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2017, Vol.12, No.3

  • 1.

    Effects of Bridge Exercise with Pelvic Compression Belt on Electromyographic Activities of Selected Lumbopelvic Muscles in Young Adults with Lumbar Instability

    Hyun Gyu Cha | Choe Yuwon | 우옌팅 and 1other persons | 2017, 12(3) | pp.1~10 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study assessed the effect of the pelvic compression belt on the electromyographic activity of erector spinae (ES), internal oblique (IO), rectus femoris (RF), and biceps femoris (BF) after bridge exercise with pelvic belt compression in subjects with lumbar instability. METHODS: Forty subjects with lumbar instability volunteered for this study. We asked them to perform the bridge exercise while wearing a pelvic belt compression for 30 minutes five times weekly over a six week period. The pelvic compression belt was adjusted just below the anterior superior iliac spines with stabilizing pressure using elastic compression bands during bridge position. Surface electromyographic data were collected from the erector spinae (ES), internal oblique (IO), rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF). RESULTS: After the six week intervention, the experimental group improved significantly. Muscle activation significantly decreased in the erector spinae, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris, and increased in the internal oblique muscle in bridge position while wearing a PCB (P <.01). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the bridge exercise with pelvic belt compression is helpful to reduce activation in superficial muscles and lower extremity muscles such as erector spinae (ES), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF) and increase activation in deep trunk muscle such as the internal oblique (IO).
  • 2.

    The Immediate Effects of Posterior Pelvic Tilt with Taping on Pelvic Inclination, Gait Function and Balance in Chronic Stroke Patients

    우옌팅 | Choe Yuwon | 펑청 and 1other persons | 2017, 12(3) | pp.11~21 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to identify the immediate effect of posterior pelvic tilt taping on anterior pelvic inclination, gait function, and balance in chronic stroke patients. METHODS: Fourteen chronic stroke subjects were enrolled in this study. Subjects who consented to participate in this cross-over experiment were assigned three interventions: posterior pelvic tilt taping, placebo taping, and no taping, in random order. After tape application, subjects were asked to complete: 1) Anterior pelvic tilt measurement, 2) 10-Meter Walk test, and 3) Limits of stability (LOS) test. To eliminate the learning effect of the tape after tearing off the tape, a 10 minute break was given between posterior pelvic tilt taping intervention and placebo taping intervention. RESULTS: Significant decreases were observed for the anterior pelvic inclination on both sides after posterior pelvic tilt taping application compared with placebo taping and no taping application (p<.05). Post hoc test results differed significantly in the 10-meter walk test after intervention (p<.05). However, there were no significant differences in limits of stability test after intervention (p>.05). CONCLUSION: Posterior pelvic tilt taping in chronic stroke patients decreases the inappropriate anterior pelvic inclination immediately and improves gait function, but it has little effect on balance.
  • 3.

    Effect of Cupping Therapy on Range of Motion, Pain Threshold, and Muscle Activity of the Hamstring Muscle Compared to Passive Stretching

    김재은 | Cho Ji Eun | 도광선 and 3other persons | 2017, 12(3) | pp.23~32 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: Flexibility and range of motion are very important factors in sports performance, rehabilitation, and musculoskeletal pain. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of cupping therapy on flexibility, muscle activity, and pain threshold of hamstring muscle compared to passive stretching in healthy subjects. METHODS: Thirty healthy subjects were randomly assigned in a crossover design to cupping therapy and passive stretching. Subjects were tested to compare their effects according to the intervention such as Passive range of motion (PROM) (straight leg raising) and active range of motion (AROM). And algometer (pain) testing and MVC assessment using EMG were performed as dependent variables. RESULTS: The cupping therapy group and passive stretching group showed significant differences in all variables including PROM (p=.00, p=.00), AROM (p=.00, p=.03), Pain Threshold (p=.03, p=.08), Semitendinosus MVC (p=.01, p=.00), and Biceps femoris MVC (p=.01, p=.16). There were no significant differences between the two groups in all variables. CONCLUSION: These findings of this study suggested that cupping therapy has as much positive effect on flexibility, pain threshold, and muscle contraction as passive stretching. Also, it is more convenient and easier to work on patients than passive stretching. Therefore, cupping therapy should be considered as another option to treat range of motion, pain, and muscle activity in the clinical field.
  • 4.

    Does the Addition of Visual Feedback Improve Postural Vertical Training in the Patients with Pusher Syndrome After Stroke?

    Jang-Tae Lee | Seung-chul Chon | 2017, 12(3) | pp.33~42 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: To compare postural vertical training with and without visual feedback for improving functional recovery in post-stroke hemiparesis patients with pusher syndrome. METHODS: This study used a single-subject research with alternating design with multiple baselines. Three patients with hemiparetic post-stroke diagnosed with pusher syndrome were selected from the inpatients at the department of physical therapy of a local rehabilitation hospital. For subjective postural vertical (SPV) training with and without visual feedback, an alternating treatment was used. The subjects were randomly selected using the sequence of the two training methods upon starting the intervention, and then the training was alternated. SPV training was performed twice a day, once in the morning and again in the afternoon. Scale for contraversive pushing (SCP), postural assessment scale for stroke, and Barthel index score were used to determine the intervention-related changes. RESULTS: Compared to the average score at baseline, the average SCP score for the SPV training without visual feedback decreased from 5.3 to 2.8, from 4.6 to 3, and from 3.5 to 2.7 for subjects 1, 2, and 3, respectively. However, the average score for the SPV training with visual feedback decreased from 5.3 to 3.1, from 4.6 to 3.5, and from 3.5 to 3.3 for subjects 1, 2, and 3, respectively. CONCLUSION: Postural vertical training without visual feedback may be more beneficial than postural vertical training with visual feedback for improving pushing behavior and functional activity in stroke patients with pusher syndrome.
  • 5.

    Effects of Kinesio Taping on Muscle Tone, Stiffness in Patients with Shoulder Pain

    choi jin ho | 2017, 12(3) | pp.43~47 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of physical therapy plus Kinesio taping (KT) on muscle tone and stiffness in patients with shoulder pain. METHODS: This study included 22 participants who were divided into the experimental group (n=11) who underwent a routine physical therapy with KT and the control group (n=11) who received the same physical therapy only. The physical therapy consisted of heat application and electrical stimulation. Heat was applied for 10 minutes and electrical stimulation was conducted for 20 minutes. Intervention was provided over a 1-week period, and frequency for muscle tone and stiffness was measured to determine changes in shoulder muscle status. The muscles were supraspinatus and deltoid. Measurements were taken before, after 1day, 3day and after 1 week to identify timedependent effects of intervention. RESULTS: The effects of the intervention were significant in both groups, and effects were greater in the experimental group. Changes in muscle tone and stiffness were statistically significant in both groups and at varying time points (p<.05). CONCLUSION: Based on the improved muscle performance found in this study, KT is considered an effective intervention strategy for patients with shoulder pain when it is combined with conventional physical therapy.
  • 6.

    The Reliability of Balance, Gait, and Muscle Strength Test for the Elderly with Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Lee, Han-Suk | Sun-Wook Park | 2017, 12(3) | pp.49~58 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: To summarize the evaluation tools of balance [Berg Balance Scale (BBS), timed up and Go (TUG), forward reaching test (FRT)], gait [6 m walking Test (6MWT)], and strength [Chair Stand Test (CST)] for patients with dementia. METHODS: The following databases were searched: PubMED, Cochrane, Sciences Direct, and Web of Sciences. The inclusion criteria were as follows: 1) repeated measurement design, 2) subjects with dementia, 3) use of testing tools such as the BBS, TUG, FRT, 6MWT, and CST, 4) report the reliability. One reviewer performed the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy study and two evaluators performed data extraction independently. RESULTS: Six articles and one letter were included. The interrater reliability of 6MWT, TUG, and CST, were acceptable (ICC>.90). However, FRT had unacceptable reliability. In test-retest reliability, only BBS has acceptable reliability (ICC>.90). Others had various reliabilities. The risk of interrater reliability bias was low in all studies. However, the risk of bias of intrarater reliability was low in five studies and moderate in two studies. CONCLUSION: The interrater reliability of the 6MWT, TUG, and CST were acceptable. However, in test-retest reliability, only BBS has acceptable reliability. Therefore, we suggest the use of BBS to test the balance of dementia patients. In addition, the study of tool reliability according to the subtype of dementia is needed in the future.
  • 7.

    Difference of Muscle Activity by Pelvic Tilt in Side-Lying Hip Abduction

    김해중 | Lee, Han-Suk | Hyung-kuk Chung | 2017, 12(3) | pp.59~66 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was to evaluate the muscle activity of gluteus medius, tensor fascia latae, and quadratus lumborum during side-lying abduction exercise in various pelvic tilting positions. METHODS: We measured the activity of three muscles in three pelvic tilt positions for 17 normal subjects with performing the side-lying hip abduction. Three pelvic tilt positions were posterior tilt, neutral tilt and anterior tilt. We used the mean value after participants performed the hip abduction three times each position. RESULTS: The activity of gluteus medius within three pelvic positions showed the highest activity in pelvic posterior tilt position and the lowest in pelvic neutral tilt position (p = .04). The activity of tensor fascia latae showed the lowest in pelvic posterior tilt position and the highest in pelvic posterior tilt position (p = .00). The activity of quadratus lumborum revealed the lowest activity in pelvic neutral tilt position and the highest in pelvic anterior tilt position (p = .00). The activity of selective gluteus medius activation according to pelvic displacement showed the highest activity in pelvic neutral tilt position and lowest in pelvic anterior tilt position (p = .00). CONCLUSION: Hip abduction with Pelvic posterior tilt position may be effective in increasing gluteus medius and may be effective in strengthening exercise program for the gluteus medius. In addition, Hip abduction with pelvic neutral position may have an effect on the selective gluteus medius, which is considered to be effective in the exercise program for muscle reeducation training of the gluteus medius.
  • 8.

    Transient Effects of Calf Muscle Fatigue and Visual Control on Postural Balance During Single Leg Standing

    Jintae-Han | 2017, 12(3) | pp.67~71 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: Muscle fatigue is a cause to change proprioception. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of calf muscle fatigue and visual control on postural balance during single-legged standing in healthy adults. METHODS: Nineteen healthy adults (male) were participated in this study (mean age: 24.36 years; mean height: 171.32 cm; mean weight: 64.58 kg). The postural balance (sway length, sway area, sway velocity of COG displacement) was measured by Balance Trainer System (BT4) in before and after calf muscle fatigue feeling in single legged stance. In this study, repetitive single-legged heel rise test was used to induce fatigue of the calf muscle. Paired t- test was used to compare the postural balance between before and after calf muscle fatigue. Data of subjects were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Level of significance was set to .05. RESULTS: The sway length, sway area, sway velocity of COG (center of gravity) displacement after calf muscle fatigue feeling was significantly increased compared to before calf muscle fatigue feeling during single leg standing both eye open and close conditions (p<.05). CONCLUSION: This study suggested that calf muscle fatigue feeling has affected on postural balance when standing one leg both eye open and close conditions and postural control was disturbed by muscle fatigue and visual feedback in single leg standing.
  • 9.

    Difference in Muscle Activities According to Stability on Support Surface During Plank Exercise

    Yongho Cho | choi jin ho | 2017, 12(3) | pp.73~77 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The present study aimed to measure muscle activities in the pectoralis major, the erector spinae, and the quadriceps femoris according to support surface states of arms and legs during plank exercise. METHODS: The subjects of this study were 21 healthy males in their 20s and their muscle activities at three states were measured as follows: The first state was where the support surface of arms and legs was stable. The second state was where only arms were unstable, and the third state was where only legs were unstable. Electromyography (EMG) was used to measure muscle activities. Pectoralis major, quadriceps femoris, and elector spinae were measured for muscle activities. RESULTS: The muscle activities in the pectoralis major were statistically high when arms were unstable. The muscle activities in the quadriceps femoris were statistically high when legs were unstable. The muscle activities in the erector spinae were higher when arms and legs were unstable compared to that at the stable support surface. No significant difference was revealed statistically when arms and legs were unstable. CONCLUSION: If the instability of arms and legs is employed during plank exercise, exercise on the upper and lower bodies or the erector spinae is expected to be more effective.
  • 10.

    The Effect of Task-oriented Training on Mobility Function, Postural Stability in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Kim Jihye | Young-Eun Choi | 2017, 12(3) | pp.79~84 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to examine how task-oriented training focused on lower extremity strengthening can affect mobility function and postural stability. METHODS: The study's subjects included 10 children with cerebral palsy: 7 girls and 3 boys between the ages of 4 and 9 whose Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS) level was I or II. Their functional mobility was gauged using the Gross Motor Function Measurement (GMFM), and their postural stability was evaluated using a force platform. Participants received task-oriented training focused on lower extremity strengthening for 5 weeks. The study used a paired t-test to investigate the difference in mobility function and postural stability of children with cerebral palsy before and after the lower extremity strengthening exercise. RESULTS: The GMFM dimensions D (standing) (p<.02) and E (walking) (p<.001) improved significantly between the pre-test and post-test. A significant increase in the posturographic center of pressure (CoP) shift and surface area of the CoP were found overall between the pre-test and post-test (p<.001). CONCLUSION: The present study provides evidence that an 8-week task-oriented training focused on strengthening the lower extremities is an effective and feasible strategy for improving the mobility function and postural stability of children with cerebral palsy.
  • 11.

    Comparison the Muscle Activation in the Trunk and Lower Limbs of Subjects Wearing High-Heeled or Flat Shoes While Crossing Over Obstacles of Different Heights

    Jin-Seong Park | Jintae-Han | 2017, 12(3) | pp.85~91 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation of the trunk and lower limbs of subjects wearing high-heeled or flat shoes while crossing over obstacles of different heights. METHODS: Twenty subjects participated in this study. While wearing high-heeled shoes (7 cm) or flat shoes (0 cm), the subjects were asked to cross over obstacles of different heights (10%, 20%, and 30% of their lower-limb length). Muscle activation of the trunk and lower limbs with the supported side while crossing over obstacles of different heights was measured using the electromyogram (Noraxon, DTS, Germany). Two-way repeated ANOVA was used to compare the muscle activation between high-heel shoes and flat shoes while crossing over obstacles of different heights. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS ver. 21, and p-values less than .05 were used to identify significant differences. RESULTS: As an obstacle's height increased, muscle activation of the trunk and lower limbs with the supported side was increased while wearing either type of shoe, and it was generally higher while wearing high-heeled shoes. However, tibialis anterior muscle activity while wearing high-heeled shoes was lower than while wearing flat shoes. CONCLUSION: This study showed that muscle activation of the trunk and lower limbs was higher when subjects wore high-heeled shoes than when they wore flat shoes while crossing over obstacles of different heights. Therefore, high-heeled shoes can easily cause high muscle fatigue of the trunk and lower limbs, and the TA muscle may weaken in persons who wear high-heeled shoes.
  • 12.

    Comparison of Lower Limb Muscle Activities by Various Angles of a Medio-lateral Ramp During Gait

    Lee Sang-yeol | Su-Hong Ahn | 2017, 12(3) | pp.93~98 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study investigated the activities of lower limb muscles according to the angle of a medio-lateral ramp while walking to promote awareness of the risks associated with a medio-lateral ramp. METHODS: This study was conducted on 20 healthy male adults. The muscle activities of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO), vastus lateralis oblique (VLO), tibialis anterior (TA) and peroneus longus (PL) were measured while the subjects were walking on a 3 m medio-lateral ramp. Five angles (flat, 2°, 5°, 10°, and 15°) were selected for the angle conditions of the experiment on a medio-lateral ramp. The activities were measured during the stance phase only in the middle cycle of a three-cycle walking experiment. The mean value obtained from the three walking tests was used for the analysis. RESULTS: Results showed that walking on a mediolateral ramp required more muscle activities than walking on a flat surface, through which balanced walking was achieved. CONCLUSION: Walking on a medio-lateral ramp requires proper muscle activation and control, without which the risks of injury to the joints of the lower limbs and falls are likely to increase. Therefore, special attention should be given to older people and the disabled under the condition of traversing a ramp.
  • 13.

    Effects of Step-up Training on Walking Ability of Stroke Patients by Different Support Surface Characteristics

    오근식 | Yu-Ran Choi | Dae-Hyouk Bang and 1other persons | 2017, 12(3) | pp.99~104 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: Gait disturbances in patients with hemiplegic stroke involve asymmetry of stance time. Step box training is used to supplement the limitations of stair walking training and increasing the torque value of the paralyzed lower leg's strength. This study aimed to investigate whether step-up training on unstable support could change walking ability in patients with chronic stroke. METHODS: Thirty stroke patients were randomly assigned to the step-up training group (experimental group), that performed training on an unstable surface, and the control group, that performed training on a stable surface. Walking speed, step length, and cadence were measured before and after training. Paired t-tests were used to compare pre- and post-intervention data, while the independent samples t-test was used to determine intergroup differences. Values of p < .05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in walking ability before versus after the intervention in both groups, although the experimental group showed greater differences than the control group (walking velocity by 8.1%; step length of the non-paralyzed side by 6.9%, respectively; p<.05). CONCLUSION: Step-up training might be more effective on an unstable surface than on a stable surface for increasing walking speed and step length of the non-paralyzed side.
  • 14.

    The Effect of Ankle Balance Dual Task Including Motor Training on Static Balance and Dynamic Balance in the Elderly

    Park Seonguk | Yongho Cho | Yoon Tae Hwang | 2017, 12(3) | pp.105~109 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ankle dual task including motor training on the static balance, dynamic balance in the elderly. METHODS: 30 elderly people were randomly divided into 3 groups: 10 people in the single motor task group, 10 people in the double motor dual task group and 10 people in the motor-cognitive dual task group. In the double motor dual tasks group was performed ankle balance motor task additional motor task. Motor-cognitive dual task group was performed ankle balance motor task additional cognitive task. Single motor task group was performed ankle balance motor task. It was performed three times intervention a week for six weeks. Statistical analysis method was performed using one way ANOVA for comparison between groups, and the paired t-test was used for comparison pre and post intervention. RESULTS: Static and dynamic balance were significant differences between pre and post intervention by three groups (p<.05). In static balance, there was a significant difference among groups (p<.05), but there was not a significant difference between groups in dynamic balance (p>.05). CONCLUSION: The results of the research, the ankle balance dual task including motor or cognitive task was more effective than single motor task on static balance in the elderly.
  • 15.

    Effect of Weight Ball Throw Training on Weight Shifting of Lower Body, Head Speed of Club, and Driving Distance of Amateur Golfers

    최우진 | Tack-hoon Kim | 오동식 | 2017, 12(3) | pp.111~117 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: To determine the effect of weight ball throw training as a preparatory exercise before golf practice for 8 weeks on back muscle strength, weight shifting of lower body, head speed of club, and driving distance of amateur golfers. METHODS: A total of 18 subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=9) and the control group (n=9), respectively. For the experimental group, Weight ball throw training was provided to the height of waist and shoulder similar to golf swing with the following schedule: 3 kg weight ball throw training from the first week to the 4th week; 5 kg weight ball throw training from the 5th week to the 8th week. Before and after 8 weeks of training, back muscle strength, weight shifting of lower body, head speed of club, and driving distance of subjects in the two groups were measured. RESULTS: The experimental group showed significant differences in rotational back extension torque, weight shifting of lower body, head speed of club, and driving distance during golf swing (p<.05). However, the control group only showed significant difference in driving distance during golf swing (p<.05). Back extension torque, weight shifting of lower body, and head speed of club showed significant differences between the two groups during golf swing (p<.05). CONCLUSION: Weight ball throw training can positively change rotational back muscle strength, weight shifting of lower body, head speed of club, and driving distance of amateur golfers. Therefore, it might be used as an effective warming up exercise for amateur golfers.
  • 16.

    The Effects of Hippotherapy for Physical, Cognitive and Psychological Factors in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Bae Myung Soo | 윤창교 | 한용구 | 2017, 12(3) | pp.119~130 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine, by conducting a 10 week hippotherapy, the effects on the physical, cognitive and psychological factors of children with intellectual disabilities. METHODS: As an intervention method, intervention was based on a program from the American Hippotherapy Association and was modified and enhanced. 16 children with intellectual disabilities was conducted horse riding intervention program and Intervention was conducted once a week for a total of 10 weeks with each session lasting 30 minutes. A doctor of rehabilitation medical treatment of D rehabilitation center, physical therapist and occupational therapist evaluated the upper limbs test, balance, gait function, Korea-mini mental state examination (MMSE) before and after hippotherapy intervention. Self-esteem scale and aggression scale was evaluated by Psychology Counseling of C psychological clinic before and after hippotherapy intervention. RESULTS: The results of this study reveal that first, there was a positive effect. Second, statistically significant differences were found in BBS, TUG, K-MMSE, 10m walking test, 6 min walking test, self-esteem scale and aggression scale (p<.05). However no statistically significant differences were found in upper limbs function and good balance analysis before and after intervention. CONCLUSION: The hippotherapy is effective way to improve the physical, cognitive and psychological factors of children with intellectual disability.