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2019, Vol.14, No.3

  • 1.

    Comparison of the Changes in the Range of Motion on the Knee Joint According to the Contraction Intensity During Evjenth-Hamberg Stretching in Healthy Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study

    Do-Kwan Kim | Kim Chang-Yong | seo dong kwon and 1other persons | 2019, 14(3) | pp.1~11 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: This study compared the changes in the range of motion (ROM) on the knee joint according to three different isometric contraction intensities when applying Evjenth-Hamberg stretching (EHS) to the hamstring muscles of healthy subjects. METHODS: Forty eight healthy subjects aged between 20 and 39 years were allocated randomly to four groups; performing EHS at 10% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) group, EHS at 50% MVIC group, EHS at 100% MVIC group, and control group (CG) pre-, and post-intervention. The flexibility of the hamstring muscles was evaluated using a digital goniometer for measuring the knee joint ROM motion. A Chattanooga stabilizer was used to adjust the MVIC intensity by 10%, 50%, and 100%, respectively. RESULTS: These results show that the pre- and post-intervention knee joint ROM were significantly different in all four groups (p<.05). The post-intervention knee joint ROM showed a significant difference between the 100% MVIC group and non-MVIC group (p<.05). The knee joint ROM difference between the pre- and post-interventions was similar in the 10% MVIC and 50% MVIC groups but significant differences were observed among the other groups (p<.05). CONCLUSION: EHS of the hamstring muscles was effective in improving the knee joint ROM with an isometric contraction intensity of 10%, 50%, or 100% MVIC, and of these, 100% MVIC was most effective.
  • 2.

    The Effects of Sitting in a Crossed Legs Posture on the Vertebral Angle, Chest Wall Mobility, Pulmonary Function, and Respiratory Muscle Activity: A Preliminary Study

    Ahnheeeun | Tae-lim Yoon | 2019, 14(3) | pp.13~20 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: Sitting with crossed legs may have an effect on maintaining a healthy body posture and proper functioning of the respiratory system. Thus, this study’s objective was to identify whether or not sitting with crossed legs affects the vertebral angle, chest wall mobility, the pulmonary function, and the activity of the respiratory muscles. METHODS: Thirty healthy subjects were recruited for this study (16 males and 14 females). The vertebral angle, chest wall mobility, pulmonary function, and the activity of the respiratory muscle were measured while the subjects sat in the correct posture and these factors were again measured with the subjects seated with their legs crossed. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to determine the trunk and lumbar vertebral angles. Surface electromyography was employed to measure the sternocleidomastoid, the rectus abdominis, and the external and internal oblique abdominis muscles. A tapeline was utilized to evaluate the subjects’ chest wall mobility. Spirometry was assessed to determine the forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second. Paired t-tests were then performed (p<.05). RESULTS: There were significant differences in the trunk and lumbar flexion angles, the chest wall mobility, the activity of the right external oblique muscle, and the left internal oblique abdominis muscle. However, the difference in pulmonary function did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: A crossed leg posture caused slight thoracic extension and lumbar flexion, which may lead to a decrease of the chest wall mobility and also to an imbalance of the abdominal muscles. Therefore, sitting with a crossed leg posture should be avoided. Yet a crossed leg posture did not have any clinical effect on the pulmonary function of healthy people. It may be necessary to study the effects of sitting with crossed legs over an extended period of time for patients suffering with impaired respiratory function.
  • 3.

    Effects of Different Shoe Heel Heights on the Kinematic Variables of the Lower Extremities during Walking on Slopes by healthy adult women

    Yong-Pil Yang | 2019, 14(3) | pp.21~27 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: This study examined the changes in the kinematic variables during walking on a downhill ramp according to the shoe heel height. METHODS: The subjects were 10 adult women with no history of musculoskeletal disorders who agreed to participate in the study. Data were collected using a motion analysis system (VICON) consisting of six infrared cameras. The slope was 120 ㎝ in width, 200 ㎝ in length, and 15 in inclination. To confirm the change in gait parameters (stride length, gait speed) and lower extremity joint angle according to the heel heights of the shoes, flat, 5 ㎝, and 10 ㎝ heel shoes were prepared and walked alternately. RESULTS: As a result, both the stride length and walking speed showed significant differences according to the heel height between flat and 10 ㎝ (p<.05). In the sagittal plane, there was no significant difference in the hip joint and knee joint, but a significant difference was observed in all events in the ankle joint on all heel heights (p<.05). In particular, the heel strike and mid stance events showed significant differences among all height conditions (p<.05). No significant difference was observed in any of the joint angle changes in the frontal plane (p>.05). CONCLUSION: As the shoe heel height increased, the instability increased and efforts to secure the stability were made, leading to a shortened stride length, walking speed, and angle of the ankle joint.
  • 4.

    The Comparison of the Gluteus Maximus Activity during Various Prone Hip Extension in Subject with Chronic Low Back Pain

    Yoo-Hun Kwon | Heon-seock Cynn | Dong-Hwan Park and 3other persons | 2019, 14(3) | pp.29~37 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: Prone hip extension (PHE) has been used for assessment of lumbo-pelvic movement and strengthening exercise for weakness of the hip joint muscles in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). On the other hand, few studies have examined which are the best PHE exercises to activate the gluteus maximus (GM) selectively in physical therapy practice. To aim of this study compared the muscle activity of the GM, rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA) during these four different prone hip extensions, PHE, PHE with quadriceps activation (PHEQA), PHE with ankle dorsiflexion (PHEAD), and PHE with ankle plantarflexion (PHEAP), in subjects with CLBP. METHODS: Nineteen subjects with low back pain participated in this study. Subject performed four PHE exercises and surface electromyography (EMG) was used to evaluate the muscle activity. Data were analyzed by one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (α=.05/3=.017) and a Bonferroni adjustment was performed if a significant difference was found. RESULTS: The muscle activities recorded by EMG showed significant among the four exercises. The muscle activity of the GM increased significantly during PHEQA than during PHEAP (P=.012). CONCLUSION: PHEQA is the most effective exercise for eliciting greater GM muscle activation among the four PHE exercises in subjects with CLBP.
  • 5.

    Comparison of Muscle Activities of the Posterior Oblique Sling Muscles among Three Prone Hip Extension Exercises with and without Contraction of the Latissimus dorsi

    Dae-kwan Kang | YoungIn HWANG | 2019, 14(3) | pp.39~45 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: We investigated the most effective way to activate the posterior oblique sling muscles by performing prone hip extension exercises. METHODS: An electromyography system was used to measure the activation of the posterior oblique sling muscles (latissimus dorsi, gluteus maximus, multifidus, and biceps femoris) in three different prone hip extension exercises of in 12 healthy individuals (6 men and 6 women): 1) prone hip extension, 2) prone hip extension with internal rotation and extension of the arm, and 3) prone hip extension with internal rotation and extension of the arm with a 1-Ib dumbbell. RESULTS: The overall muscular activation of the posterior oblique sling muscles was more increased when performing 1) prone hip extension with internal rotation and 2) prone hip extension with internal rotation and extension of the arm with a 1-Ib dumbbell as compared with that during prone hip extension except for the biceps femoris activation. There was a statistically significant difference in the activities of the contralateral multifidi among all three exercises; of the ipsilateral multifidi in PHE1) prone hip extension alone, PHE2) prone hip extension with internal rotation and extension of the arm and PHE3) prone hip extension with internal rotation and extension of the arm with 1-Ib dumbbell; and of the ipsilateral gluteus maximus among all the prone hip extension exercises. There was no significant difference in the activity of the biceps femoris among the three exercises. CONCLUSION: Prone hip extension with internal rotation and with internal rotation and extension of the arm with 1-Ib dumbbell can activate the posterior oblique sling muscles and so prevent back pain in healthy people.
  • 6.

    Correlation between the Diaphragmatic Contraction Pressure and the Slow Vital Capacity

    Lee jae-seok | Han, Dong-wook | 강태욱 | 2019, 14(3) | pp.47~53 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: This study measured the external pressure on abdomen during maximal inspiration. The study determined the correlation between the diaphragmatic contraction pressure and the lung capacities to verify whether or not the measured pressure values can represent diaphragmatic contractility. METHODS: The study included 32 healthy subjects (16 males and 16 females). The researchers fabricated their own diaphragmatic pressure belt (DiP Belt) to measure DCP. DiP Belt device was fixed on the front of the abdomen and the diaphragmatic contractility was measured during maximal inspiration. The lung capacities were measured using a portable digital spirometer device (Pony Fx, COSMED, Italy). A digital spirometer is a device that is used to test the flow of air entering and exiting the lungs. RESULTS: DCP showed significant positive correlations with vital capacity (VC), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) and inspiratory capacity (IC). Among values of lung capacities, IC showed especially strong positive correlations with the DCP (r =.714, p<.010). For the males, DCP showed significant positive correlations with IRV and IC, and DCP showed significant negative correlation with the expiratory reserve volume (ERV). For the females, DCP showed significant positive correlation with tidal volume (VT), but any significant correlation was not found with any of the other values of lung capacities. CONCLUSION: DCP showed high correlations with IRV and IC associated with inspiratory capacity. Therefore, The DiP Belt can be looked upon as a simple device that is very useful for measuring diaphragmatic contractility.
  • 7.

    Text-Mining of Online Discourse to Characterize the Nature of Pain in Low Back Pain

    Young Uk Ryu | 2019, 14(3) | pp.55~62 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: Text-mining has been shown to be useful for understanding the clinical characteristics and patients’ concerns regarding a specific disease. Low back pain (LBP) is the most common disease in modern society and has a wide variety of causes and symptoms. On the other hand, it is difficult to understand the clinical characteristics and the needs as well as demands of patients with LBP because of the various clinical characteristics. This study examined online texts on LBP to determine of text-mining can help better understand general characteristics of LBP and its specific elements. METHODS: Online data from www.spine-health.com were used for text-mining. Keyword frequency analysis was performed first on the complete text of postings (full-text analysis). Only the sentences containing the highest frequency word, pain, were selected. Next, texts including the sentences were used to re-analyze the keyword frequency (pain-text analysis). RESULTS: Keyword frequency analysis showed that pain is of utmost concern. Full-text analysis was dominated by structural, pathological, and therapeutic words, whereas pain-text analysis was related mainly to the location and quality of the pain. CONCLUSION: The present study indicated that text-mining for a specific element (keyword) of a particular disease could enhance the understanding of the specific aspect of the disease. This suggests that a consideration of the text source is required when interpreting the results. Clinically, the present results suggest that clinicians pay more attention to the pain a patient is experiencing, and provide information based on medical knowledge.
  • 8.

    Effect of Coordinative Locomotor Training on Postural Imbalance and Gait in Children : A Single Subject Design

    Jeong-A Lee | Jin-Cheol Kim | 2019, 14(3) | pp.63~71 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: This study was examined the effects of coordinative locomotor training (CLT) on the postural imbalance and gait in children. METHODS: Four children were sampled as subjects. A single subject study (A-B-A’) was conducted by measuring the following: baseline five sessions;, intervention phase, 15 sessions;, and postline (A’) five sessions. The research period was eight weeks. The CLT program consisted of warming-up exercise, main exercise, and finishing exercise, and it was performed for one hour per day. A oneleg standing test (OLST) was performed determine the static balance. A functional reach test (FRT) was performed determine the reactionary balance. To determine the dynamic balance, the time up and go test (TUG) was performed. A 10m walking test (10 MWT) was performed to determine the walking ability. A statistical test was performed through descriptive statistics to present the average and standard deviation, and the variation rate was compared using a visual analysis method with graphs. RESULTS: As a result of CLT application, all four subjects improved the OLST, FRT, TUG, and 10 MWT compared to the intervention period baseline, and postline period. CONCLUSION: CLT appeared to improve the posture imbalance and gait in children.
  • 9.

    Correlation Analysis between Lumbar Instability Test Positive Response Number and Breathing Pattern Change Rate and Pain in Young Peoples with Chronic Low Back Pain

    Chul Ki | Nam Ki Won | 2019, 14(3) | pp.73~80 | number of Cited : 3
    PURPOSE: This study examined the correlation between the visual analog scale (VAS) and the rate of change in the respiration patterns according to the result of Lumbar Instability Tests (LITs) in young people with chronic low back pain (CLBP) METHODS: Thirty-six adults, aged 20-40 years with CLBP, participated in this study. The general characteristics and VAS of the participants were recorded by the subjects themselves and seven structure and functional LITs were conducted. According to the positive response number, the positive group was divided into four groups (group 1: n=8, group 2: n=9, group 3: n=10, group 4: n=9). The breathing pattern change tests were performed in three states: during forced breathing exercise and motor control tests. A total of 13 positive lists were set, each of which was scored by 1 or 2 points according to the severity. After the positive lists were scored, the breathing pattern changing rate (BPCR) and VAS were compared according to the positive response number of LITs, and the correlation between them was analyzed. RESULTS: A strong correlation was observed between the number of positive of LITs and BPCR (r= .863, p= .000) and a moderate correlation between the positive number of LITs and VAS (r= .508, p= .002). In addition, there was a poor correlation between the BPCR and VAS (r= .434, p= .008). CONCLUSION: In young CLBP people, when the structural and functional instability are both present, the changes in the respiratory pattern of the whole body can be varied and broader, and the pain scale also increases.
  • 10.

    Effects of Frequency-Dependent Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on The Respiratory Strength, Quadriceps Muscle Activity and Quality of Life in Patients with Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Kang Jeong Il | Jeong Dae Keun | Jun-Su Park | 2019, 14(3) | pp.81~89 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: To solve the problems of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients complaining of muscle fatigue and having limited motor abilities, this study provided the clinical basic data for pulmonary rehabilitation by examining the effects of High·Low-Frequency Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) on the respiratory muscle strength, quadriceps muscle activity, and life quality. METHODS: Samples were collected from 20 COPD patients and placed randomly in a low-frequency group (n=10) and high-frequency group (n=10). For a pretest, the respiratory muscle strength (MIP, MEP), quadriceps muscle activity (LF, VM, VL), and life quality (SGRQ) were measured. After applying NMES to each group for 30 minutes at a time, five times a week, for four weeks, a posttest was conducted in the same way as the pretest. RESULTS: Both groups showed significant differences in the respiratory muscle strength, quadriceps muscle activity, and quality of life within the groups and there were significant differences in the quadriceps muscle activity between the groups. CONCLUSION: The four-weeks NMES positively influenced the respiratory muscle strength and life quality by enhancing the function of the quadriceps and exercise tolerance. In particular, high-frequency(75 ㎐) NMES was more effective than low-frequency (15 ㎐) NMES. This result can be an alternative means to improve the physical functions of COPD patients clinically in the future.
  • 11.

    Effects of Breathing Exercise in the Water on Pulmonary Function and Maximum Phonation Time of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Je-Wook Lee, | KAK HWANGBO | 2019, 14(3) | pp.91~107 | number of Cited : 1
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of breathing exercise in the water on the pulmonary function and maximum phonation time in children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: The subjects were 24 children with cerebral palsy at GMFCS levels Ⅰ-Ⅲ, who were allocated randomly to either the aquatic breathing exercise group or general breathing exercise group 12 subjects per group. Each subject was required to complete 40 minutes of exercise twice a week for eight weeks. Those in the aquatic breathing exercise group performed aquatic breathing exercise, whereas those in the general breathing exercise group performed general aquatic exercise. RESULTS: Significant differences in FEV₁, PEF, VC, TV, ERV, and maximum phonation time were observed in the aquatic breathing exercise group after intervention, but there were no significant differences in either FVC, FEV₁/FVC, IC, or IRV. In the general breathing exercise group, there were no significant differences in the FVC, FEV₁, FEV₁/FVC, PEF, VC, IC, TV, IRV, ERV, and maximum phonation time after intervention. In terms of the pulmonary function, the two groups showed a significant difference in the change in FEV₁, PEF, and TV after intervention, but not in the FVC, FEV₁ /FVC, VC, IC, ERV, IRV, and maximum phonation time. CONCLUSION: These results above show that aquatic breathing exercise training in water is more effective in improving the pulmonary function than general breathing exercise training.
  • 12.

    Effect of an Active Tailored Exercise Program on Pain and Oswestry Disability Index in Automobile Manufacturing Workers with Musculoskeletal Symptoms of the Low Back

    Kim, Won-ho | 2019, 14(3) | pp.109~116 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of an active tailored exercise program on pain and the Oswestry disability index (ODI) among workers with musculoskeletal symptoms of the lower back in an automobile parts manufacturing company. METHODS: Twenty-two workers with musculoskeletal symptoms of the lower back were included in the study. The experimental group was composed of 15 workers and a control group of seven workers. The experimental group was provided an active tailored exercise program and education on the risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders. The control group was only provided ergonomic education. The exercise program, which consisted of movement pattern correction, muscle stretching and strengthening, and postural correction exercises, was applied twice a week for two months for one hour a day. Pain, which was determined using a visual analogue scale (VAS), and the ODI were measured before and after exercise. RESULTS: After applying the exercise program for two months, the VAS and ODI of the experimental group were significantly lower than those of the control group (p<.05). In the experimental group, the VAS decreased significantly after one month (p<0.05), and the ODI decreased significantly after two months (p<.05). CONCLUSION: Because active tailored exercise programs are effective in improving the pain and disability indices, it is necessary to actively implement such programs among manufacturing workers with musculoskeletal symptoms of the lower back.
  • 13.

    Effects of a Horse Riding Simulator, Gym-ball and McKenzie Exercises on Back Pain and Balance in Patients with Chronic Back Pain in Their 20s

    Jong-Won Choi | Min-Young Kim | Sung-Hwa Kim⋅ and 6other persons | 2019, 14(3) | pp.117~126 | number of Cited : 1
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of a horse riding simulator, gym ball, and McKenzie exercises on back pain and static balance. METHODS: Among 30 participants with chronic back pain and more than 5 points of ODI, 28 participants were selected. Groups of performing either horse riding, gym ball, or McKenzie were chosen randomly to work out two times a week for six weeks. The static balance was measured using a gym plate and the degree of pain was measured by the VAS and K-ODI. RESULTS: When each exercise was applied to back pain patients, the VAS was changed in all three groups but only in the gym-ball exercise group. The K-ODI varied in all three groups but not in the gym-ball exercise group, In the anterior - posterior static balance, all three groups showed changes, but only the riding exercise group was not significant. In the left-right static balance, all three groups were significant. CONCLUSION: This study showed that six-week exercise for back pain patients was effective in improving back pain and balance ability. Continuous exercise minimizes the risk of recurrence and is effective in preventing and treating back pain.
  • 14.

    Effects of Fatigue in the Non-paretic Plantarflexor on the Activities of the Lower Leg Muscles during Walking in Chronic Stroke Patients

    Jae-Woong Lee | Koo Hyun-mo | 2019, 14(3) | pp.127~133 | number of Cited : 0
    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to obtain detailed and quantified data concerning the effects of plantarflexor fatigue induced to the non-paretic side on muscle activities of the bilateral lower extremities during walking in chronic stroke patients. METHODS: In this study, chronic stroke patients were evaluated for six months after the onset of stroke. To induce the non-paretic plantarflexor fatigue, 20 chronic stroke patients were asked to perform their given fatigue affecting assignments, which were presented in a forced contraction fatigue test method, until the range of motion of the plantarflexor was reduced to less than 50%. The muscle activities of the rectus femoris, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius in the paretic and non-paretic lower extremities were measured using a wireless surface EMG before and after muscle fatigue induction. RESULTS: The findings showed that after plantarflexor fatigue was induced on the non-paretic side, a significant decrease in muscle activities of the rectus femoris on the paretic side was noted (p<.05). The muscle activities of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius were also observed to decrease, but, these results were not statistically significant (p>.05). In the non-paretic side, there was a significantly decrease in the muscle activities of the rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius (p<.05). CONCLUSION: These finding suggest that the muscle fatigue of the non-paretic plantarflexor affects not only the muscle activity of the ipsilateral lower extremity but also the muscles activity of the contralateral lower extremity. This highlights the necessity of performing exercise or training programs that do not cause muscle fatigue in clinical aspects.
  • 15.

    Correlation Analysis of Sports injuries and Body Composition and Bone Density in National Water Pool Players

    Hyun-Chul Kim | Park Ki Jun | 2019, 14(3) | pp.134~141 | number of Cited : 6
    PURPOSE: This study conducted aA forward-looking study of elite water polo athletes, who trained at National Training Center, was conducted to determine the correlation between the incidence of sports injuries and the bone density among national water polo players. METHODS: Data on the general characteristics of all study subjects were analyszed usingin descriptive statistics. The incidence of sports injuries was calculated from the incidence of sports injuries per 1,000 hours and the incidence of sports injuries resulting from exposure to 1,000 training sessions. The incidence of all sports injuries was calculated with a 95% confidence interval. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation was calculated conducted to determine the correlation between sports injuries and bone density, bone mass and body composition. RESULTS: Water polo athletes suffered a total of 127 sports injuries in the three-year period, while the athletes suffered 3.5 sports injuries each year. The Ooverall injury rate of 3.2(95% CI 2.68-3.81) per 1,000h, 18.0(15% CI 14.89-21.16) of sports injuries per 1,000AE. For all athletes, 50.4% of the injuries were classified as mild, followed by moderate (26.8%) and severe (22.8%). The lower the bone density in all areas of sports injuries, the higher the incidence of sports injuries. In addition, and the lower the bone mass in all areas except for light injuries, the higher the incidence of sports injuries. CONCLUSION: In tThe correlation between sports injuries and bone density and bone composition of water polo athletes, revealed a significant correlation between the bone density and bone mass were statistically significant, and the lower the bone density and bone mass, the higher the incidence of sports injuries.