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2018, Vol.13, No.2

  • 1.

    Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Fall-Proof-related Fitness in Older Female Adults

    Hyun-Tae Ok | Joo Kee Chan | 김완수 | 2018, 13(2) | pp.1~9 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study investigated the relationship between the daily physical activity level and fall-proof- related fitness in older female adults. METHODS: This study promoted and sampled the subjects who participated in the study for 2 weeks, and developed a basic information questionnaire to select the subjects to be excluded from the research. The amount of energy expenditure through daily physical activity was examined, and the elderly physical fitness, and balance test were analyzed. The subjects were divided into group A (≥1,500 kcal/week), group B (<1,500-≥1,000 kcal/week), and group C (<1,000 kcal/week) according to their daily physical activity level. RESULTS: A significant difference in the daily physical activity level (energy expenditure), Chair Stand Test (lower body strength), 8-Foot Up-and Go Test (dynamic balance), and CTSIB-M (modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction in Balance) was observed among groups A, B, and C (p<.5), but there was no significant difference in the Chair Sit-and-Reach Test (lower body flexibility) (p>.5). CONCLUSION: The increase in physical activity is an essential factor for preventing falls and it provides many health benefits for the elderly. On the other hand, considering that elderly people cannot access exercise programs easily in Korea, it can be predicted that increasing elderly people's physical activity in daily life rather than specific exercises may help prevent falls.
  • 2.

    Effects of Joint Mobilization Intervention Combined with Exercise on Range of Motion, Pain Intensity, and Functional Performance in Adolescent Baseball Players with Internal Impingement of the Shoulder

    Oh Tae Young | Yeon-Gi Choo | Il-Young Yoo | 2018, 13(2) | pp.11~19 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify the effects of joint mobilization intervention combined with exercise on range of motion (ROM), pain intensity, and functional performance in adolescent baseball players with internal impingement syndrome of the shoulder. METHODS: The subjects were 30 adolescent baseball players diagnosed with internal impingement. Ten subjects were randomly assigned to each of 3 groups: Group 1 (exercise only), Group 2 (joint mobilization combined with exercise), and Group 3 (rest-only control group). Three weekly interventions were given for 4 weeks (the control group rested for 4 weeks). The main outcome measures were goniometer, visual analogue scale (VAS), and Korean Kerlan Jobe shoulder-elbow (K-KJOC) scores. The ROM (external and internal rotation), pain intensity (at the moment of throwing), and functional performance were compared among the groups. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed among the groups in the range of external rotation of the shoulder before and after the intervention, but the range of internal rotation was significantly increased in Group 2 compared to Groups 1 and 3. Pain intensity was significantly lower in Group 2 than in Group 1 and 3, and functional performance was significantly increased in Group 2 compared to Group 1 and 3. CONCLUSION: An intervention that combined joint mobilization with exercise was more effective than resting or exercise alone for rapid recovery from sports injury and improvement in athletic performance.
  • 3.

    Factors Related to Job Performance of Female Patients with Workplace Injuries by using ICF Model

    LEE MIN JAE | KIM HWAN | 2018, 13(2) | pp.21~31 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the differences between male and female workers by investigating the various factors that affected the workers' abilities to return to work according to the International Classification of Functioning standards. METHODS: We analyzed the personal factor, environmental factor, work performance and participation factor related to ICF according to worker’s gender. For this purpose data from the third Worker’s Compensation Insurance panel survey conducted by the Korea Workers’ Compensation & Welfare Service were analyzed. In order to verify the research model, we used frequency analysis, cross analysis to compare the differences between male and female workers according to personal, environmental, work performance, and participation factors and hierarchical regression analysis to identify significant factors affecting job performance. RESULTS: The results, indicate that the level of education, license status, working period, socioeconomic status and employment type of female workers were lower than those of male workers. Factors that have the greatest influence on job performance are grade of disability, status of disability, economic activity status, and instrumental activities of daily living (p<.05). CONCLUSION: It is necessary to provide socially stable employment support and social policy support without discrimination to allow disabled female workers to return to work and maintain their jobs and to study factors influencing job performance further.
  • 4.

    A Comparison of Vastus Medialis Oblique and Vastus Lateralis Electromyography Activities According to Different Tibial Rotation Taping Methods in Healthy People

    Gi-Uk Sung, | Suhnyeop Kim | Yun-Jae Oh, | 2018, 13(2) | pp.33~41 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: Femur and tibia alignment in the knee joint is important to the biomechanics of lower limb movement. The purpose of this study was to compare vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis electromyographic muscle activities according to tibial rotation taping methods. METHODS: Twenty-nine healthy subjects (13 males and 16 females) in the 20s, without knee joint-related diseases or disorders, participated in our study. After identifying each subject's dominant foot, the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was determined using a manual muscle tester. The activity of each target muscle was measured at 50% MVIC in isometric muscle contraction and at a 30° knee flexion position before and after applying internal and external rotation taping by the Mulligan concept and in the neutral position. Non-elastic tape was used to stabilize the tibia rotation position. RESULTS: In the males, VMO muscle activity was significantly increased in the tibia internal rotation position (47.2±14.6, mean±SD) than in the neutral position (39.3± 14.9) (p<.05). CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that when applying tibia internal rotation taping in healthy males, VMO muscle activity significantly increases during isometric extension of the knee. Therefore, this study provides a basis for selecting the appropriate taping method, in consideration of the available treatments in clinical practice for patients with knee problems.
  • 5.

    The Effects of Kaltenborn Orthopedic Manual Therapy with Evjenth-hamberg Stretching on Range of Motion of Ankle Joint and Balance Ability in Patients with Chronic Stroke

    Park Sinjun | Kim,Soon-Hee | Kyun-Hee Cho | 2018, 13(2) | pp.43~51 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: Stroke patients have limited ankle range of motion and balance problems. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Kaltenborn orthopedic manual therapy, Evjenth-hamberg stretching, and combination of both on ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and dynamic balance ability in stroke patients. METHODS: Thirty patients were placed in three groups, each of which received different treatments: Kaltenborn orthopedic manual therapy (15 mins), Evjenth-hamberg stretching (15 mins), or Kaltenborn orthopedic manual therapy with Evjenth-hamberg stretching (30 mins). Each group received three exercise sessions per week during four weeks. To determine its effectiveness of interventions an evaluation was carried out. ankle dorsiflexion range of motion was gauged using a tiltmeter application, and dynamic balance ability was measured using the Berg balance scale. RESULTS: All groups revealed significant improvements in ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, Berg Balance Scale (BBS) score before and after the intervention, and Kaltenborn orthopedic manual therapy with Evjenth-hamberg stretching group showed a significant improvement in ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and BBS score in comparison to other groups. CONCLUSION: We found out that each individual method was effective in ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, dynamic balance ability in stroke patients, and the combined method was more effective.
  • 6.

    The Effect of Backward Walking Exercise using a Mirror on Balance and Gait in Patients with Stroke

    Tae-Woo Kang | Kim, Beom-Ryong | 2018, 13(2) | pp.53~60 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify the effect of a backward walking exercise using a mirror on balance and gait in patients with stroke. METHODS: Twenty subjects with post-stroke hemiparesis volunteered to participate in this study. The experimental and control groups performed backward walking exercise plus conventional therapy or conventional physical therapy, respectively, for 6 weeks. Assessment instruments included the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), timed up and go test (TUG), and 10-m walking test (10MWT). Evaluation was performed before and after the 6-week training period. We conducted a paired t-test to compare the within-group changes before and after the intervention. An independent t-test was used to compare between-group differences. The statistical significance level was set at α=.05 for all variables. RESULTS: The experimental group showed a significant within-group change in the BBS, TUG, and 10MWT (p<.05). The control group also showed a significant change (p<.05). A significant difference was observed between the experimental and control groups with regard to changes in the BBS, TUG, and 10MWT results after the interventions (p<.05). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that backward walking exercise using a mirror may be valuable for future research. Further studies with a wider range of pathology and longer experiment duration are required to validate the results of the present study.
  • 7.

    Effects of Self-stretching and Joint Mobilization to Upper Thoracic Vertebrae in Craniovertebral Angle and Autonomic System Function in Chronic Cervical Pain

    Nam Ki Won | seo dong yel | KIM SE HUN | 2018, 13(2) | pp.61~68 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effects of self-stretching (SS) and joint mobilization (JM) on pain, craniovertebral angle (CVA), autonomic system function in chronic cervical pain patient with forward head posture (FHP). METHODS: A total of 30 male college students were selected as study subjects, and were divided into Group Ⅰ (general physical therapy; GPT, n=10), Group Ⅱ (GPT+SS, n=10), Group Ⅲ (GPT+JM, n=10). All groups were evaluated three times a week for 4 weeks. Pain was measured by visual analogue scale (VAS), CVA was measured using digital goniometer and autonomic system function (heart rate; HR, skin conductivity; SC, LF norm, HF norm, LF/HF ratio) was measured by Biofeedback ProComp Infiniti. After 4 weeks, paired t-test was used to compare the changes within the group and one way ANOVA was used to compare those between the groups. RESULTS: In Group I, VAS was significantly decreased. In Group II and Ⅲ was a significantly change in all items. In comparison between Group I and II was a difference in all items except HR. In comparison between Group I and Ⅲ was a difference in all items. In comparison between Group II and Ⅲ was a difference in VAS, LF norm and LF/HF ratio. CONCLUSION: This study showed that SS and JM can effectively reduce pain and normalize the autonomic system function.
  • 8.

    Effects of Modified Low-Dye Taping on Stroke Patients with an Excessive Pronated Foot

    Hyun-Wook Kim | Young Uk Ryu | 2018, 13(2) | pp.69~74 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: Stroke patients may develop an over-pronated foot, resulting in a lower medial longitudinal arch. This can lead to a structural change of the foot due to deformation of the musculoskeletal system. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of modified low-dye taping on stroke patients with an excessively pronated foot. The effect of the taping on the foot after light daily activity was also examined. METHODS: The subjects consisted of 21 stroke patients with an excessively pronated foot, as measured by the navicular drop test. First, their navicular heights were measured at a relaxed standing position (measure 1) and while standing in the subtalar neutral position (measure 2). Modified low-dye taping was applied to each subject’s affected foot and the navicular height was then measured for the standing posture (measure 3). Finally, each subject walked around for 10 minutes and the navicular height was measured again (measure 4). RESULTS: Statistical analyses showed that the navicular height value at the relaxed standing position (measure 1) was significantly lower than for the other 3 measurements. That is, the modified low-dye taping was effective in maintaining a subtalar neutral position, even after a 10-minute walk, for stroke patients with an excessively pronated foot. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that modified low-dye taping applied to stroke patients with an excessively pronated foot could be an effective way to place the subtalar joint in a neutral position, and that its effect can be sustained for light daily activities.
  • 9.

    A Content Analysis of Physical Therapy for Postural Control and Mobility in Children with Spastic Diplegia: A Cross-sectional Study

    Sung-Ho Yoo | Duck-won Oh | 2018, 13(2) | pp.75~87 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze the components of physical therapy interventions to enhance postural control and mobility in children with spastic diplegia. METHODS: Thirsty-eight physical therapists working in rehabilitation settings volunteered to record the components of physical therapy interventions used during 894 treatment sessions for 179 children with spastic diplegia presenting with difficulties in postural control and mobility. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the general characteristics of the therapists, the patients, and the frequency of the interventions. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square test were used to describe the components of the interventions and the goals of treatment. RESULTS: In clinical practice, physical therapists primarily used methods including “Hands-on: facilitation” (n =1990, 36.47%) and “Hands-off: practice” (n=1355, 24.83 %). Only 13.96% (n=762) of the interventions allowed patients to be independent or active outside of the treatment sessions. Interventions reflecting the therapeutic aims were performed for sitting (17.53%), standing (18.25%), and walking (27.39%). CONCLUSION: Physical therapists mostly used “therapist- led” interventions to treat impaired postural control and mobility in children with spastic diplegia. Interventions to facilitate independent activity or practice outside the treatment sessions are infrequently used. These types of interventions were used regardless of the aims of treatment.
  • 10.

    The Effects of Head-lift Exercise on Swallowing Function in Patients with Stroke

    Tae-Woo Kang | Kim, Beom-Ryong | 2018, 13(2) | pp.89~95 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: We aimed to study the effect of head-lift exercise on the neck strength and swallowing function in patients with stroke. METHODS: Our study included 20 patients with stroke hemiparesis. All patients were randomly allocated to either the head-lift exercise or the conventional swallowing therapy group, and each group included 10 patients. All patients underwent the exercise over a mean period of 30 min daily for 6 weeks. Neck strength and swallowing function were assessed prior to and 6 weeks following the training period. We used a paired t-test to compare the within-group change before and after the intervention. We used an independent t-test to compare the between-group difference. The statistical significance level was set at α=.05 for all variables. RESULTS: The head-lift exercise group showed a significant within-group change in terms of the neck strength and swallowing function (p<.05). The conventional swallowing therapy group also showed a statistically significant change (p<.05). A statistically significant difference was observed between the head-lift exercise and the conventional swallowing therapy group with regard to the change in both, the neck strength and swallowing function after application of the intervention (p<.05). CONCLUSION: This study provides valuable information for future studies in this field. Further studies involving a wider range of patients and a longer experiment span are required to strengthen the results of our study.
  • 11.

    Case Study for Application of Job Centered Curriculum in Department of Physiotherapy: Brighton University in England

    Ju-Young Song | 2018, 13(2) | pp.97~107 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study investigated the job-centered curriculum in the Department of Physiotherapy at the University of Brighton, England, to examine NCS (national competency standards) curriculum in physiotherapy. METHODS: The researcher visited the University of Brighton from September 2015 to May 2016 and conducted interviews with faculty members. Data were collected through the university's website and the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. RESULTS: The undergraduate program is a three-year program and with a module system. There is a course leader for each module. Each grade requires 120 credits (10 hours per credit) and credit hours can be earned through lectures, tutorials, practical sessions, self-directed e-learning, group work, inter-professional classes, and seminars. Clinical placement is carried out six times during 3 years, for a total of 32 weeks, 35 hours per week, 1120 hours in total. Students are enrolled as a student members of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy and are covered by professional liability insurance during clinical placement. The Center for Teaching and Learning holds regular workshops to discuss curriculum and module design, conduct course reviews, and review student assessment and feedback. All courses at the university must be approved, monitored annually, and re-approved every 5 years. CONCLUSION: This study can contribute to the development and operation of the NCS physiotherapy curriculum, as well as to the development of modules and assessment tools related to the application of this curriculum.
  • 12.

    The Effect of Taping on the Change of Elbow Joint Angle Grip Force of Normal Adult Males in 20s

    Jin-Hyuk Jang | choi jin ho | 2018, 13(2) | pp.109~114 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study conducted the experiment to check change of ability to grip depending on normal male adult’s elbow flexion angle and the effect of kinesiology tape application. METHODS: Normal male adults who studies in H university where located in Kyoungbook state and did not have any factors like fracture, osteoarthritis, deformities and non-neurologic issue which might influence the result of this study were selected as subjects. Elbow of subjects were applied by 5cm wideness kinesiology tape and elbow’s angle was selected by 0°, 45°, 90°, 135° using Goniometer. The change of ability to grip depending on flexion was measured by an electronic dynamometer before and after taping. RESULTS: Before and after taping elbow joint, both ability to grip decrease in more flexion angle and 135° of elbow flexion was lowest value, 299.84N. Using kinesiology tape, neutral position 0° was the highest value, 352.26N. The lowest was 331.68N on 135°. According to verifying the change of ability to grip depending on elbow flexion and the change of ability to grip after taping with paired t-test, the result was p<.05, there was significant difference. CONCLUSION: Using electronic dynamometer and estimating the ability to grip after and before kinesiology tape, the ability to grip decrease in more elbow flexion. The ability to grip after using kinesiology tape was relatively higher than before taping.
  • 13.

    The Effect of Empowerment on Job Satisfaction for Physical Therapists in General Hospitals

    Sun-Wook Park | 2018, 13(2) | pp.115~127 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of empowerment on job satisfaction for physical therapists in general hospitals. METHODS: A total of 297 physical therapists working in general hospitals throughout the country participated in the study survey using self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaires comprised three major parts, i.e., questions about general characteristics, empowerment, and job satisfaction, which were rated using a 5-point Likert scale. Statistical analysis was performed to analyze the frequency and percentage of participants, and the independent t-test and analysis of variance were performed to determine the difference in job satisfaction according to the general characteristics. Stepwise multiple regression was used to evaluate the factors that affect job satisfaction. RESULTS: The average of total empowerment, including two subordinate concepts, was 3.29 points, that of psychological empowerment was 3.53 points, and that of structural empowerment was 3.05 points. The average job satisfaction of the participants was 3.43 points, and it showed a significant difference in age, overall work experience, current work experience, position, annual salary, and daily work hours. Moreover, job satisfaction increased as the subordinate factors for empowerment, i.e., support, resources, chance, and competence, increased. Other factors that affect job satisfaction were daily work hours, number of colleagues, type of work, annual salary, and therapeutic assistance. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that job satisfaction of physical therapists working in general hospitals was related to empowerment, thereby indicating that job satisfaction and work performance can be increased by improving their empowerment.
  • 14.

    Comparison of Subtalar Joint Range of Motion and Dorsiflexor Muscle Activity Between Normal and Pes Planus Feet

    Koh, Eun Kyung | Do-young Jung | 2018, 13(2) | pp.129~135 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The imbalance of pretibial muscles can be a factor contributing to the development of pes planus. However, no study has yet compared the muscle activity of the tibials anterior (TA) to that of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL). The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in the electromyographic (EMG) TA and EDL amplitude indexes (AIs) between normal and pes planus feet. METHODS: A total of 14 subjects with normal feet and 15 subjects with bilateral pes planus participated in this study. TA and EDL muscle activities were measured using a wireless EMG system and the angles of ankle dorsiflexion and eversion of the subtalar joint were measured using a universal goniometer during active ankle dorsiflexion in the prone position. AI was calculated as follows: amplitudeTA‒ amplitudeEDL / (amplitudeTA+amplitudeEDL) / 2×100. RESULTS: The AIs of the TA and EDL were significantly lower in pes planus feet than in normal feet (p<.05). The angle of subtalar eversion was significantly greater in pes planus feet than in normal feet during active ankle dorsiflexon (p<.05). However, there was no significant difference in the angle of ankle dorsiflexion between normal feet and pes planus feet (p>.05). CONCLUSION: This study showed that TA muscle activation was lower in pes planus feet than in normal feet, resulting from greater eversion range of motion during active ankle dorsiflexion. We suggest that the imbalance of ankle dorsiflexors must be considered in pes planus management.
  • 15.

    The Effects of Action Observational Physical Training with Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation on Muscle Activity of the Lower Extremity and Gait Ability in Patients with Chronic Stroke

    Su-Young Song | LEE HYUN MIN | SONG YO HAN | 2018, 13(2) | pp.137~145 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of action observational physical training with rhythmic auditory stimulation on muscle activity and gait ability in patients with stroke. METHODS: Twenty-six chronic stroke patients participated in this study were assigned into three groups, experimental group 1 (10% faster tempo rhythmic auditory stimulation with action observation training) n=8, experimental group 2 (average tempo rhythmic auditory stimulation with action observation training) n=9, and control group (action observation training) n=9. In this experiment, the corresponding exercise were applied into the subjects of three group for 30 minute a day, 3 time a week during 4 weeks. All participants were measured to muscle activity of lower limb, 10 meter walking test, Figure of 8 walk test, Dynamic gait Index. The collected data were analyzed by using SPSS (version 18.0 for window) and verified that each data was a normal distribution based on Shapiro-Wilk test. Between-group and within-group comparison was analyzed by using One-way ANOVA test, Paired t-test respectively. In all statistical analyses, significance level, α was set by .05. RESULTS: The above results revealed that the all experimental group 1 and experimental group 2 and control group were all effective to improve the lower limb muscle activities, gait ability. However more positive effects shown action observational physical training with rhythmic auditory stimulation experimental group. CONCLUSION: This study suggest that action observation physical training with rhythmic auditory stimulation is effective intervention for improvement of muscle activity and walking ability in chronic stroke patients.
  • 16.

    A Teleological Interpretation of a Doctor’s “Guidance” for Physical Therapist

    Lee, Ju-il | 2018, 13(2) | pp.147~156 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The law pertaining to medical service technologists does not discuss the scope and limits of doctors’ guidelines. My paper aims to discuss these topics. METHODS: This study was based on a review of literature and an analysis of judicial precedents. RESULTS: Physical therapists have often noted the need for independent practitioners in their articles on health care. Their continued discussions on professional and educational differences have centered round this issue, but their ideas have not been accepted. Practitioners have continued to interpret doctors’ guidelines in hospitals without discussing their scope. However, the Supreme Court presented a meaningful decision outlining the conceptual limits and the scope of medical practice. The court suggested, basing its interpretation in the goal of clarifying the concept of medical activities smoothly, was to follow a specific judgment on the levels of education, testing, and professionalism. CONCLUSION: The role of physical therapists is expanding in this country, in order to meet the needs of the ultra-aged society. Education is already responding to rising training needs. By dividing the doctors’ guidelines into indirect and direct types, if there’s no medical risk near or around the health center or hospital, it is a good idea to allow the management of physical therapy partially, while understanding the scope and limitations of these guidelines clearly. A teleological interpretation of the law is especially relevant, and can be implemented immediately by the authoritative interpretation on part of the health authorities without any legal amendments.
  • 17.

    The Effect of Plyometric Training Combined with Core Strength Training on Balance and Agility in Adolescent Soccer Players

    Won-Hee Jo | choi jin ho | 2018, 13(2) | pp.157~165 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was carried out to investigate the effect of plyometric training combined with core strength training on the balance and agility of adolescent soccer players. METHODS: A total of 36 subjects participated in this study. Subjects were randomly divided 3 groups and assigned PG (plyometric training group), CSG (core strength training group) and PCG (plyometric training combined with core strength training group). Each group was assigned to 12. Intervention was performed three times a week for 4 weeks. The training was performed for 60 minutes a day. Subjects were warmed up for 10 minutes, and performed main exercise for 40 minutes. Finally, subjects performed cool-down exercise including stretching for 10 minutes. A Statistical analysis was performed the paired t-test for the comparison pre and post intervention. A comparison among the groups was using one-way ANOVA, and the LSD was used for the post-test. RESULTS: The balance and agility were statistically significant differences in all group (p<.05). There was no significant difference in the balance factors between the three groups, but there was a significant difference in the agility factor (p<.05). CONCLUSION: Plyometric training and plyometric training combined with core strength training were effective for the balance and agility of adolescent soccer players.