Korean | English

pISSN : 1975-311X / eISSN : 2287-7215

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 0.54
Home > Explore Content > All Issues > Article List

2019, Vol.14, No.2

  • 1.

    Comparison of the Effects of Different Adduction Loads on EMG Activities of Selected Shoulder Muscles During Shoulder External Rotation Exercise in Healthy Young People

    Cheng Peng | Bae chang hwan | Eun-Hong Choi and 1other persons | 2019, 14(2) | pp.1~7 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate effects of shoulder adduction load on rotator cuff muscles, including the infraspinatus, during the external rotation exercise of shoulder. METHODS: This study investigated 16 healthy university students from Daegu University. Before the study started, all participants understood the content of this study. They signed an informed consent form. Five electrodes for surface electromyography (sEMG) were attached to their infraspinatus, middle deltoid, posterior deltoid, upper trapezius and pectoralis major. The participants then underwent the shoulder external rotation exercise with the shoulder adduction at three loads (0 mmHg, 20 mmHg and 40 mmHg) that were controlled using a stabilizer Pressure Bio-feedback™ device. The surface electrodes recorded the electromyographic data during the external rotation exercise of shoulder. RESULTS: The infraspinatus was most activated when the shoulder adduction pressure was 40 mmHg during the external rotation exercise of shoulder. The infraspinatus activation significantly increased when the shoulder adduction pressure intensity increased, while the middle deltoid activation and the posterior deltoid activation significantly decreased (p<.05). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, increases in shoulder adduction load intensity during shoulder external rotation exercises can have a positive effect on the infraspinatus, which consists of rotator cuff muscles, with minimal activity in the middle and posterior deltoid.
  • 2.

    Effect of Modified Clamshell Exercise on Gluteus Medius, Quadratus Lumborum and Anterior Hip Flexor in Participants with Gluteus Medius Weakness

    Seom-Gyeul Jeong | Heon-seock Cynn | Ji-hyun Lee and 2other persons | 2019, 14(2) | pp.9~19 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study compared the effects of three different clamshell exercises (CLAM) on the gluteus medius (GMED), quadratus lumborum (QL), anterior hip flexor (AHF), gluteus medius/quadratus lumborum ratio, and gluteus medius/anterior hip flexor ratio by studying the activities of participants with GMED weakness. METHODS: Eleven subjects with weak GMED participated in this study. Subjects performed CLAM under three different conditions (standard, and modified 1 and 2). Surface electromyography was then used to measure the muscle activity and one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to assess the statistical significance of the measured variables. RESULTS: GMED and the QL muscle activities did not differ significantly between the standard CLAM and the modified CLAM with the 2 different foot positions (F=4.74, P=.02; F=4.57, P=.02, respectively). AHF activity was significantly different in the two different foot positions when compared to the standard CLAM (F=11.17, P=.00). However, there was no significant difference between the AHF activities for the two different foot positions (P=.09). Finally, GMED/QL and GMED/AHF ratios were not significantly different between the three different CLAM exercises (F= .63, P=.55; F=.82, P=.45, respectively). CONCLUSION: Modified CLAM can be recommended as a good method to minimize AHF activity while maintaining GMED activity in subjects with weak GMED.
  • 3.

    Effects of Standing Aids on Lumbar Spine Posture and Muscle Activity in the Lumbar Spine and Hip during Prolonged Standing

    Hyeon-jin Kim | Young-Eun Choi | 2019, 14(2) | pp.21~28 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to compare different standing postures with the use of standing aids for lumbar spine posture and muscle activity, and to identify the most desirable standing posture. METHODS: The lumbopelvic angle was assessed based on static radiographic measurement on the sagittal plane. Lumbar lordosis, lumbosacral lordosis, and the intervertebral joint angle at L1/L5 and L5/S1 were measured using radiography in three standing postures (standing on level ground, standing with one foot on a platform, and standing on a sloped surface). In addition, muscle activity was measured using surface electromyography to examine the co-contraction of the lumbar and hip muscles. RESULTS: Lumbar lordosis, lumbosacral lordosis, and L5/S1 intervertebral joint flexion occurred with one foot on the platform. No significant differences were found between standing on a sloped surface and standing on level ground. However, muscle co-contraction was reduced with the use of standing aids. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that standing with a foot on a platform induced lumbar lordosis, but that there was no significant difference between standing on a sloped surface and standing on level ground. However, muscle co-contraction was reduced with the use of standing aids. Based on the motor control pattern as a predictor of LBP, the use of standing aids would help workers during prolonged standing.
  • 4.

    Comparison of Sensorimotor Training using Chin-Tuck Exercise with Therapeutic Stretching Training on Neck Pain and Mobility in Individuals with Chronic Non-Specific Neck Pain: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    Kim Chang-Yong | Kim, Hyeong-Dong | 2019, 14(2) | pp.29~40 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: Despite the widespread occurrence in the general population, few studies have directly evaluated the effects of shingles on non-specific neck pain (NSNP). This study investigated whether sensory training or therapeutic stretching exercises are more effective in increasing neck mobility and reducing neck pain in chronic NSNP patients. METHODS: Eighty-one subjects aged between 20 and 32 years with chronic neck pain (> six months), were allocated randomly to three groups: sensorimotor training group (STG), therapeutic stretching group (TSG), and home exercise group (HEG). All participants received a half-hour training session, three times weekly for six weeks. The outcomes were evaluated using the neck disability index for measuring neck pain, and a universal goniometer to measure the cervical passive range of motion before and after the six-week intervention. RESULTS: The post-test neck disability index scores in the STG (t = 4.86) and TSG (t = 3.24) were decreased significantly (p < .05). The passive range of motion changes in all cervical movements in the STG was increased significantly (p < .05) after intervention compared to those in the other two groups. CONCLUSION: Sensorimotor training using chin tuck exercises may improve neck pain and mobility in subjects with chronic NSNP.
  • 5.

    Effects of Combined Functional Electrical Stimulation and Joint Mobilization on Muscle Activation and Mobility of Ankle Joints and Modified Functional Reach Test in Stroke Patients

    Su-Jin Kim | Ho-Hee Son | 2019, 14(2) | pp.41~51 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of combined Joint Mobilization and Functional Electrical Stimulation on Muscle Activation and Mobility of ankle joints in stroke patients and their Modified Functional Reach Test (MFRT) results. METHODS: A total of 26 patients with stroke were randomly selected for enrollment in this study. (1) Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) (2) combined Joint Mobilization and FES. An EMG system was used to measure tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius activities. Range Of Motion (ROM) of Ankle Joint and MFRT for Dynamic Balance. Pre and post intervention results were compared by paired-t-tests and differences in changes after intervention between groups were identified by the independent t-test. RESULTS: The muscle activation, ROM, and MFRT differed significantly in the experimental group (p<.05). The ROM was significantly different for the active dorsiflexion pre and post intervention in the group that received FES alone (p<.05). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest use of a systematic program of proactive posture control to prevent dysfunction when planning interventions for ankle joints can help stroke patients walk efficiently.
  • 6.

    Effects of Deep Cervical Flexor Exercise with Visual Guide on Muscle Activity and Craniovertebral Angle in Subjects with Forward Head Posture

    Kuk-kyung Son | Heon-seock Cynn | Ji-hyun Lee and 2other persons | 2019, 14(2) | pp.53~61 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: Forward head posture (FHP) is a head-on-trunk malalignment that results in musculoskeletal dysfunction and neck pain. To improve forward head posture, both the craniocervical flexion exercise (CCFE) and the visual guide (VG) technique have been used. This study compared the immediate effects of CCFE and VG combined with CCFE on craniovertebral angle (CVA), as well as on the activity of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and anterior scalene (AS) muscles during CCFE in subjects with FHP. METHODS: In total, 16 subjects (nine males, seven females) with FHP were recruited using the G-power software. Each subject conducted CCFE and CCFE combined with VG in random order. The CVA was recorded using a digital camera and the ImageJ image analysis software. The EMG data of SCM and AS were measured by surface electromyography. A paired T-test was used to assess differences between the effects of the CCFE and VG combined with CCFE interventions in the same group. RESULTS: The CVA was significantly greater for CCFE combined with the VG than for CCFE alone (p<.05). The activity of the SCM and AS muscles was also significantly greater when the VG was combined with CCFE than during CCFE alone across all craniocervical flexion exercise phases (p<.05). CONCLUSION: Use of the VG technique combined with CCFE improved FHP in subjects with FHP compared to CCFE alone.
  • 7.

    Induction of Myogenic Differentiation in Myoblasts by Electrical Stimulation

    Hyeonjeong, Je | Kim Min Gu | Cho, Il-Hoon and 1other persons | 2019, 14(2) | pp.63~70 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: While electrical stimulation (ES) is known to be a safe and flexible tool in rehabilitation therapy, it has had limited adoption in muscle regeneration. This study was performed to investigate whether ES can induce myogenic differentiation and to clarify the mechanism underlying the effects of ES on myogenic differentiation. METHODS: This study used rat L6 cell lines as myoblasts for myogenic differentiation. Electric stimulation was applied to the cells using a C-Pace EP culture pacer (IonOptix, Westwood, Ma, USA). The gene expressions of myogenic markers were examined using qPCR and immunochemistry. RESULTS: Our study showed that ES increased the thickness and length of myotubes during myogenic differentiation. It was found that ES increased the expression of myogenic markers, such as MyoD and Myogenin, and also activated the fusion of the myoblast cells. In addition, ES suppressed the expression of small GTPases, which can explain why ES promotes myogenic differentiation. CONCLUSION: We found that ES induced myogenic differentiation by suppressing small GTPases, inhibiting cell division. We suggest that ES-based therapies can contribute to the development of safe and efficient muscle regeneration.
  • 8.

    Comparison of Muscle Activation on Cervical and Lumbar Erector Spinae, and Upper Trapezius according to Sitting Postures while using a Smartphone in a Bathroom

    SEO JOON HO | Mi-Young Lee | Kwon, Hyeok-Gyu | 2019, 14(2) | pp.71~77 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the level of muscle activation on the cervical erector spinae (CES), lumbar erector spinae (LES), and upper trapezius (UT) according to the sitting postures while using a smartphone in the bathroom. Method: Thirty-two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. The CES, LES, and UT were evaluated by surface electromyography according to two sitting postures while using a smartphone on the toilet seat. A paired t test was performed for the root mean square of reference voluntary contraction (%RVC) comparisons between two sitting postures, and one-way ANOVA was used to compare the three muscle activations within each posture. Results: A comparison between the two sitting postures revealed the muscle activation of both CESs in sitting posture 2 and both LESs in sitting posture 1 to be significantly higher than those of the others. In sitting posture 1, the muscle activation of both LESs was significantly higher than those of the CES and UT. In sitting posture 2, the muscle activation of both CESs was significantly higher than those of the LES and UT. Conclusion: High muscle activation of the CES and LES was observed according to the sitting postures when using smartphone in the restroom. Therefore, long time use of smartphones on a toilet seat should be avoided.
  • 9.

    Finding Identity through Client Relationship Experience of Physical Therapists in Elderly Care Facilitie

    Hoong-Dae Kim | OH SE YOUNG | 2019, 14(2) | pp.79~88 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Purpose: This study was conducted to understand the client relationship experience of the physical therapists working at elderly care facilities and to lay the foundation for finding the identity of physical therapists. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted on eight incumbent physical therapists who had experienced working in elderly care facilities for at least one year. Data collection was conducted between June and September 2017, and the interview took an hour to an hour and a half to complete. After an in-depth interview, it was arranged as a file and analyzed according to the four steps of the phenomenological research method of the Giorgi. Results: Data were collected and analyzed; 19 categories, 6 themes and 5 domains were derived. Six themes were presented according to the 5 domains; the subject of relationships included ‘diversity elderly’; context of relationships included ‘the world of elderly nursing homes I did not know’; influence of relationships included ‘the physical therapist is heartbroken because of the tormenting elderly’; condition of relationships included ‘a reality that is tied to work’; aspects of relationships included ‘how to re-establishing relationships with the elderly’ and ‘recognized and identified as a physical therapist’. Conclusion: This study shows that physical therapists working in elderly care facilities generally tend to fulfill their responsibilities and interact with clients; we found that identity of physical therapists was primarily defined by relationship experiences with patients.
  • 10.

    Comparison of Task-oriented Balance Training on Stable and Unstable Surfaces for Fall Risk, Balance, and Gait Abilities of Patients with Stroke

    Kang Tae-Woo | Kim, Beom-Ryong | 2019, 14(2) | pp.89~95 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare task-oriented balance training on stable and unstable surfaces in terms of the fall risk, balance, and gait abilities in patients with stroke. METHODS: Twenty patients with stroke were divided randomly into a stable surface group (SSG, N=10) or unstable surface group (USG, N=10). The participants in the SSG and USG performed task-oriented balance training on stable and unstable surfaces, respectively. All participants were evaluated using the Tetrax, Berg balance scale (BBS), and 10-meter walking test (10MWT) before and after the intervention. Both groups received training 30 min per day, five times per week, for six weeks. RESULTS: The within-group changes in the fall risk, BBS, and 10MWT were significantly different in both USG and SSG (p<.05). USG showed significantly more improvement in the BBS and 10MWT compared to SSG (p<.05). CONCLUSION: Task-oriented balance training on an unstable surface is more beneficial in improving the balance and gait abilities of stroke patients.
  • 11.

    Predictors Related to Activity Performance of School Function Assessment in School-aged Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Kim, Won-ho | 2019, 14(2) | pp.97~105 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the factors related to school-based activity performance in school-aged children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: The Gross Motor Function Systems (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) as functional classifications, and the physical activity performance of the School Function Assessment (SFA) were measured in 79 children with spastic CP to assess the student’s performance of specific school-related functional activities. RESULTS: All the function classification systems were correlated significantly with the physical activity performance of the SFA (rs=-.47 to -.80) (p<.05). The MACS (β=-.59), GMFCS (β=-.23), CFCS (β=-.21), and age (β =-.15) in order were predictors of the physical activity performance of the SFA (84.8%)(p<.05). CONCLUSION: These functional classification systems can be used to predict the school-based activity performance in school-aged children with CP. In addition, they can contribute to the selection of areas for intensive interventions to improve the school-based activity performance.
  • 12.

    Effect of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Chopping Pattern on Neglect, Balance, and Activity of Daily Living of Stroke Patients with Hemi-Spatial Neglect: A randomized clinical trial

    Kang Tae-Woo | Kim, Beom-Ryong | 2019, 14(2) | pp.107~115 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of the chopping pattern of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on the neglect, balance ability, and activities of daily living in stroke patients with hemi-spatial neglect. METHODS: Twenty stroke patients with neglect volunteered for this study. The subjects were assigned randomly to either the experimental group (EG, n=10) or control group (CG, n=10). The chopping pattern of PNF and exercise therapy were applied in the EG and CG, respectively, for four weeks. Neglect, balance, and activities of daily living were evaluated at the pre-and post-intervention. The assessment tools included a line-bisection test, balance test using Space balance 3D, and modified Barthel index. The pre-and post-intervention values were compared in each group using a paired t-test and the between-group differences were assessed using an independent t-test. Statistical significance was set to α=.05 for all variables. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between the EG and CG in terms of neglect, balance, and activities of daily living (p<.05). Both groups showed significant improvement in neglect, balance, and activities of daily living (p<.05). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the chopping pattern of PNF is effective in improving the hemi-spatial neglect, balance, and activities of daily living in stroke patients with neglect
  • 13.

    Effects of Crocodile Breathing Exercise on Pain, Muscle Tone, and Muscle Stiffness in Patients with Non-specific Low Back Pain

    Yongho Cho | 2019, 14(2) | pp.117~124 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was to investigate the effects of crocodile breathing exercise on pain, muscle tone, and muscle stiffness of non-specific low back pain patients. METHODS: The subjects were 37 patients with nonspecific low back pain. The patients were divided into two groups. The experimental group (EG) performed crocodile breathing exercise and the control group (CG) performed chest expansion breathing exercise. The intervention was conducted for 10 minutes every day for a total of eight weeks. Pain was measured using a VAS. Muscle tone and stiffness were measured using Myoton PRO. Two points were measured for muscle tone and muscle stiffness. They were measured at 30mm from the spinous process of the L1 and T10 vertebra. RESULTS: Pain, muscle tone and muscle stiffness at the T10 level showed a significant decrease in both EG and CG. Muscle tone and muscle stiffness in the L1 level area decreased significantly in the experimental group but the control group did not show any difference. The only statistically significant difference was observed in the L1 muscle tone between the pre and post intervention values. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that Crocodile breathing is a good method for managing pain, muscle tone, and muscle stiffness in non-specific low back pain patients.
  • 14.

    Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Training on Abdominal Fat, Trunk Muscle Thickness and Activity in Middle-Aged Women with Abdominal Obesity

    Seung-A Yoo | Yoo, Kee-Ung | Chang-Ha Im and 2other persons | 2019, 14(2) | pp.125~135 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of low frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) training on abdominal obesity in middle-aged women through electromyography and ultrasound. METHODS: Twenty-two middle aged women with abdominal obesity participated in the study. A low-frequency NMES device was used on the abdomen and waist of each subject for 20 minutes each (a total of 40 minutes) three times a week for eight weeks. The waist-hip ratio (WHR), weight and BMI (Body Mass Index) were measured. Electromyography (EMG) and ultrasound measurements were performed three times in total (pre-intervention, four weeks into the intervention, and eight weeks post-intervention) to examine the effects of low-frequency NMES on the abdominal muscle activity, muscle thickness, and subcutaneous fat. RESULTS: The results indicated a difference in the WHR and waist circumference before and after intervention (p< .05). The external oblique muscle (EO) showed a significant increase in muscle activity during all measurements taken post-intervention (p<.05). The abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness also showed a significant decrease between each measurement (p<.05). The test results showed that the abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness values taken eight weeks post-intervention were significantly lower than those taken pre-intervention and four weeks into the intervention (p<.05). CONCLUSION: These findings show that low-frequency NMES device training can be applied to middle-aged women with abdominal obesity to improve their body shape and exercise performance.
  • 15.

    Correlation between Tone of Suboccipital Muscle and Endurance of Deep Neck Flexor Muscle according to Angle Changes in College Students

    Hee-ji Lee, | Yeon-soo Lee | Ji-young Jeong, and 1other persons | 2019, 14(2) | pp.137~144 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The continued use of smartphones has resulted in an abnormal body posture and neck alignment changes. Maintaining this posture for a long time weakens the flexor muscles in the neck and shortens the extensor muscles in the neck. This study examined the correlation between the suboccipital muscle tension and deep neck flexor muscle physical endurance according to the craniovertebral angles. METHODS: The craniovertebral angle, tension of the suboccipital muscle and endurance of the deep neck flexor muscle were measured in 58 healthy 20-year-old male and female college students. The tension of suboccipital muscle and endurance of the deep neck flexor muscle were then divided according to the body mass index (BMI). Their correlation with the craniovertebral angle was then examined. Each parameter was measured three times to determine the interrater reliability. RESULTS: The craniovertebral angle and suboccipital muscle tension showed differed significantly. On the other hand, the craniovertebral angle and deep neck flexor muscle physical endurance showed no significant differences. CONCLUSION: The results show that the craniovertebral angle and deep neck flexor muscle physical endurance were not correlated, but a smaller craniovertebral angle resulted in a higher suboccipital muscle tension.