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2017, Vol.12, No.1

  • 1.

    Effects of Heel Contact Methods of Stair Ascent on Abdominal Muscle Activation in Healthy Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study

    Jeong-Hyeon Kang | Kim, Hyeong-Dong | Kim Chang-Yong and 1other persons | 2017, 12(1) | pp.1~8 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was to determine the changes of abdominal muscles activation according to the heel contact methods of stair ascent in healthy young adults. METHODS: 33 healthy young subjects (mean age: 26.37±9.72 years, age range: 20-32 years) volunteered under two conditions. They were performed stair ascent with heel contact and without heel contact. The effects of heel contact methods were assessed using the surface electromyography (sEMG) analysis during stair ascent for activation of abdominal muscles (internal oblique; IO, transverse abdominis; TrA, external oblique; EO rectus abdominis; RA). The interventions were conducted over three trials in each method, and measurements were performed on each subject by one examiner in three trials. RESULTS: Our results revealed that there were significantly greater increase in the EMG activation of IO and TrA muscles in the performance of stair ascent with heel contact (p<.05) compared to those of stair ascent without heel contact. The results also showed that there were greater decrease in the ratio of abdominal muscle activation in those of stair ascent with heel contact compared with stair ascent without heel contact. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated that the method of stair ascent with heel contact would suggest positive evidence for improving activation of abdominal muscles.
  • 2.

    The Effect of Weight-shift Training with Hula Hoop on Weight Shift Change and Gait in Stroke Patients: A Cross - Sectional Pilot Study

    고연주 | Lee, Han-Suk | 2017, 12(1) | pp.9~14 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of weight shift training with Hula Hoop on weight shift change and gait in stroke patients. METHODS: Ten stroke patients were enrolled in this study, and randomly divided into 2 groups. The study group underwent weight shift training with Hula Hoop, while the control group received general physical therapy that included weight shift training. All the studies were performed over a period of 4 weeks. Before and after the intervention, plantar pressure and performance in the 10 m walk test (10MWT) were assessed. Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to compare the change from before to after the intervention in each group. The differences between the study and control groups were analyzed by using the Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: After 4 weeks of intervention, the change in weight shift and performance in the 10MWT from before to after the experiment showed no statistical significance (p>.05). In addition, the comparison between the groups showed no significance in terms of weight-shift change, and performance in the 10MWT (p>.05). CONCLUSION: Although the difference was not statistically significant, the degree of improvement was similar to that attained with the conventional exercise treatment related to weight- shift training. During the course of the treatment, the patients received feedback through repeated training by themselves. Weight-shift training with Hula Hoop would be effective in improving the walking ability and weight-shifting on the paralyzed side of stroke patients. In the future, the effectiveness of this training would need to be validated.
  • 3.

    Influence of Supplementary Verbal Encouragement According to the Gender on Abdominal Muscle Activation during Crunch Exercise in Healthy Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study

    Kim Chang-Yong | Kim, Hyeong-Dong | Jihyun Lee and 1other persons | 2017, 12(1) | pp.15~24 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementary verbal encouragement according to the gender on the activation of abdominal muscles during performance of crunch exercise in healthy subjects. METHODS: A Total of 32 healthy subjects (15 male and 17 female) were randomly allocated to two conditions, crunch exercise with Ki-hap and verbal encouragement with same gender (CKVS) and crunch exercise with Ki-hap and verbal encouragement with different gender (CKVD). The interventions were conducted over three trials in each condition, and measurements were performed on each subject by one examiner in three trials. The activation of rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and transverse abdominis muscles were evaluated using electromyography (EMG) during performance of crunch exercise with Ki-hap and verbal encouragement with same gender or different gender, respectively. RESULTS: The results showed that there were no significantly difference in the activation of all abdominal muscles in those of the CKVS compared with the CKVD (p>.05). The results also showed that there were no significantly difference in the ratio of muscle activation at global muscle to that at local muscle between two conditions (p>.05). CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated that application of the supplementary verbal encouragement by gender does not affect to activate the abdominal muscles of subject to perform a movement, at the same time, it would suggest positive evidence for improving activation of abdominal muscles.
  • 4.

    The Effects of Trunk Exercise on Mobility, Balance and Trunk Control of Stroke Patients

    Seung Heon An | Dae-Sung Park | 2017, 12(1) | pp.25~33 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The initiation of the trunk muscles in stroke patients is delayed because the muscles involved in reach arm are activated earlier than the trunk muscles. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of mobility, balance, and trunk control ability through selective trunk exercise (STE) in patients with chronic stroke. METHODS: A randomized pre-test and post-test control group design was initially used, with subjects randomly assigned to the STE group (n=15) and a control group (n=14). All groups underwent physical therapy based on the neuro-developmental therapy (NDT) for 30 minutes a day, five times per week for four weeks. Additionally, the STE group did the trunk exercise for 30 minutes a day, three times per week for four weeks. The timed up and go test (TUG), Berg balance scale (BBS), and trunk impairment scale (TIS) were used for assessment. RESULTS: The scores of the TUG, BBS, dynamic sitting balance subscale, and coordination subscale of TIS improved significantly in both groups but the improvement was more pronounced in the STE group (p<.05). This study showed a large effect on the scores of the TIS coordination subscale (d=.93) (p<.05), TIS dynamic balance subscale (d=.81) (p<.05), TUG (d=.75) (p<.05), and BBS (d=.73) (p<.05). CONCLUSION: The combined STE and NDT program showed improvements in measures of mobility, balance, and trunk control in chronic stroke patients. These results suggest that STE should be considered to be included in the treatment program for patients with chronic stroke.
  • 5.

    The Effect of Treadmill Gait Training in an Adjusted Position from Functional Training System on Chronic Stroke Patients' Walking and Balance Ability

    박지응 | Yong-Jun Cha | Lee Jun-Ho | 2017, 12(1) | pp.35~42 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of treadmill gait training in an adjusted position from the functional training system on the gait and balance of chronic stroke patients. METHODS: Thirty chronic stroke patients were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, who received treadmill gait training in an adjusted position, or the control group, who received regular treadmill gait training. Both groups underwent a 30-minute comprehensive rehabilitation treatment before receiving an additional 20-minute treadmill gait training. This routine was repeated five times a week for four weeks. To measure the difference before and after training in walking and balance, patients were scored on the following: 10 m walking test (10 MWT), 6 minute walking distance (6 MWD), timed up and go test (TUG), and static standing balance test (stability index). RESULTS: While post-training scores of 10 MWT, 6 MWD, TUG, and stability index for both groups increased significantly compared with pre-training (p<.05), the experimental group showed greater improvement than the control group (p<.05). The scores of the experimental group increased significantly by 9% in the 10 MWT, 11% in 6 MWD, 13% in the TUG, 8% in the stability Index (eye opened), and 10% in the stability index (eye closed). CONCLUSION: Treadmill gait training in an adjusted position from the functional training system would be a useful gait training method to improve walking and balance of chronic stroke patients.
  • 6.

    The Relationship Between Hip Adduction Angle of Ober Test According to Tibial Rotation and Length of the Iliotibial Band

    Joo-Hee Park | Lee Sa Gyeom | 2017, 12(1) | pp.43~49 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study investigated the relationship among hip adduction angle, tibial rotation, and ITB length during an Ober test to determine the most appropriate position for performing the test. METHODS: The study included thirty-nine asymptomatic participants (23 males, 16 females). Their hip adduction angles were measured using the Ober test during three tibial rotation conditions (internal tibial rotation, external rotation, and neutral position). ITB length was calculated by measuring the position of the patella to lateral femoral condyle using ultrasonography (patella-condyle distance; PCD). RESULTS: The relationship among hip adduction angle, tibial rotation, and ITB length was analyzed under the three conditions using the Pearson correlation. The hip adduction angle of the internal tibial rotation, the external rotation, and the neutral position were significantly related to ITB length. Moreover, the hip adduction angle measured during the internal tibial rotation had the highest correlation with ITB length among the three conditions (r=.58, p<.001). CONCLUSION: Internal tibial rotation caused by the Ober test led to increased iliotibial band (ITB) tension and a decreased adduction angle. These findings support that tibial rotation influences the flexibility of ITB. Therefore, therapists should consider the position of the internal tibial rotation when taking measurements using an Ober test.
  • 7.

    Comparison of Cognitive Task-Directed Motor Control Ability in Younger and Older Subjects

    Lee SooA | Jong-duk Choi | 2017, 12(1) | pp.51~59 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study compared cognitive task-directed functional motor control ability for reaching and kicking movements in younger and older adults. METHODS: Subjects were divided into two groups of younger and older adults, with 13 subjects in each group. Subjects were required to perform a dual task combining a functional movement and cognitive component. The task consisted of reaching and kicking movements. Participants performed indicated movements when a target appeared on a monitor. The target randomly appeared on the monitor every 10 seconds. The total performance time (TPT), joint angular velocity (JAV), and muscle activation time were used to evaluate motor control ability. RESULTS: There were significant differences in all evaluation factors in a comparison of younger and older adults (p<.05). TPT was significantly shorter in older adults, and JAV and muscle activation time were significantly slower than that in the younger adult group. Although the results for older adults were within the normal range for functional assessment, their motor control abilities were significantly worse for cognitive tasks compared with those of younger adults. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicated that a motor control assessment tool using a cognitive task would be helpful in assessment of motor control ability in healthy older adults.
  • 8.

    Effects of Isometric Upper Limb Contraction on Trunk and Leg Muscles During Sit-to-stand Activity in Healthy Elderly Females

    JANG EUNMI | Mihyun Kim | Jaeseop Oh | 2017, 12(1) | pp.61~66 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isometric upper limb contraction on the trunk and lower extremity muscles during the sit-to-stand activity in elderly females. METHODS: Eighteen healthy elderly females performed three directional isometric upper extremity contractions (flexion, extension, and horizontal abduction movements) using an elastic band during sit-to-stand activity. Electromyography signals were collected from the internal oblique, erector spinae, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris muscles. RESULTS: Internal oblique activity was greater in bilateral shoulder flexion and bilateral shoulder horizontal abduction than in neutral position (p<.05). Erector spinae and rectus femoris muscle activities in bilateral shoulder flexion was greater than in neutral position and bilateral shoulder extension (p<.05). Biceps femoris activity was significantly greater in bilateral shoulder flexion than in bilateral shoulder extension and horizontal abduction, and in neutral position compared to bilateral shoulder extension (p<.05). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that incorporating isometric upper limb contraction may be beneficial for enhancing the contribution of trunk and lower extremity muscle activities to trunk stabilization during sit-to-stand activity. Therefore, isometric upper limb contraction during sit-to-stand tasks, especially in flexion, may be used to elicit contraction of the lumbopelvic region muscles within a tolerable range, for developing endurance and strength in the elderly.
  • 9.

    The Effect of Action Observation with Observation Type on Limits of Stability and Dynamic Gait Ability in Stroke Patients

    Yong-Pil Yang | 김수진 | 2017, 12(1) | pp.67~74 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of action observation with observation type on the limits of stability and dynamic gait ability in stroke patients. METHODS: The 20 stroke patients who participated in this study were randomly divided into two experimental groups who underwent training three times a week for 4 weeks. Their balance was tested as the limit of stability with Biorescue. Their Dynamic gait ability was tested with the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) before the intervention, and after 4 weeks. Independent and paired t-tests were used to analyze the results. RESULTS: The results confirmed the limit of stability on the moving areas of the paralyzed and non-paralyzed sides. The limit of stability and dynamic gait index measurements confirmed that the moving area showed a significant difference after the intervention in the whole movement observation group (p<.05), but the partial movement observation group showed no significant difference (p>.05). A significant difference was also noted for the comparison between the both groups after the interventions (p<.05). The functional walking ability showed a significant difference when compared to the ability before the intervention, as determined by the changes in scores obtained for the dynamic gait index (p<.05). CONCLUSION: Interventions utilizing whole movement confirm that training improves stability and functional walking ability in stroke patients with disabilities in balance and walking ability.
  • 10.

    Comparison of the Activity of the Abductor Hallucis Muscle during Short-foot Exercises using Foot Orthosis and the Windlass Effect in Sitting and One-leg Standing Positions

    김도현 | Do-young Jung | 2017, 12(1) | pp.75~81 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of the abductor hallucis (AbdH) muscle during short foot exercise (SFE) using foot orthosis (SFE-FO) and the windlass effect (SFO-WE) while sitting and in a one-leg standing position. METHODS: We recruited fourteen subjects with normal feet for this study. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure the muscle activity of the AbdH muscle during SFE, SFE-FO, and SFE-WE while sitting and in a one-leg standing position. Three trials consisting of a 5 s hold for each of the three exercises were performed to measure the EMG activity of the AbdH muscle. Exercise type and position were randomly assigned. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was used to analyze the effects of exercise type (SFE vs. SFE-FO vs. SFE-WE) and position (sitting vs. one-leg standing position) on AbdH muscle activity. A statistical significance was set at α=.05. RESULTS: The EMG activity of AbdH muscle in the SFE-WE exercise was significantly greater than that during SFE and SFE-FO in both exercise positions (p<.001). In addition, the EMG activity of the AbdH muscle in the one-leg standing position was significantly higher than that while sitting (p<.001) during all three exercises. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that SFE-WE is a more effective strengthening exercise than SFE or SFE-FO for activating the AbdH muscle.
  • 11.

    The Effect of Stretching and Elastic Band Exercises Knee Space Distance and Plantar Pressure Distribution during Walking in Young Individuals with Genu Varum

    박소라 | NAMKOONG SEUNG | RO, HYO-LYUN | 2017, 12(1) | pp.83~91 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of stretching and elastic band exercise on the knee space distance and plantar pressure distribution in people with genu varum. METHODS: The subjects of this study were students of a college who had genu varum of 14 subjects. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups as a stretching group (n=7, 4 males and 3 females, age: 20.14±2.54 years, height: 167.1±9.78 cm, weight: 58.6±10.13 kg) and a Thera-band group (n=7, 5 males and 2 females, age: 19.85±2.04 years, height: 166.5±5.82 cm, weight: 54.2±5.59 kg). The stretching and the There-band exercises were performed three times per a week, for four weeks. We measured changes in plantar pressure during walking, using a Gait Analyzer and distance of both knees at pre and post-intervention. RESULTS: These results suggest that the space distance of both knees showed differences before and after the intervention. The plantar pressure distribution was no changes in both groups before and after the intervention except for the left foot in a stretching group. CONCLUSION: As a result, the space distance of knees in both groups was significantly reduced. These result suggested that the Thera-band and stretching exercises were effective ways in alleviating genu varum.
  • 12.

    The Effects of Short Term Schroth Exercise on the Cobb Angle, Angle of Trunk Rotation, Cosmetic Appearance, and Quality of Life in Idiopathic Scoliosis

    김지선 | 이숙 | Lim Dong Hwan and 2other persons | 2017, 12(1) | pp.93~101 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the effects of short term Schroth exercise on the Cobb angle, angle of trunk rotation (ATR), cosmetic appearance, and quality of life (QOL) in idiopathic scoliosis patients. METHODS: Five subjects with idiopathic scoliosis, (female, 3; male, 2) curvature type: thoracic, 2; lumbar, 3 underwent short term Schroth exercise for seven days. The exercise was performed for 3 h long sessions per day. The Cobb angle and QOL were measured before and after the intervention. ATR and cosmetic appearance were measured once. Sessions consisted of one baseline, seven intervention and three follow-up phases. The sessions were conducted with a one day interval. RESULTS: After the intervention, the Cobb angle was found to be significantly improve (p <.05), while the QOL did not differ (p>.05). The ATR showed decreased trends in the intervention phase. Data points during the intervention and follow-up phases showed a decrease in comparison with data points at the baseline, indicating that Schroth exercise might be effective in reducing the ATR and that these effects can be maintained after the intervention. Cosmetic appearance did not showed changed trends during the Schroth exercise intervention phase. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that short term Schroth exercise may be valuable in improving the Cobb angle and ATR in patients with idiopathic scoliosis.
  • 13.

    The Effects of Aquatic Group Exercise on Body Composition and Mental Health of Elderly Women

    옥해안 | 2017, 12(1) | pp.103~112 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: Regular physical activity in the elderly population has significant benefits for health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aquatic group exercise on body composition and mental health of the elderly females. METHODS: This study included 40 elderly women. The aquatic group exercise program was performed for an hour a day, 3 times a week for 12 weeks with moderate-intensity level. The body composition, physical fitness mental health instruments were used to measure the outcome variables before and after the program. Data was analyzed with SPSS using descriptive statistics and the t-test. RESULTS: It was found that the 12 week aquatic group exercise program had effects on body mass and BMR were significantly improved after the intervention of this study. In health related physical fitness, flexibility and sense of balance were significantly increased in the participants. In the mental health of the female elderly participants were evaluated in areas such as depression, sense of isolation, interpersonal anxiety, and sociality. They showed significant change in a positive way. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that aquatic group exercise should be activated and encouraged to enhance physical and mental health of elderly women and various types of manuals should be developed according to characteristics of programs to operate this exercise more effectively.
  • 14.

    Analyzing Correlation of Self-leadership and Intrinsic Motivation Among Some Physiotherapy Students

    Eunjoo Kim | Lee, Han-Suk | 2017, 12(1) | pp.113~120 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to provide the basic data for developing the self-leadership program by identifying the effect of self-leadership on intrinsic motivation among physical therapy students. METHODS: One hundred physical therapy students in E university of Gyeonggido were recruited by convenience sampling from October 4 to 14, 2016. Of them, 89% were chosen and 79% were analyzed after excluding the cases with wrong answers. The survey, using Likert's five scales was conducted with fifteen items of intrinsic motivation (Cronbach's α, .84) and thirty-five items of self-leadership (Cronbach's α, .90). Frequency analysis, correlation analysis regression diagnostics, and multiple regression analysis were done with SPSS 20.0 Statistics program (IBM, Korea). RESULTS: The total score of Self-leadership was 3.61 and of substrategies was 4.05 (Natural reward strategy), 3.38 (Behavior-focus strategy), and 3.43 (Constructive thought pattern strategy), respectively. The score of intrinsic motivation was 3.43. The substrategy of Self-leadership indicated positive correlation with intrinsic motivation. The correlation values in higher order were .75 (Natural reward strategy), .66 (Behavior-focus strategy), and .61 (Constructive thought pattern strategy). The Constructive thought pattern strategy (t=5.18, p=.00) and Natural reward strategy (t=2.10, p=.38), except Behavior-focus strategy were effective on intrinsic motivation according to the multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Before stepping up to the next level of being a physical therapist, students must go through the educational program to improve the Constructive thought pattern strategy and Natural reward strategy.
  • 15.

    The Effect of Dual Task Training based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health on Walking Ability and Self-Efficacy in Chronic Stroke

    이정아 | LEE HYUN MIN | 2017, 12(1) | pp.121~129 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to determine the effect of dual-task training (based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health; ICF) on walking ability and self-efficacy in individuals with chronic stroke. METHODS: 22 chronic stroke patients participated in this study. Participants were randomly allocated into either the single-task group (n=11) or the dual-task group (n=11). Both groups had physical training three a week for 4 weeks, and at a three-week follow-up. Outcome measures included the 10m walking test (10MWT), figure of 8 walk test (F8WT), dynamic gait index (DGI), and Self-efficacy scale. All data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 for Windows. Between-group and with-in-group comparison were analyzed by using the Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon singed-rank test respectively. RESULTS: In the dual-task group, the 10MWT, time and steps of F8WT, DGI, and self-efficacy showed significant differences between pre- and post-test (p<.05). The Changes between the pre- and post-test values of 10MWT (p<.05), DGI (p<.05), and self-efficacy scale (p<.05) showed significant differences between the dual-task group and single-task group. CONCLUSION: Participants reported improved walking ability and self-efficacy, suggesting that dual-task training holds promise in the rehabilitation of walking in chronic stroke patients. This study showed that ICF-based on a dual-task protocol contiributes to motor learning after chronic stroke.