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2018, Vol.13, No.3

  • 1.

    The Effect of Exercise Therapy on Pain, Muscle Function and Radiological Evaluation in a Female Youth Golf Player with Low Back Pain: Case Report

    Lee Hoseong | 2018, 13(3) | pp.1~9 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exercise therapy on low back pain (LBP), the function of paraspinal and abdominis muscles, and the sacrohorizontal angle as seen on the radiographs of the lumbar spine in a young female golf player with LBP. METHODS: This case report describes an 11-year-old female golfer who presented with LBP. The exercise therapy program comprised lumbar joint mobilization, lumbar spine flexion distraction, abdominal bridge, plank, side plank, and single-leg extensions from a 4-point kneeling position for 40 min/day; this was done twice a week for 8-weeks. LBP [visual analog scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI)] and function of paraspinal and abdominis muscles [Ito test, curl-up test, 90° stop test, squat test, opened eye one leg stance test (OEOL), and closed eye one leg stance test (CEOL)] were measured before and after 4 and 8 weeks of exercise therapy. The radiographs were analyzed for the lumbar Cobb’s angle and sacrohorizontal angle before and after 8 weeks of exercise therapy. RESULTS: After 4 and/or 8 weeks of exercise therapy, VAS and ODI scores decreased; results for the Ito test, curl-up test, 90° stop test, squat test, and OEOL and CEOL of muscle function improved; and the lumbar Cobb’s angle and sacrohorizontal angle improved. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that exercise therapy improves LBP, muscle function, and radiographic parameters associated with LBP in young golf players. These findings have clinical implications for exercise therapy in young female golf players who have LBP.
  • 2.

    Comparison of Effects of Abdominal Stabilization Exercise with Stabilizer and GymBall on Respiratory Muscle Activation

    이수민 | 이수민 | myungchul kim and 2other persons | 2018, 13(3) | pp.11~17 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of abdominal stabilization exercise with Stabilizer and Gymball. METHODS: The participants were divided randomly into 2 groups each of 20 participants in the gymball exercise group and 20 participants in the exercise group. The changes of respiratory muscle activity between the two groups were measured three times a week for 4 weeks. The activity of rectus abdominis and internal oblique was measured using surface EMG to measure respiratory muscle activity. The training was repeated five sets, and one set was repeated 6 times with one 10 second exercise and 5 second rest. RESULTS: The results of the study showed that there was a significant difference in the amount of respiratory accessory muscle activation, inspiratory pressure, respiratory minute volume at the experimental group with stabilizer and control group with gymball exercise. Between-group difference was statistically significant only for rectus abdominis muscle activation. CONCLUSION: Both the stabilizer and the gymball exercises were effective in improving the respiratory rate but there was no difference between the two groups. Also, when comparing activity of muscle in both group, both groups were effective in improving and more effective than improvement of muscular activity of stabilizer in muscle of stabilizer.
  • 3.

    Reliability and Validity of a Smartphone-based Assessment of Gait Parameters in Patients with Chronic Stroke

    Jin Park | Tae-ho Kim | 2018, 13(3) | pp.19~25 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: Most gait assessment tools are expensive and require controlled laboratory environments. Tri-axial accelerometers have been used in gait analysis as an alternative to laboratory assessments. Many smartphones have added an accelerometer, making it possible to assess spatio-temporal gait parameters. This study was conducted to confirm the reliability and validity of a smartphone-based accelerometer at quantifying spatio-temporal gait parameters of stroke patients when attached to the body. METHODS: We measured gait parameters using a smartphone accelerometer and gait parameters through the GAITRite analysis system and the reliability and validity of the smartphone-based accelerometer for quantifying spatio-temporal gait parameters for stroke patients were then evaluated. Thirty stroke patients were asked to walk at self-selected comfortable speeds over a 10 m walkway, during which time gait velocity, cadence and step length were computed from smartphone-based accelerometers and validated with a GAITRite analysis system. RESULTS: Smartphone data was found to have excellent reliability (ICC2,1≥.98) for measuring the tested parameters, with a high correlation being observed between smartphone-based gait parameters and GAITRite analysis system-based gait parameters (r = .99, .97, .41 for gait velocity, cadence, step length, respectively). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that specific opportunities exist for smartphone-based gait assessment as an alternative to conventional gait assessment. Moreover, smartphone-based gait assessment can provide objective information about changes in the spatio-temporal gait parameters of stroke subjects.
  • 4.

    Evaluation of Muscle Activity and Foot Pressure during Gait, and Isokinetic Strength and Balance in Persons with Functional Ankle Instability

    Sun-Ah Lee | Lee Hoseong | Kim Ah-Ram and 1other persons | 2018, 13(3) | pp.27~37 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate and evaluate muscle activity and foot pressure during gait, and isokinetic strength and balance in persons with functional ankle instability (FAI). METHODS: Nine healthy subjects (CON, n=9) without FAI and 11 patients (FAI, n=11) with FAI participated in the study after having been screened with an ankle instability instrument and a balance error scoring system. In addition, FAI was classified as non-involved (FAI-N) or involved (FAI-I), and CON was classified as dominant or non- dominant. All subjects were evaluated for isokinetic strength (plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, inversion and eversion of 30°/sec and 60°/sec), balance (static and dynamic), muscle activity (tibialis anterior, peroneus longus and gastrocnemius) and foot pressure (static and dynamic) during gait. RESULTS: Results showed that plantar flexion (p<.05), dorsiflexion (p<.05), inversion (p<.01) and eversion (p<.00) of 60°/sec were significantly decreased in FAI-I compared to those in FAI-N and CON. C 90 of static balance with eyes open (p<.01) and closed (p<.00) were significantly increased in FAI compared to those in CON. Forward position of dynamic balance (p<.01) was significantly decreased in FAI compared to that in CON. Gastrocnemius and peroneus longus of dynamic muscle activity (p<.01), left and right weight distribution of static foot pressure (p<.00) and pressure distribution of dynamic foot pressure (p<.00) were significantly decreased in FAI-I compared to those in FAI-N. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that ankle strength, balance, muscle activity and foot pressure were significantly correlated with FAI.
  • 5.

    Effects of Strengthening Exercise on Gait Ability and GMFM in Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Seong-Gyeong Heo | Lee, Han-Suk | Sun-Wook Park | 2018, 13(3) | pp.39~47 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of pain, balance, and left / right step time difference between elastic taping and non-elastic taping in patients with acute ankle sprain. METHODS: The subjects were patients with acute ankle sprains who had been injured within 1 day. A total of 30 subjects were divided into three groups (CG: control group, EG1: experimental group 1, EG2: experimental group 2) of 10 people. The intervention period was 3 days. In the CG, only physical therapy (cryotherapy+pulsed ultrasound) was performed, while physical therapy and elastic taping were applied in EG 1 and physical therapy and non-elastic taping were applied in EG 2. RESULTS: Changes in pain, balance and left / right step time difference following intervention decreased significantly in all three groups. After intervention, the balance between the groups differed significantly between the CG and the EGs. In addition, the left / right step time difference differed significantly between the CG and EGs, as well as between the EG 1 and the EG 2. CONCLUSION: Physiotherapy is helpful for treatment of pain associated with acute ankle sprain. Taping is considered to be a way to provide more balance and gait ability.
  • 6.

    A PNF Intervention Strategy with ICF Tool Applied for Improvement of Dressing in a Patient with Rotator Cuff Syndrome : A Case Report

    Jin-Cheol Kim | Jin-Cheol Kim | Jeong-A Lee | 2018, 13(3) | pp.49~60 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the intervention effect obtained by applying an ICF tool to improve the dressing in a patient with rotator cuff syndrome to schematize the problems and approaching with PNF to solve the problems. METHODS: The subject of this study was a 44-year-old patient who underwent surgery after complete right rotator cuff tear. To treat his symptoms, the processes of clinical practice were implemented in the order of examination, assessment, diagnosis, prognosis, intervention, and outcome. During examination, patient information was collected using the ICF core set. In the assessment, the problems were schematized, and an ICF assessment sheet was used to identify the interaction of the problems. The diagnosis was made by clearly describing the causal relationship derived from the assessment in ICF terms. To solve the problems, the intervention was given in the order of indirect, direct, and task based on the philosophy of PNF. To evaluate the outcome, the differences before and after the intervention were compared. Additionally, the comparison for the ICF qualifier is presented with the ICF evaluation display. RESULTS: The results of the study showed clinical advantages in shoulder strength, eccentric control, range of motion, scapular stability, and shoulder pain. Overall, our patient with rotator cuff syndrome showed improvement in dressing and undressing activity in response to the PNF strategy. CONCLUSION: Application of the PNF intervention strategy after complete rotator cuff tear would have a positive effect on patient upper extremity function.
  • 7.

    Effect of Taping on a Home Program of Hip Abductor Exercise on Pain and Quadriceps Muscle Strength in Elderly Women with Knee Osteoarthritis

    choi jin ho | 2018, 13(3) | pp.61~66 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to determine the effects of taping on a home program of hip abductor exercise on pain and quadriceps muscle strength during knee joint osteoarthritis. METHODS: The subjects were 24 elderly women aged over 65 years with knee joint osteoarthritis. Twenty-four subjects were divided into two groups of 12. The intervention was conducted three times a week for six weeks. The control group underwent a home program of hip abductor exercise, while the experimental group underwent taping applied to a home program of hip abductor exercise. The measurement factors were knee joint pain and quadriceps muscle strength. Knee joint pain was measured using the VAS, while quadriceps muscle strength was measured using the 1RM method. RESULTS: Changes in pain following intervention were significantly reduced from 4.83±.72 to 3.92±.67 in the control group. In the experimental group, changes in pain following intervention were reduced significantly from 4.67 ±.78 to 3.25±.45. In the experimental group, the pain decreased significantly, while muscle strength increased significantly as in the control group. However, there were significant differences in pain and muscle strength between groups post intervention (p<.05). CONCLUSION: In the elderly women with knee osteoarthritis, the home program of hip abductor exercise will be a good intervention, and taping will be applied as an intervention program for better osteoarthritis.
  • 8.

    Effect of Elastic and Non-elastic Taping on Pain, Balance, and Left / Right Step Time Difference in Patients with Acute Ankle Sprain

    Yongho Cho | Sun-Wook Park | choi jin ho | 2018, 13(3) | pp.67~73 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of pain, balance, and left / right step time difference between elastic taping and non-elastic taping in patients with acute ankle sprain. METHODS: The subjects were patients with acute ankle sprains who had been injured within 1 day. A total of 30 subjects were divided into three groups (CG: control group, EG1: experimental group 1, EG2: experimental group 2) of 10 people. The intervention period was 3 days. In the CG, only physical therapy (cryotherapy+pulsed ultrasound) was performed, while physical therapy and elastic taping were applied in EG 1 and physical therapy and non-elastic tapingwere applied in EG 2. RESULTS: Changes in pain, balance and left / right step time difference following intervention decreased significantly in all three groups. After intervention, the balance between the groups differed significantly between the CG and the EGs. In addition, the left / right step time difference differed significantly between the CG and EGs, as well as between the EG 1 and the EG 2. CONCLUSION: Physiotherapy is helpful for treatment of pain associated with acute ankle sprain. Taping is considered to be a way to provide more balance and gait ability.
  • 9.

    Comparison of the Upper and Lower Trapezius and Serratus Anterior during Push-up Plus Exercise with and without an Elastic Shoulder Band

    Kyung-Jin Kim | YoungIn HWANG | 우혜진 and 1other persons | 2018, 13(3) | pp.75~80 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: Scapular stability is very important to arm function during activities of daily living. The push-up plus exercise is commonly used to stabilize the shoulder muscles. In the present study, we designed an elastic shoulder band (ESB) that could be used with the push-up plus exercise and studied muscle activities of the serratus anterior (SA) and the lower and the upper trapezius (LT and UT) on stable and unstable support. METHODS: Fifteen healthy people participated in this study. Three muscles were investigated using surface EMG with and without the ESB on stable and unstable support. All subjects performed each trial three times for 7 seconds per set and rested for 30 seconds. Repeated one-way ANOVA was used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: The EMG activity of the SA was significantly different during the push-up plus exercise on stable support with the ESB compared with that on unstable support without the ESB (p<.05). However, there were no differences in the activities of UT and LT on stable and unstable support (p>.05). CONCLUSION: The ESB was effective for the activity of SA during the push-up plus exercise on stable support; therefore, it has the potential for use by people during push-up plus exercises. However, further studies are required to investigate the rehabilitation tools for patients with shoulder instability.
  • 10.

    Effectiveness of Breathing Exercises on Spinal Posture, Mobility and Stabilization in Patients with Lumbar Instability

    Jim-Yi Kang | Dong-Kwon Seo, | seo dong kwon and 1other persons | 2018, 13(3) | pp.81~89 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to monitor the performance of breathing exercises by patients with lumbar instability who had altered breathing patterns. METHODS: To investigate the effects of breathing exercises on spinal posture, mobility, and stabilization in patients with lumbar instability with altered breathing patterns, 30 adult participants were enrolled on the basis of the selection criteria and randomly assigned to the breathing exercise group (BEG) or trunk stabilization exercise group (SEG). A pre-test was performed prior to the intervention exercise program. The intervention exercise program consisted of 15 sessions (three sessions per week for 5 weeks) between August and September of 2016. The post-test was performed on the 6th week of intervention. RESULTS: Pre- and post-test comparisons of BEG and SEG revealed significant improvements in all tested items in the SEG, except for spinal mobility, while significant improvements in spinal postures 1 and 2, spinal mobility, and stabilization were found in the BEG. Between-group comparisons revealed that there were no significant differences in spinal posture 1, spinal posture 2, spinal mobility, or stabilization, whereas significant differences were found in spinal posture 2 and spinal mobility, with the BEG showing greater improvements than the SEG. CONCLUSION: Based on the findings in the present study, it is believed that breathing exercises have important effects on spinal posture, mobility, and stabilization in patients with lumbar instability who have altered breathing patterns.
  • 11.

    Immediate Effect of Anterior-to-posterior Talocrural Joint Mobilization with Elastic Taping on Balance Ability in Stroke Patients

    Park Sinjun | Kim, Sun-Hee | 2018, 13(3) | pp.91~97 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: Stroke patients have reduced balance ability due to a lack of motion in the ankle joint. Elastic taping assists movement, and joint mobilization, a form of passive movement, enhances mobility. The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects on balance ability after anterior-to-posterior (A-P) talocrural joint mobilization combined with elastic taping in stroke patients. METHODS: Twenty stroke patients were divided into two groups: a joint mobilization with taping group (experimental group, n=10) and an elastic taping only group (control group, n=10). The experimental group underwent anteroposterior mobilization of the talus and elastic tape was applied to the calf and tibialis anterior muscles. The control group had elastic tape applied. Dynamic balanced abilities were assessed by using the BioRescue system. After 30 minutes of intervention, the forward, backward, left side, and right side sway areas (mm 2 ) were measured. RESULTS: Only the experimental group showed a significant increase in forward sway area after intervention. However, no significant differences were detected between the two groups. CONCLUSION: This study shows that A-P talocrural joint mobilization combined with elastic taping has a positive effect, producing an immediate increase in the forward balance ability of stroke patients. However, this study did not examine joint mobilization alone. In subsequent studies, it is necessary to examine the effect of joint mobilization only on balance in stroke patients.
  • 12.

    Effects of Sympathetic Conversation on Electroencephalogram, Stress, Anxiety-Depression, and Muscle Tone in Chronic Stroke Patients

    Yu-won Choe | Kim Meung Kwon | 2018, 13(3) | pp.99~111 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to identify the effects of sympathetic conversation on stress, anxiety and depression, and muscle tone in chronic stroke patients. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (EG, n=7) or control group (CG, n=7). Both groups participated in a pretest before intervention. Subjects were asked to undergo: 1) electroencephalogram, 2) Stress Response Inventory, 3) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, 4) muscle tone and stiffness testing. After the pretest, EG received sympathetic conversation and CG received a simple explanation about stroke recovery and rehabilitation. Following the intervention, both groups were immediately administered a post test. RESULTS: In EG, the electroencephalogram relative alpha power was significantly increased (p<.05), while the electroencephalogram relative gamma power was significantly decreased (p<.05). The Stress Response Inventory and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores decreased significantly in both groups (p<.05). In addition, muscle tone and stiffness decreased significantly in the EG (p<.05) CONCLUSION: The results of the present study indicate that sympathetic conversation had a positive effect on stress, anxiety and depression, and muscle tone in patients with chronic stroke. Therefore, sympathetic conversation could be used to improve not only psychological problems in chronic stroke patients including stress and anxiety, but also physical conditions including muscle tone.
  • 13.

    Effects of Functional Footwear Designed for Decreasing Ground Reaction Force on Ankle and Foot Range of Motion During Gait in Healthy Individuals

    Kim Yong-wook | 2018, 13(3) | pp.113~120 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of a specific functional shoe in terms of the range of motion (ROM) of ankle and foot joints during walking when compared to a standardized shoe. METHODS: Kinematic ROM data pertaining to ankle, tarsometatarsal, and metatarsophalangeal joints were collected from twenty-six healthy individuals during walking using a ten-camera motion analysis system. Kinematic ROM of each joint in three planes was obtained over ten walking trials consisting of two different shoe conditions. Visual3D motion analysis was finally used to coordinate the kinematic data. All kinematic ROM data were interpolated using a cubic spline algorithm and low-pass filtered with a cutoff frequency of 6 Hz for smoothing. RESULTS: The overall ROM of the ankle joint in the sagittal and coronal planes when wearing the specific functional shoe was significantly decreased in both ankles during walking when compared to wearing a standard shoe (p<.05). Significantly more flexibility was observed when wearing the specific functional shoe in the tarsometatarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints compared to a standard shoe (p<.05). CONCLUSION: Although clinical application of the specific functional shoe has shown clear positive effects on knee and ankle moments, the results of this study provide important background information regarding the kinematic mechanisms of these effects.
  • 14.

    Effects of Exercise Type on Neck Disability, Pain, and Postural Changes in Subjects with Forward Head Posture: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Jeong-Gon Na | Lee, Han-Suk | Sun-Wook Park | 2018, 13(3) | pp.121~132 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of type of exercise on neck disability, pain, and postural changes in subjects with forward head posture. METHODS: Two independent researchers conducted a search using KISS, RISS, DBpia (domestic), PubMed, OVID, and Science Direct (overseas) databases. We selected randomized controlled clinical trials by searching using the terms “forward head posture”, “exercise therapy”, and “therapeutic exercise”. Studies published from 2007 to December 2017 were included. PEDro Scale was used to evaluate the quality of the selected studies, and meta-analysis was conducted using the CMA program. This review was registered at PROSPERO (CRD42018068633). RESULTS: Of the total 13768 studies searched, 17 were selected. Positive effects on neck disability were achieved with the base and biomechanical elements (ES=1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] .49 to 2.75) as well as base, modulator, and biomechanical elements (ES=1.50, 95% [CI] .69 to 2.30). Neck pain improved with the base, modulator, and biomechanical elements (ES=1.96, 95% [CI] 1.08 to 2.82), while postural changes improved with biomechanical elements (ES=1.45, 95% [CI] .64 to 2.25). Additionally, type of exercise had a positive effect. CONCLUSION: The most effective exercises for neck disability are of the base and biomechanical elements, while the most effective types for neck pain are of the base, modulator, and biomechanical elements and the most effective exercise for posture is of biomechanical elements. Combined exercises targeting biomechanical elements were effective at treating disability, pain, and postural changes.
  • 15.

    Comparison of Subjects with and without Pes Planus during Short Foot Exercises by Measuring Muscular Activities of Ankle and Navicular Drop Height

    Du-Jin Park | Se-Yeon Park | 2018, 13(3) | pp.133~139 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: Despite the abundant literature available regarding the activity of intrinsic muscles, few studies have investigated the muscle activity of extrinsic muscles. Therefore, the present study compared the muscle activity of the peroneus longus, tibialis anterior, and abductor hallucis during short foot exercise in subjects with and without flat feet. METHODS: Twelve subjects with and without pes planus participated in this study. During the short foot exercises, muscular activity of the tibialis anterior, fibularis longus, and abductor hallucis longus were measured in both groups. To identify the effects of short foot exercises, navicular drop height was also investigated in pre and post short foot exercises. RESULTS: In a symptomatic group, the navicular drop height was significantly reduced at post measurement compared with pre-measurement. During the short foot exercise, the pes planus group showed significantly lower activities of the fibularis longus than the control group (p<.05). CONCLUSION: Similar to previous studies and clinical literature, short foot exercise was effective for alleviating navicular drop for a population with pes planus. In addition, subjects with pes planus showed decreased muscular activities of the fibularis longus, which suggests that considering extrinsic muscles such as fibularis longus is also important for rehabilitation of pes planus patients.
  • 16.

    Comprehensive Relevance of AMPK in Adaptive Responses of Physical Exercise, Skeletal Muscle and Neuromuscular Disorders

    Lee Jun-Ho | 2018, 13(3) | pp.141~150 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to understand the adaptive responses of different modes of physical exercises utilizing skeletal muscle and the comprehensive relevance of AMPK signaling that can be activated by physical exercise as a potential molecular target in human health problems such as neuromuscular disorders (NMDs). METHODS: Most of the contents in this review article are based on recent publications concerning the main topics of interest. The reference literatures cited were obtained by basic searches of overseas academic databases such as PubMed and ScienceDirect using EndNote X7.8. RESULTS: The phenotypic adaptive responses of skeletal muscle during endurance- and resistance-based exercise training (ET and RT respectively) appear to be distinct. To explain the adaptive responses in each single mode of exercises (ET, RT) along with combined exercise training (CT), AMPK signaling is proposed as an important molecular link among those differential modes of exercise and a promising molecular target of NMDs. CONCLUSION: Based on the available evidence, intracellular AMPK signaling activated by diverse stimuli including physical exercise can be a potential and promising therapeutic target for the prevention, amelioration or cure of various human health problems including NMDs and may also be beneficial for physical rehabilitation and emergency situations that may elicit acute metabolic stresses.