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2019, Vol.14, No.4

  • 1.

    Comparison of Knee Muscle Strength and Endurance of Affected Legs of Korean Women Diagnosed with Kellgren-Lawrence grade (K-L II) by Age

    Soung-Kyun Hong | Lee Dong Geon | Sun-Hae Song and 2other persons | 2019, 14(4) | pp.1~8 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the maximum knee strength and endurance of elderly Korean women with Kellgren-Lawrence grade (K-L II) by age. METHODS: In this study, the total number of participants was 50, divided into five groups of 10 by age. Maximum knee muscle strength was measured at a low speed of 60°/sec using Biodex, an isokinetic device for comparison of maximum knee muscle strength, whereas muscle endurance was measured by muscle contraction at a high speed of 180°/sec. The peak torque values of the extensor and flexor muscles in the muscle strength and muscle endurance tests were collected according to each classification. RESULTS: The results of the experiment show that maximum muscle strength and muscle endurance decreased significantly at 60°/sec and 180°/sec during flexion and extension according to age (p<.05). In particular, the age group of 71 to 75 years showed the most significant correlation with other age groups (p<.05). CONCLUSION: The results of this study can be used as basic data for increasing physical activity and muscle strength in women with knee osteoarthritis.
  • 2.

    Correlations between Foot Sensory Impairment, Timed Up and Go Test and Berg Balance Scale, and Mental Activities for Prevention of Falling in Elderly People

    Lee young-ho | Seon-Jung Jang | Gi-Beom Kang and 2other persons | 2019, 14(4) | pp.9~17 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This research was designed to study the correlations between physical activities such as foot sensory impairment, balance and ambulatory abilities, as well as fall risk factors and mental activities such as cognitive performance and depression in order to provide fundamental data for the prevention of falling in the elderly. METHODS: A total of 36 elderly people over the age of 65 years who voluntarily joined the research were selected as subjects. Sensory perception in both feet was measured by using a monofilament in 10 parts with each part given one point. The points for each foot were integrated to analyze the correlations between physical and mental activities indices, and the results were analyzed by using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. RESULTS: The results of this research show that the extent to which senses in feet were impaired was correlated to TUG, a functional activity index involved in tranfers, gait, and turning movements, which was correlated to BBS (balance index) as well as MMSE-K and K-GDS (mental activities index). BBS was interrelated to FES-K (physical activities index) and MMSE-K. The muscular strength of the right ankle dorsiflexor had mutual relations with FES-K. CONCLUSION: The results of this research indicate that TUG is widely correlated to foot sensory impairment as well as general physical and mental activities in elderly people. BBS was also shown to be correlated with TUG, FES-K, and MMSE-K. Thus, it might be necessary that TUG and BBS be included as two items in physical and mental check-ups for the elderly, and further studies on correlations using evaluation items for physical and mental activities should lead to the simplification of the evaluation criteria.
  • 3.

    Immediate Effect of Intermittent Versus Continuous Hamstring Static Stretching on the Muscle Tone and Range of Motion

    Jin-Gyi Chen | Eun-Hong Choi | Kim Meung Kwon | 2019, 14(4) | pp.19~27 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined which stretching exercise had the most positive effect on increasing the range of motion (ROM) of the knee joint in healthy people and whether there was a difference between continuous stretching and intermittent stretching. METHODS: This study included 30 healthy university students from OOO University. The subjects were asked to sit on a mat and perform hamstring-stretching exercise during which the ROM and muscle tone were measured with pre and post-tests. Each subject was assigned randomly to a continuous stretching group (stretching without relaxation time group, n=10, G1) or intermittent stretching group (stretching with 10s relaxing time group, n=10, G2; and stretching with 20s relaxing time group, n=10, G3). The participants conducted hamstring stretching exercises with a sit-and-reach box at three different rest times (0s, 10s, and 20s). Subsequently, they underwent passive knee extension (PKE) tests, in which the ROM of the knee joint was measured with a goniometer, and the muscle tone was evaluated using a MyotonPro. RESULTS: Significant differences in muscle tone, stiffness, and ROM were observed between pre-test and post-test in each groups (p<.05). Although the post hoc tests indicated no significant differences in muscle tone and ROM between the continuous stretching group and intermittent stretching group (p>.05), the rate of change of the ROM showed that the intermittent stretching group developed more effective maintenance of the hamstring flexibility. CONCLUSION: No significant differences in the muscle tone of the hamstring and ROM of the knee joint were observed according to the hamstring stretching exercises with three different rest times. On the other hand, the rate of change of the ROM showed that intermittent stretching maintained the hamstring flexibility more effectively.
  • 4.

    Effects of a Five Times Sit to Stand Test on the Daily Life Independence of Korean Elderly and Cut-Off Analysis

    Nam Seung Min | Kim Seong Gil | 2019, 14(4) | pp.29~35 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to provide the standard value of the Five Times Sit to Stand Test (FTSST) measurement on the daily life independence of the elderly in Korea and examine the effects of this test on their daily lives. METHODS: This study was conducted on elderly people over 65 years of age living in Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea. FTSST was performed while sitting position on a chair. The subjects were classified into independent and dependent living groups according to their lifestyle, and their influence was then examined through logistic regression analysis. To determine the usefulness and cut-off value of the FTSST, the analysis was performed using the ROC curve. RESULTS: The elderly were more likely to live in a group rather than independently as the FTSST time increased (p<.05) (OR=1.098). The area of the lower part of the ROC curve was .707, and as the FTSST increased, a subject was more likely to live in a group rather than independently (p<.05). The cut-off value was assigned to the point where both the specificity and sensitivity were at the coordinates. The sensitivity and specificity were .626 and .753, respectively at 15.62 seconds. CONCLUSION: The elderly in Korea are more likely to live a group-dependent lifestyle than live independently; the likelihood of this outcome is increased further for every additional second beyond 15.62 seconds. The loss of independence of daily life could be predicted based on the status of a subject's lower leg strength using the FTSST.
  • 5.

    Comparison of Sitting Balance and Coordination in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy Using the Korean Version of Trunk Impairment Scale (K-TIS)

    Jung, Hyerim | Young-Eun Choi | 2019, 14(4) | pp.37~44 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare sitting balance and coordination spastic cerebral palsy in children using the Korean version of Trunk Impairment Scale (K-TIS) as well as to provide basic data about effective postural control treatment for clinicians handling these two types. METHODS: The K-TIS was measured in 29 children diagnosed with diplegic and quadriplegic cerebral palsy (18 with diplegia and 11 with quadriplegia). The average and standard scores of the children’s K-TIS subscales and items of the two groups were measured. The two groups’ subscales and items were analyzed by using the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: Static sitting balance, dynamic sitting balance, coordination, and total score for children with diplegia were statistically high (p<.05). For all items under static sitting balance, the score for children with diplegia was higher. The first differences in the repeated items of dynamic sitting balance and coordination area that rotates between the upper and lower body were presented. CONCLUSION: The difference in balance and coordination in sitting positions is exhibited in children with diplegia and quadriplegia. For children with spastic quadriplegia, treatments should focus on static sitting balance and coordination, together with a focus on dynamic sitting balance and coordination.
  • 6.

    Comparison of Trunk Control on Gross Motor Function and Topography in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Young-Eun Choi | Jung, Hyerim | Kim Jihye | 2019, 14(4) | pp.45~53 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the differences in the trunk impairment scores according to the levels of the gross motor classification system by evaluating trunk control in children with spastic cerebral palsy using the index of trunk impairment. In addition, the characteristics of trunk control disabilities were investigated according to the cerebral palsy type. METHODS: The subjects were 49 children (mean age 8.57±1.83 years, 11 with hemiplegia, 26 with diplegia, and 12 with quadriplegia) with spastic cerebral palsy levels Ⅰ to Ⅳ under the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS). The coordination and balance of the children with cerebral palsy were evaluated using the index for trunk impairment. Statistical analyses were performed using a Kruskal-Wallis test, and Bonferroni analyses were used as a post-hoc comparison for any significant results. RESULTS: The median of the total scores of trunk impairment was 13 (range, 9-17), which was 56% of the maximum score. The total score of trunk impairment and subscales differed significantly according to the disease severity and type of motor disability. The scores for children with quadriplegia were the lowest compared to children with hemiplegia and diplegia. CONCLUSION: Trunk control function in children with spastic cerebral palsy was reduced, and varied according to the disease severity and types of motor disabilities. The degree of trunk impairment differed from the trunk control ability according to the degree of motor disability of children with cerebral palsy.
  • 7.

    Characteristics of Muscle Activity in the Lower Extremity during Stepping over Various Obstacle

    Lee, Han-Suk | Seung-Beom Hong | Ha-Nul Chin and 3other persons | 2019, 14(4) | pp.55~62 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the muscle activity while stepping over obstacles with various heights and widths to provide basic data for training and preventing falls. METHODS: Fifteen normal young adults (seven males and eight females) were recruited. The participants walked on a 5m walkway with six obstacles. The heights of obstacles were 0%, 10%, and 40% of the subject's leg length, and the width of the obstacles was 7cm and 14cm. The participants traversed the course twice per obstacle. The muscle activities of the soleus, tibialis anterior (TA), vastus medialis (VM), and vastus lateralis (VL) were measured using surface electromyography. A Mann-Whitney test and Kruskal- Wallis test were used to examine the differences between obstacles. RESULTS: The muscle activities of the VL and the soleus of the stance leg and lead leg after crossing over the obstacles increased with increasing width, and there were significant differences in muscle activities between obstacle width (p<.05) except for the muscle activity of TA of the stance leg after crossing over the obstacles. A significant difference in muscle activities was observed according to the height of the obstacles with 14 cm (p<.05) except for the muscle activity of the VL, soleus of the leading leg, and TA of the stance leg. CONCLUSION: The role of the VL and Soleus increased with increasing obstacle width, and the overall muscle activities of the lower extremities increased with increasing obstacle height. These results can be used to suggest a program to prevent falls.
  • 8.

    Effects of Cross Training with Bilateral Ankle Dorsiflexor Strengthening Exercise on the Muscle Activity of the Paralytic Tibialis Anterior, Balancing Ability, and Gait Function in Patients with Chronic Stroke: A Preliminary Randomized, Controlled Study

    Sung-Chan Park, | Jun-Nam Ryu | Jae-Man Park and 3other persons | 2019, 14(4) | pp.63~70 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of bilateral ankle dorsiflexors-strengthening exercise on the paralytic tibialis anterior activity, balance ability, and gait function of patients with chronic stroke. METHODS: Nineteen patients with chronic stroke were assigned randomly to the experimental and control groups. All participants received general physical therapy for 60-minutes per session, five times a week, for 6 weeks. In addition, the experimental group (n = 9) performed bilateral ankle dorsiflexion muscle-strengthening training three times a week, 30 minutes per session, for six weeks. The control group (n=10) performed the paraplegic ankle dorsiflexion muscle- strengthening training in the same manner. Before and after the intervention, the paralytic tibialis anterior muscle activity, timed up and go test (TUG), and 10m walking test (10 MWT) were performed. RESULTS: Both groups showed significant improvement in the post-intervention muscle activity of the paralytic tibialis anterior, TUG, and 10MWT compared to that before the intervention (p<.05), but the differences between the two groups were not significant (p >.05). CONCLUSION: Bilateral ankle dorsiflexors strengthening exercise is an effective cross-training method to improve the muscle activity of the paraplegic tibialis anterior, balance ability, and walking function in chronic stroke patients.
  • 9.

    Changes in Body Function, Activity and Participation Following Task-oriented Training in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Hye-Yun Yang | Kang, Soon-hee | 2019, 14(4) | pp.71~80 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined whether a task-oriented training program is an effective intervention to improve the body function, activity, and participation of children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Ten children with CP (7-13 years old) performed a task-oriented training program for eight weeks (three sessions per week, 30 minutes each). The task- oriented training program consisted of eight activities. The subjects’ body function was assessed using a handheld dynamometer, goniometer, Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Balance Performance Monitor (BPM), and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP). The subjects’ activity and participation were assessed using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. RESULTS: Task-oriented training provided significant improvements in the subjects’ body function. The subjects improved the bilateral isometric muscle strength of the hip flexors, extensors and abductors, knee flexors and extensors, and ankle dorsi- and plantar flexors (p<.05). Bilateral passive hip flexion, abduction, and external rotation, knee flexion, and ankle dorsi- and plantar flexion were also increased (p<.05). In addition, the MAS score of the hip adductors decreased (p<.05) and the BOTMP score increased after training (p<.05). The subjects’ activity and participation also improved significantly after training, increasing the GMFM score (p<.05) and decreasing the TUG score (p<.05). On the other hand, the BPM score did not change after training. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that a task-oriented training program can be an effective intervention to improve the body function, activity, and participation for children with CP.
  • 10.

    The Effects of Kinesiology Taping and Pectoralis Minor Self-Stretching on Posture Change and muscle tone in Adults with Rounded Shoulder Posture

    Sang-Jun Ahn | Eun-Hong Choi | Kim Meung Kwon | 2019, 14(4) | pp.81~91 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of Kinesiology taping followed by pectoralis minor muscle self-stretching on the rounded shoulder posture, neck range of motion, and upper trapezius muscle tone in subjects with a rounded shoulder posture. METHODS: Thirty adults with a rounded shoulder posture were assigned randomly to one of two groups, either one that only performed pectoralis minor muscle self-stretching or a group that performed pectoralis minor muscle self-stretching after applying Kinesiology taping ; the subjects underwent four weeks of intervention. Three rounds of intervention were carried out over four weeks, and before and after the experiment, rounded shoulder posture, neck range of motion, and upper trapezius muscle tone creep were measured. RESULTS: Following the interventions, both the experimental and control groups showed significant improvement in the rounded shoulder posture, neck range of motion, upper trapezius muscle tone, stiffness, relaxation, and creep. Significant differences in the post training gains in the rounded shoulder posture and neck range of motion were observed between the experimental and control groups CONCLUSION: These results showed that a combination of Kinesiology taping and pectoralis minor muscle self-s tretching led to more significant improvement than that seen when only utilizing the application of pectoralis minor muscle self-stretching to change the posture of the subjects with a rounded shoulder posture.
  • 11.

    Effects of McKenzie Exercise on the Neck Muscles Fatigue, and Neck Disability Index in Chronic Neck Pain Patients

    Kang Jeong Il | Seung-Yun Baek | Jeong Dae Keun | 2019, 14(4) | pp.93~101 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study tries attempted to provide basic clinical data to reduce pain and improve function by comparing the muscle fatigue of the superficial neck muscles and neck disability index (NDI) by performing McKenzie exercise or passive stretching exercise for chronic neck pain patients. METHODS: Sixteen chronic neck pain patients were selected and divided into the McKenzie group (n=8) and passive stretching group (n=8). The intervention program was performed three times a week for four weeks. The time for one exercise was 30 minutes. Before the intervention, the muscle fatigue the superficial neck muscles and NDI were measured. They were measured again after four weeks using the same method. RESULTS: The median frequency of the superficial neck muscles increased significantly in the McKenzie group and passive stretching group (p<.05). The NDI of both the McKenzie group and the passive stretching group decreased significantly. A comparison of the groups, revealed a significant difference in only the median frequency values of the upper trapezius muscle and splenius capitis muscle (p<.05). The NDI values of both groups were similar. CONCLUSION: Both McKenzie exercise and passive stretching exercises showed a significant difference in the degree of fatigue and NDI. McKenzie exercise delayed the replace of the fast twitch fibers which helped improve the muscle fatigue of the upper trapezius muscle and splenius capitis muscle. On the other hand, additional studies applying more variables for the muscle function to improve the symptom of chronic neck pain patients will be needed.
  • 12.

    The Effect of Virtual Reality-Based Exercise Program on Balance, Gait, and Falls Efficacy in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    Yong-Gyun Kim | Kang, Soon-hee | 2019, 14(4) | pp.103~113 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if virtual reality-based exercise was effective in balance, gait, and falls efficacy in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). METHODS: Thirty patients with PD were assigned randomly to the experimental (n=15) or control groups (n=15). The experimental group performed virtual reality- based exercise and the control group underwent conventional physical therapy for 30minutes, five times per week for four weeks. A force platform system, the Korean version of the Berg Balance Scale (K-BBS), the six-minute walking test (6MWT), and the Korean Version of the Falls Efficacy Scale (K-FES) were used to evaluate balance, gait, and falls efficacy. Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to examine the within- and between-group differences after training, respectively. RESULTS: Changes in the K-BBS score (p<.001) and fall efficacy (p<.01), following the intervention were significantly greater in the experimental group than in the control group whereas significant group difference were not observed for the anterior-posterior and mediolateral postural sway lengths. The change in the ground reaction force (p<.001) and 6MWT values (p<.05) were significantly greater after intervention in patients in the experimental group than in the control group, whereas a significant group difference was not observed for the step and stride lengths. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that virtual reality- based exercise is an effective intervention for improving balance, gait, and fall efficacy in patients with PD.
  • 13.

    Cognition and Upper-extremity Function Influence on Performance of Activities of Daily Living in Patients with Chronic Stroke

    Hyo-Lyun Roh | Chan-Woo Kim | 2019, 14(4) | pp.115~123 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study compared the scores of the Mini- Mental State Examination-Korean version (MMSE-K) and Korean version Montreal Cognitive Assessment (K-MOCA), which assess cognitive function, the Fugl- Meyer Upper-Extremity Assessment (FMA), which assess the upper extremity function; and Modified Barthel Index (MBI), which that assesses activities of daily living among patients receiving inpatient treatment following a diagnosis of stroke to determine the correlations among MMSE-K, K-MOCA, FMA, and MBI. METHODS: The study assessed the cognitive function using the MMSE-K and K-MOCA, upper extremity function using FMA, and activities of daily living using MBI. The data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: An analysis of the differences in the MMSE-K, K-MOCA, MBI, and FMA scores according to the affected side, revealed differences in the, K-MOCA scores according to the affected side, where patients with right hemiplegia showed better cognitive function (p <.05). Correlation analysis among MMSE-K, K-MOCA, FMA, and MBI Showed significant correlations (p <.05). The results indicate that those with higher cognitive and upper extremity functions had higher performance of activities of daily living. CONCLUSION: The cognitive and upper extremity functions were correlated with the activities of daily living in stroke patients. Accordingly, applying physical therapy with a focus on improving the cognitive function and training activities of daily living could assist in the functional recovery of stroke patients significantly.
  • 14.

    Effects of Activity Restriction on Depression and Quality of Life in Stroke Patients using Logistic Regression Analysis

    Lee, Do-Youn | Nam Seung Min | 2019, 14(4) | pp.125~132 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to help physical therapists involved in rehabilitation in the direction of clinical intervention in the treatment of stroke patients by understanding how an activity restriction of stroke patients affects depression and the quality of life associated with health. METHODS: This study assessed 404 stroke patients from the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. The subjects were divided into two categories: activity restriction and non-activity restriction. The variables used in this study were depression diagnosed by a doctor and EQ-5D, which evaluates the quality of life. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratios associations of activity restriction with depression and the quality of life in stroke patients. RESULTS: The diagnosis of depression with an activity restriction was 11.2%, while 4.8% of those with non-activity restrictions were diagnosed with depression (p<.05), and the EQ-5D index of was .68±.03, .88±.01(p<.05). The odds ratio for depression with an activity restriction was 3.37 (95% CI, 1.49-7.63) compared to the non-activity restriction. A statistically significant difference in the odds ratio was observed for each item in the EQ-5D. CONCLUSION: Activity restriction in stroke patients increases the probability of depression, and reduces the quality of life significantly. The treatment for stroke patients should be approached, taking psychological factors into account. In addition, rehabilitation programs that can be performed systematically and continuously are deemed necessary.
  • 15.

    Effects of Physical Activity on the Heart Rate Variability and Fitness in Older Female Adults

    Hyun-Tae OK | Joo Kee Chan | 2019, 14(4) | pp.133~142 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effectiveness of an active lifestyle on the HRV and fitness of the older female adults. METHODS: Eighty female older adults (72.68±3.78 years) were sampled from a senior wellness institute. Accelerometers were distributed to each participant to have the device attached to them for one week, and the physical activity data (Energy expenditure in Kcal) of each participant were analyzed. Participants were divided into 3 groups (<1,000 Kcal vs 1,000 to 1,500 Kcal vs ≥1,500 Kcal) based on the amount of weekly physical activity. Before and after data analysis, the HRV was measured at resting state and the Senior Fitness Test was performed. RESULTS: One way ANOVA showed a significant difference in the HRV between the three groups. Group A (≥ 1,500 Kcal) was superior in HF and HF/HF + LF whereas Group C (<1,000 Kcal) showed high level of LF, LF/HF, and LF/HF+LF. The same statistics revealed significant differences in fitness. Most of the fitness variables were superior in Group A and B compared to Group C. Significant correlations were observed between physical activity and both HRV and in fitness. CONCLUSION: Theses results suggest that an active lifestyle may be an effective intervention for the prevention of both cardiometabolic disorder and improvement of the fitness level in older female adults.
  • 16.

    Effects of Music-based Sling Exercise Program on Cognition, Walking, and Functional Mobility in Elderly with Dementia: Single-blinded, Randomized Controlled Trial

    Hyun-Ju Park | Kang Tae-Woo | Duck-won Oh | 2019, 14(4) | pp.143~152 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This examined the effects of a sling exercise based on music on the cognition, physical performance of patients with dementia. METHODS: Thirty subjects with dementia volunteered to participate in this study. All subjects were allocated randomly to either the experimental group or control group, with 15 subjects in each group. All subjects underwent the exercise program for an average of 60 minutes per day for 16 weeks. The experimental group performed sling exercise based on music, and the control group performed the general exercise program. Assessments were made using the Korean version of mini-mental state examination (MMSE-K), 10 m walk test (10MWT), Tinetti mobility test (TMT), and Katz’s Index of Independence in activity daily living (KIIADL) to detect changes in the cognitive level and physical performance before and after the 16-week training period. A paired t-test was conducted to compare the within-group change before and after the intervention. An independent t-test was performed to compare the between-group difference. The statistical significance level was set to α=.05 for all variables. RESULTS: The experimental group showed significant within-group changes in the MMSE-K, 10MWT, TMT, and KIIADL (p<.05). The control group showed a significant change in only the KIIADL (p<.05). A significant difference was observed between the experimental group and the control group regarding the change in MMSE-K and KIIADL after the interventions (p<.05). CONCLUSION: A music-based sling exercise program effectively improves cognition, physical performance, and ADL in patients with dementia. Further studies with a wider range of subjects and scientific equipment will be needed to strengthen the results of this study.
  • 17.

    Comparison of Ankle Joint Exercise and Thigh Exercise on the Isometric Strength of the Lower Limb and Balance Ability

    Lee WooJung | Seonah Lee | Kim Ah-Ram and 2other persons | 2019, 14(4) | pp.153~162 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study compared ankle joint exercise and thigh exercise on the isometric strength of the lower limb and balance ability. METHODS: Twenty-seven subjects were divided into ankle joint exercise (AEG, n=9), tight exercise (TEG, n=9), and control group (CON, n=9). AEG and TEG performed ankle joint and tight exercises three times a week for four weeks. The following were measured before and four weeks after each exercise: isometric strength at knee flexion and extension of the lower limb; isometric strength at ankle plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the lower limb; static balance of trace length and C90 area; and the dynamic forward, backward, leftward, and rightward balance for each region. RESULTS: The results showed that the isometric strength of plantar flexion (p<.05) was increased significantly in AEG compared to those in TEG and CON. The dynamic leftward (p<.05) and rightward balance (p<.05) were increased significantly in both AEG and TEG compared to that in CON. On the other hand, the static balance of the trace length and C90 area, isometric strength of ankle dorsiflexion, knee flexion and extension of the lower limb, and dynamic forward and backward balance did not show significant differences between the groups. CONCLUSION: Ankle joint exercise improves the isometric strength of plantar flexion compared to tight exercise.
  • 18.

    Injuries in Female Elite Korean Field Hockey Athletes: an Epidemiological Study

    Chan-Woo Kim | Park Ki Jun | 2019, 14(4) | pp.163~171 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the incidence, location, and characteristics of sports injuries according to the position in Korean female national field hockey athletes. METHODS: Eighteen female national field hockey athletes (two goal keepers, five forwards, six midfielders, and five defenders) who trained at the national training center between January 2018 and December 2018 were enrolled. The event, position, and location of injury were recorded per IOC’s daily injury reports form. The incidence of sports injuries was examined with the 95% confidence interval (CI), and the difference in the incidence of injury according to the position was presented as the rate ratio (RR). Moreover, differences in the location of sports injury according to the position were examined using χ2 tests. RESULTS: A total of 92 sports injuries occurred among field hockey players, with an incidence of 6.47 cases per 1,000 hours of training (95% CI 4.98-7.96). In addition, 29.12 cases of injuries occurred per 1,000 exposures (95% CI 23.17-35.07), and the incidence of injury was highest among the defenders, followed by forwards, midfielders, and goal keepers. The most common location of sports injury was the lower extremity, followed in order by the trunk, upper extremity, head, and neck, and there were significant differences in the location of the sports injury according to the position (p=.046). In addition, lumbar spine/lower back, thigh, ankle, lower leg, knee, and foot/toe were common sites of sports injury among female field hockey players. CONCLUSION: These results provide a baseline for predicting sports injuries in athletes during games, and would provide useful information for developing performance enhancement and injury prevention programs.
  • 19.

    Characteristics of Muscle Strength and Posture among Automobile Parts Manufacturing Workers and the Necessity of the Musculoskeletal Injury Prevention Program

    Il-Ho Kwon | Shin Won Seob | 2019, 14(4) | pp.173~181 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the necessity of a musculoskeletal injury-prevention program for automobile parts manufacturing workers by assessing the body composition, muscle strength, and posture according to sex and age. METHODS: Two hundred eighty-two workers (men, 218; women, 64; mean age, 38.97 years; and mean work tenure, 10.29 years) participated in this study. They completed a questionnaire on their general characteristics, excluding personal identification codes. The participants were evaluated for body composition, muscle strength, and posture using InBody, a hand dynamometer, and the Image J program through photography, respectively. An independent t-test and one-way analysis of the variance were used for the comparisons according to sex and age, respectively. RESULTS: Significant sex-related differences in muscle strength and grip force were observed (p<.05). In addition, the left-side pelvic inclination was significantly higher in the female participants than in the male participants (p<.05). Significant age-related differences in the skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength were observed around 40 years (p<.05). Significant correlations were observed among the body composition (skeletal muscle and body fat masses), muscle strength, and posture (pelvic inclination; p<.01). CONCLUSION: Significant differences in pelvic inclination by sex and muscle strength by age were found, even in healthy workers. Additional posture and muscle strength measurements will be needed for workers who participate in the musculoskeletal injury prevention program because they are exposed to an incorrect posture for many hours or in many repetitive tasks.
  • 20.

    Effects of Aquatic Exercise versus Sling Exercise on Spinal Angle and Flexibility in Young Adults with Scoliosis

    Nam Ki Won | 2019, 14(4) | pp.183~193 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study assessed the exercise programs for improving the spinal angle and trunk flexibility by applying the aquatic exercise and sling exercise to young adults with scoliosis. METHODS: The subjects were 14 participants diagnosed with scoliosis. They were assigned randomly either to an aquatic exercise group (n=7) that received the WATSU exercise program or to a sling exercise group (n=7) that received a sling exercise program. The exercise program was 50 minutes once, three times a week, 12 times for four weeks. The spinal angle and flexibility were measured using the Cobb’s angle and modified sit and reach test, respectively. Two variables were analyzed before and after the intervention, and the aquatic exercise group and sling exercise group were compared. RESULTS: After the intervention, the Cobb’s angle decreased significantly, and the flexibility increased significantly in both groups (p<.05). A larger increase in flexibility was observed in the aquatic exercise group than in the sling exercise group (p<.05). CONCLUSION: These results showed that the two exercise programs improved the spine angle and flexibility. The increased flexibility showed that aquatic exercise was more effective than the sling exercise. Therefore, aquatic exercise and sling exercise can be used in the treatment and prevention of scoliosis.
  • 21.

    Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training on Lower Limb Muscle Thickness and Gross Motor Function in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Won-Bin Lee | Lee, Han-Suk | Sun-Wook Park and 1other persons | 2019, 14(4) | pp.195~201 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to quantify the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) stimulation training on the muscle thickness and gross motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy. METHODS: Twenty children diagnosed with spastic cerebral palsy were assigned randomly to the Whole Body Vibration (WBV) group (n=10) and control group (n=10). The WBV group received vibration therapy including five different therapy, and the control group received only five general physiotherapy sessions. After 10 weeks of intervention, the muscle thickness was measured using ultrasound, and the Gross Motor Function D and E items were evaluated. RESULTS: After the intervention, both groups showed a significant increase in muscle thickness and gross motor function (p<.05). The WBV group showed a significant increase in the quadriceps femoris and tibialis anterior muscles compared to the control group, whereas no significant increase in the gastrocnemius muscle was observed (p<.05). The WBV group showed significant improvement in the Gross Motor Function D and E scores compared to the control group (p<.05). CONCLUSION: WBV training may be a useful way of improving the lower extremity muscle strength in children with spastic cerebral palsy, which may help improve the gross motor function.