8.

    The Effects of Air Stacking Exercise on Pulmonary Function in Elderly Adults

    Hyun Gyu Cha | Choe Yuwon | Kim Meung Kwon | 2016, 11(4) | pp.55~64 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of air stacking exercise on lung capacity, activities of daily living, and walking ability in elderly adults. METHODS: A total of 27 subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG=13) or a control group (CG=14). Subjects in the experimental group participated in an active pulmonary rehabilitation program. 5 days a week for 4 weeks. The active pulmonary rehabilitation program was composed of an air stacking exercise with an oral nasal mask and manually assisted coughing. Conventional pulmonary rehabilitation exercises, such as, cough exercise, deep breathing, and abdominal muscle strengthening exercises were performed by both groups. Pulmonary function parameters, peak cough flow (PCF), and oxygen saturation were measured and the 6-minute walk test and Korean version of the modified Barthel index (K-MBI) scores were applied. RESULTS: Significant intergroup differences were observed for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) results after intervention (p<.05), and for 6 minute walk test and PCF results after intervention and at 2-week follow-up visits (p<.05). Post hoc test results showed significant differences in K-MBI, 6-minute walk test, and FEV1 in the experimental group after intervention (p<.05). FVC values were significantly higher after intervention and at 2-week follow-up visits versus pre-intervention (p<.05). PCF values were also significantly higher after intervention and remained significantly higher at 2-week follow-up visits (p<.05). CONCLUSION: Air stacking exercise in elderly adults improves lung capacity and exercise tolerance.
  • 9.

    Comparison of the Maximal Muscular Activities of the Deltoid During Shoulder Abductions in Patients with Adhesive Capsulitis

    송일규 | Lee, Han-Suk | Sun-Wook Park | 2016, 11(4) | pp.65~70 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the electromyography (EMG) activity for the middle deltoid (MD) and upper trapezius (UT) muscles in various shoulder abduction angles in patients with adhesive capsulitis (AC). METHODS: A total of 15 subjects participated in the study: 6 without AC (control group) and 9 with AC (AC group). The muscle activities of the UT and MD were measured using EMG during maximal static shoulder abductions in both groups. Each subject performed three repetitions of horizontal abduction at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of the shoulder abduction angle in a sitting position. The measurement data from the middle 3-seconds of the 5-second periods were used. The mean value of three separate sets of measurements was used in the data analysis. For each muscle, independent t-tests were performed to determine group differences. A measured repeated-measures ANOVA was performed using Bonferroni’s post-hoc test. RESULTS: The muscle activity of the UT was significantly greater in the AC group; than in the control group (p<.05). The muscle activity of the MD was significantly lower in the AC group; than in the control group (p<.05). The greatest level of muscle activity for both the MD and UT was demonstrated at the 0-60° and 0-90° of shoulder abduction angles in the AC group. CONCLUSION: These findings showed that low muscle activation of the MD may contribute to hyperactivity of the UT during shoulder abduction in AC patients.
  • 10.

    Effects of Treadmill Walking Training with Randomized Walking Speed on Pulmonary Function in Persons with Chronic Stroke

    박성훈 | Yong-Jun Cha | 최윤희 | 2016, 11(4) | pp.71~78 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate which treadmill walking training mode is more effective strategy for improving pulmonary function of persons with chronic stroke. METHODS: Twenty-one chronic stroke patients were allocated and randomly to an experimental group (treadmill training with randomized speed control, n=11) and a control group (treadmill training without speed change, n=10). All participants received 30 minutes of neurodevelopmental treatment. In addition, the two groups performed treadmill training for 20 minutes each time with or without speed change. Speed change was applied 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% of Heart Rate Reserve. All the exercise programs lasted six weeks, with five times per week. Pulmonary function was assessed before and after exercise program by using forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV). RESULTS: In the both groups, FEV1 was significantly increased after training (p<.05). Compared to the control group, the experimental group showed 11.9% larger amount of change (p<.05). In the experimental group, FVC and MVV were significantly increased after training (9.9%, 7.6%, respectively) (p<.05). But in the control group, there was no significant difference in the FVC and MVV after training. CONCLUSION: Treadmill training with randomized speed control will be a better positive rehabilitation program than treadmill training without speed change to improve pulmonary function in persons with chronic stroke.
  • 11.

    Effects of Horse Riding Simulator on Pain, Oswestry Disability Index and Balance in Adults with Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain

    Shu-Yi Chen | Seung-Kyu Kim | Kim Ki Huyn and 2other persons | 2016, 11(4) | pp.79~84 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of Horse riding simulator exercise on pain, dysfunction and dynamic balance in adults with nonspecific chronic low back pain. METHODS: In this study, total 19 college students usually complain of low back pain who were randomly divided into the horse riding simulator exercise group (n=10), lumbar strengthening exercise group (n=9) were recruited. Each group carried out for 30 minutes exercise three times a week for 4 weeks. Horse riding simulator exercise group carried out 15 minutes horse riding simulator exercise and 15 minutes lumbar strengthening exercise. Lumbar strengthening exercise group carried out 30 minutes lumbar strengthening exercise. Visual analogue scale (VAS) were measured for evaluation back pain. Korean oswestry disability index (KODI) were measured for dysfunction. Limits of stability (LOS) were measured for dynamic balance. RESULTS: VAS, KODI, LOS results showed a significant change within both horse riding simulator exercise group, lumbar strengthening exercise group. CONCLUSION: Present study suggested that the horse riding simulator exercise can improve back pain, dysfunction, dynamic balance. Horse riding simulator exercise provides more convenience, interest and motivation than conversional therapy and it could be a possible approach to adults with nonspecific chronic low back pain.
  • 12.

    Validity of Ground Reaction Forces during Gait and Sit-to-Stand using the Nintendo Wii Balance Board in Healthy Subjects

    정유진 | Park Dae-Sung | 2016, 11(4) | pp.85~92 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: A good, valid, and feasible tool for evaluating sit to stand (STS) is needed to help clinicians quantify the STS ability of stroke patients and people with balance disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concurrent validity of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB) and a force plate during STS and gait. METHODS: Seventeen healthy adults performed five trials of STS and gait on the WBB placed on the force plate. The force plate and the WBB were compared in regard to center of pressure (COP) and ground reaction force (GRF) data that were collected simultaneously. The variables used for analysis were time (s), integral summation (%), COP path length (㎜), COP x range, and COP y range, all of which were measured for both tasks. Counter (%), peak (%), and rebound (%) were analyzed for STS, and 1st peak (%), min peak (%), and 2nd peak (%) were analyzed for gait. The concurrent validity was analyzed using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and a standard error of measurement (SEM) with a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: The concurrent validity of the WBB for STS ranged from fair to good (ICC=.701∼.994, SEM=.029∼3.815). The concurrent validity for gait was good (ICC=.869 ∼.989, SEM=.007∼2.052) aside from path length and x and y ranges of COP (ICC=-.150∼.371, SEM=3.635∼4.142). CONCLUSION: The GRF of the WBB has a good validity for STS and gait analysis. The WBB is remarkably portable, easy to use, and convenient for clinically assessing STS and gait.
  • 13.

    Effects of Therapeutic Exercise on Pain, Range of Motion, Strength and Balance Ability in a Patient with Anterior Ankle Impingement: A Case Study

    박상호 | 김아람 | Yoo Kyung Tae and 1other persons | 2016, 11(4) | pp.93~103 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of therapeutic exercise on pain, range of motion and strength, and balance ability in a patient with an anterior ankle impingement (AAI). METHODS: A-32-year-old male presented limited ankle motion and pain with forced dorsiflexion at both ankle joints. In response, a therapeutic exercise program consisted of ankle joint mobilization, strength exercises using an elastic band, and proprioceptive exercises including semi-squats and a one-legged standing exercise with open and closed eyes. The program was performed for 40 min/day, twice per week, for 8 weeks. Pain, range of motion (ROM), and muscle strength (ankle dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, inversion, and eversion), as well as a one-legged standing test of both ankles, were measured before and after 4 and 8 weeks of therapeutic exercise. RESULTS: VAS decreased in both ankles after 8 weeks of exercise, respectively, compared to baseline levels. Range of motion and strength increased in both ankles for dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, inversion, and eversion after 8 weeks of exercise compared to baseline levels. In addition, the ability to perform a one-legged standing test with eyes opened and closed improved in both legs after 8 week of exercise compared to baseline levels. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that therapeutic exercise improves pain, ROM, muscle strength, and balancing ability in patients with AAI.
  • 14.

    Therapeutic Effect of Tetrax based on Visual Feedback Training on Balance Dysfunction due to Ataxia in Subjects with Cerebellar Stroke: A Retrospective Study

    MINSU KIM | 2016, 11(4) | pp.105~114 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of Tetrax on balance dysfunction caused by ataxia in cerebellar stroke. METHODS: A total of thirty subjects with cerebellar stroke were recruited. The participants was divided into two groups, the experimental (n=15) and the control group (n=15). Tetrax training and conventional physical therapy (CPT) were performed in experimental group, whereas the patients in the control group were treated with CPT twice a day. Each session of the Tetrax and CPT was carried out for 30 minutes, 5 times per week for 4 weeks. Korean version of the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (K-SARA) was the primary outcome measure, and the secondary outcomes covered Berg balance scale (BBS), falling index (FI), Timed up and go (TUG), and modified Barthel index of Korean version (K-MBI). All outcome measures were evaluated before and after 4 weeks. RESULTS: K-SARA was decreased significantly after 4 weeks intervention in both the experimental (p<.05) and the control group (p<.05). Furthermore, the experimental group produced significantly better outcomes in K-SARA, BBS, FI, and TUG compared with the control group (p=.012, p=.027, p=.008, and p=.048). There were significant correlations between K-SARA and BBS, FI, TUG, and K-MBI (p<.001, p<.001, p=.004, and p<.001). CONCLUSION: The restoration of ataxia was related with the improvement of the balance, falling risk, mobility, and activity of daily living. Tetrax training was effectively aided recovery of ataxia after cerebellar stroke.
  • 15.

    The Effect of Lumbar Stabilization Exercise and The Neurodynamic Technique on Patients with Low Back Pain and Lumbar Instability

    정의용 | Suhn-yeop Kim | 2016, 11(4) | pp.115~125 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the effects of lumbar stabilization exercise with those of the neurodynamic technique on low back pain in patients with lumbar instability. METHODS: The subjects included those with more than three tests with positive results for lumbar instability and those with a positive sign during the neurodynamic test, all of whom had low back pain. For the lumbar stabilization exercise group (n=15), lumbar stabilization exercise was performed using a sling system, while the neurodynamic technique group (n=15) performed the neurodynamic technique. The intervention was performed 5 days a week for 4 weeks. All measurement of each subject were measure at pre-intervention and post-intervention (after 4 weeks). SPSS/PC ver. 18.0 program was used to compile results. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in general characteristics of subjects between both groups (p>.05). Assessed items included the visual analog scale score (VAS), Korean version of the Oswestry Disability Index (KODI), lumbar instability test positive response counter (LIC) and Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire score (FABQ), and a significant reduction was observed post-intervention compared to pre-intervention values in both groups (p<.01). Other assessed items such as trunk flexibility and lumbar extensor endurance and lumbar flexor endurance were significantly increased post-intervention in both groups compared to pre-intervention values (p<.01). There was no significant difference in all parameters between both groups (p>.05). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the neurodynamic technique may be useful for improving low back pain in patients with lumbar instability.
  • 16.

    The Effects of Vibration and Side-lying Hip Abduction on Pain, Disability, Strength and Balance in Individuals with Low Back Pain

    권애정 | Suhn-yeop Kim | 2016, 11(4) | pp.127~137 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the effects of side-lying hip abduction exercise with and without vibration on pain, disability, strength and balance in individuals with low back pain. METHODS: 30 participants enrolled in this study were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG, n=15) for side-lying hip abduction with vibration and a control group (CG, n=15) for side-lying hip abduction without vibration. Both groups were treated 3 times per week for 4 weeks. Pain (Numeric Rating Scale), disability (Korean Oswestry Disability Index), hip abductor muscle strength, and static balance were measured in both groups before and after the program. Results were analyzed using paired t-test for comparing the difference within the group and independent t-test for comparing the difference between two groups. RESULTS: Compared to the CG, the EG showed significantly greater reductions in pain and disability (p<.05). There was a significant difference in all balance categories of both the painful and non-painful sides within the EG (p<.05). Balance showed a significant decrease except the envelope area (ENV) on the non-painful side within the CG (p<.05). There was a significant increase in all balance categories except ENV of non-painful side between the two groups (p<.05). Balance increased on both the painful and non-painful sides in the EG. Balance improved on the painful side in the CG, but significantly decreased on the non-painful side (p<.05). CONCLUSION: Side-lying hip abduction exercise with vibration is considered an effective treatment for pain, disability and balance in individuals with low back pain.
  • 17.

    Effect of Craniocervical Flexion Exercise with Masticatory Muscle Contraction on Deep Cervical Muscle Thickness and Neck Disability Index in Patient with Neck Pain

    박은수 | ChoiHosuk | Shin Won Seob | 2016, 11(4) | pp.139~146 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of craniocervical flexion exercise with masticatory muscle contraction in patients with neck pain. Patients with neck pain also experience muscle weakness and limitation of activities of daily living. Craniocervical flexion exercise with masticatory muscle contraction may increase the thickness of the deep cervical flexor muscles, thereby reducing pain and limitations on activities of daily living. METHODS: Twenty-six volunteers participated in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=13) and a control group (n=13). Both groups performed craniocervical flexion exercise using a pressure biofeedback unit; the experimental group performed craniocervical flexion exercise with masticatory muscle contraction for 20 minutes, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Assessment tools included ultrasonography for measurement of muscle thickness and the Neck Disability Index for the level of pain and function. RESULTS: The rate of change in muscle thickness in both groups significantly increased (p<.05), with a significantly greater increase in the experimental group than in the control group (p<.05). The Neck Disability Index score significantly improved (p<.05) in both groups, with significantly greater improvement in the experimental group compared with the control group (p<.05). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that craniocervical flexion exercise with masticatory muscle contraction can be effective in increasing muscle thickness and improving the Neck Disability Index score in patients with neck pain.
  • 18.

    The Effects of Sensory Motor Training Using Ball Exercise on Shoulder Functions and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Women After Mastectomy

    서지윤 | Jong-duk Choi | 2016, 11(4) | pp.147~156 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of sensory motor training using ball exercise on shoulder range of motion, pain, dysfunction, and quality of life in Breast Cancer Women after Mastectomy. METHODS: A total of 26 patients from D University Hospital in Daejeon were included and randomly allocated to two groups (n=13 per group). The two groups performed the exercise five times a week for 4 weeks. A sensory motor training group (SMTG) received general physical treatment for 10 minutes and sensorimotor training for 20 minutes. A control group (CG) received general physical therapy for 30 minutes. Shoulder pain (the Visual Analog Scale), range of motion, disability (the shoulder pain and disability index) and quality of life (the Functional Assessment Cancer Therapy-Breast instrument) were measured in both groups before and after 4-weeks intervention. RESULTS: A significant difference was found in joint range of motion, shoulder pain, functional disability level, and quality of life within the two groups (p <.05). In addition, changes in joint range of motion, pain, functional disability level, and quality of life after then intervention were significantly different between the two groups (p <.05). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that a sensory motor training program is feasible, safe, and suitable exercise for shoulder functions and quality of life in Breast Cancer Women after Mastectomy.