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pISSN : 1975-311X / eISSN : 2287-7215

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 0.54
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2020, Vol.15, No.1

  • 1.

    Effects of an Elastic AFO on the Walking Patterns of Foot-drop Patients with Stroke

    YoungIn HWANG | 2020, 15(1) | pp.1~9 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: Many patients with stroke have difficulties in walking with foot-drop. Various types of ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) have been developed, but their weight needs to be reduced with the assistance of the ankle dorsiflexor. Therefore, an elastic AFO (E-AFO) was devised that not only improves the stability and flexibility of the ankle but also assists with ankle dorsiflexion while walking. This study examined the effects of an E-AFO, on the walking patterns of foot-drop patients with stroke. METHODS: Fourteen patients walked with and without an E-AFO, and the gait parameters were assessed using the GAITRite system. The spatiotemporal data on the gait patterns of stroke patients with foot-drop were compared using paired t-tests; the level of statistical significance was set to α<.05. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in the velocity (p=.066) and affecte+d step length (p=.980), but the affected and less-affected stance (p=.022, p=.002) and swing time (p=.012, p=.005) were significantly different. The E-AFO produced a significant difference in the less-affected step length (p=.032). CONCLUSION: The E-AFO has a significant effect on the walking patterns of individuals with foot-drop and stroke. The E-AFO could be a useful assistive device for gait training in stroke patients.
  • 2.

    Comparison of Heart Rate Variability according to Performance in Elite Female Judo Athletes

    Moon-jung Bae | Hyun-Chul Kim | Park Ki Jun | 2020, 15(1) | pp.11~18 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study was to investigate examined the differences in the autonomic nervous functions of elite female judo athletes according to their performance by measuring the heart rate variability (HRV). METHODS: Sixteen elite female judo players participated in this study. The participants were divided into a high performance and low performance group according to the results of their competitions. The HRV (mean heart rate, SDNN, RMSSD, TP, LF, HF, LF/HF ratio) was measured in the resting status. A t-test was used to compare the two groups, and bivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the HRV elements that affect performance. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 24.0 (IBM Co., Armonk, NY, USA). RESULTS: The mean heart rate was higher in the high performance group (72.88) than in the low performance group (64.75) (p=.049). The LF/HF ratio was higher in the high performance group (3.43) than in the low performance group (0.83), and the results were significant (p=.038). No HRV elements having a significant effect on the performance were observed. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the activity of the sympathetic nervous system was dominant in the high performance group in the resting status than in the low performance. The high performance group is believed to be in the overtraining status who experience more stress.
  • 3.

    Myofascial Release improved Regional Kyphosis in a 20-year-old Female patient with Cervical Neuroforaminal Encroachment: A Case Report

    Song-I Han | Jae-Man Park | 2020, 15(1) | pp.19~24 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This paper describes the effects of the myofascial release (MFR) approach in a 20-year-old female patient with neuroforaminal encroachment and regional kyphosis in the cervical area, who also had neck pain. METHODS: A 20-year-old female presented with the chief complaint of neck pain while studying with a level of seven on the rating analogue scale (RAS) and was not taking any drugs or undergoing treatment for the control of neck pain prior to visiting. The cervical radiograph demonstrated neuroforaminal encroachment from C4-5. The patient showed 3.5° kyphosis at C4-5 and 22.9° lordosis at C2-7 according to the Harrison posterior tangent method. The anterior head translation (AHT) was 13.9mm. She reported pain of RAS 5 at the scapular medial border while rotating her neck in the left direction and flexing forward. The patient was treated a total 16 times, three times/week for six weeks using the MFR approach. RESULTS: After the treatment sessions, studying without pain was possible for approximately two hours, but after approximately two hours of studying, she experienced pain of RAS 6 and a stiff feeling in front of the neck. Neuroforaminal encroachment was not detected in the radiographs taken after applying MFR. Improvement of C4-5 kyphosis was noted (from 3.5° kyphosis to 3.8° lordosis). AHT was decreased by 13.6 mm (from 13.9 mm to 0.3 mm). The pain with motion had disappeared. CONCLUSION: The MFR approach in this patient with neuroforaminal encroachment could reduce the pain related to motion and restore the regional cervical lordosis.
  • 4.

    Effects of Interferential Current Treatment on Pain, Functional Ability, and Health-Related Quality of Life in Chronic Stroke Patients with Lumbago; A Randomized Controlled Study

    kyoung-sim, Jung | In Tae Sung | 2020, 15(1) | pp.25~32 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the efficacy of an interferential current (IFC) treatment on the improvement of pain, disability, and quality of life in stroke patients with lumbago. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted on 40 stroke patients with lumbago. The patients were allocated randomly into two groups: the IFC treatment group (n= 20) and the placebo treatment group (n= 20). The IFC group received 30 minutes of IFC treatment on the lumbar region, while the placebo group received IFC treatment but without real electrical stimulation. The intervention was administered five days a week for four weeks. The primary outcomes of pain intensity were measured using a visual analogue scale. The secondary measurements included the Barthel Index, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). RESULTS: The measurements were conducted before and after the two-week intervention period. Compared to the placebo treatment group, the IFC treatment group showed significantly greater improvement in the pain intensity (p<.05), ODI (p<.05), and SF-36 (p<.05) at the end of the intervention. No significant differences in the Barthel Index were found between the two groups. CONCLUSION: These findings show that an IFC treatment can improve pain, functional ability, and quality of life, highlighting the benefits of somatosensory stimulation from IFC in stroke patients with lumbago.
  • 5.

    Effects of Whole Body Vibration Exercise on the Muscle Strength, Balance and Falling Efficacy of Super-aged Elderly: Randomized Controlled Trial Study

    Jin-Hyuk Seo | Lee Myungmo | 2020, 15(1) | pp.33~42 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of a whole body vibration-exercise program on the muscle strength, balance, and falling efficacy of super-aged women. METHODS: Thirty participants, who are over 75 years of age, were recruited. They were assigned randomly to an experimental group (n=15), which received whole body vibration exercise, and a control group (n=15), which received an exercise program that did not include vibration. The interventions lasted for four weeks, three times a day, and 25 minutes per session. To compare the effects of the intervention, a 30-second chair stand test (CST), Korean version of Berg balance scale (K-BBS), functional reach test (FRT), timed up and go test (TUG), and Korean version of the falls efficacy scale (K-FES) was used. RESULTS: The experimental group showed a significant increase (p.<05) before and after the intervention in the chair stand test (CST), Korean version of the Berg balance scale (K-BBS), functional reach test (FRT), timed up-and-go (TUG), and Korean version of the fall efficacy scale (K-FES). Compared to the control group, the experiment group showed a more significant increase (p.<05) in the CST, K-BBS, and FRT. CONCLUSION: A whole body vibration exercise program could be suggested as an effective intervention method for muscle and balance strengthening for super-aged women.
  • 6.

    Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Motor Skills Recovery in Sciatic Nerve Crush-Induced Rats

    Kim Ki Huyn | Hyungsoo Shin | Jung Nam Jin and 1other persons | 2020, 15(1) | pp.43~54 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of mildintensity exercise (MIE) and high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) on the recovery of the motor function over time in sciatic nerve crush injury rats. METHODS: The MIE group ran on a treadmill at a speed of 8.3 m/min to perform low-intensity training with maximum oxygen uptakes ranging from 40 to 50%. The HIIE group ran on the treadmill at a speed of 25 m/min to perform high-intensity training with a maximum oxygen uptake of 80%. The interval training was performed based on a 1:1 work-to-rest ratio. The effects of each form of exercise on the rats’ walking abilities following their recovery from the peripheral nerve injuries were evaluated based on the results of behavior tests performed at one and 14 days. RESULTS: According to the test results, the MIE group showed significant improvements in the rats’ ankle angle in the initial stance phase, and in the ankle and knee angles in the toe-off phase (p<.05). The HIIE group exhibited significant improvements in the ankle and knee angles in the initial stance phase, SFI(p<.05). CONCLUSION: The state of such patients can be improved by applying the results of this study in that MIE and HIIE on a treadmill can contribute to the recovery of the peripheral nerve and motor skill. In particular, MIE is used as a walking functional training in the toe-off stance phase, while HIIE is suitable in the initial stance stage.
  • 7.

    Effects of Handgrip Exercise on the Shoulder Muscle Activation and Cross-Sectional Area of the Supraspinatus Muscle in Rotator Cuff Repair Patient

    Dong-Rour Lee | Young-Eun Choi | 2020, 15(1) | pp.55~63 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of handgrip exercise, which was started two weeks after surgery for shoulder rotator cuff repair, on the extent of muscle activation around the shoulder and the cross-sectional area of the supraspinatus muscle. METHODS: Among patients diagnosed with rotator cuff rupture by an orthopedic surgeon and rotator cuff repair was performed using an arthroscope, 28 were selected as subjects. These subjects were allocated randomly to the experimental group and control group with 14 subjects in each group. An electromyogram was measured as a measure of the extent of muscle activation around the shoulder for a total of six times (%RVC). The cross-sectional area of the supraspinatus muscle was measured before and after the rotator cuff repair by magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: The extent of muscle activation in accordance with time in both the experimental group and control group displayed significant differences in various muscles including the anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, upper trapezius and infraspinatus muscle(p<.05). A significant difference in the variation of the cross-sectional area of the supraspinatus muscle was observed between the experimental group and the control group(p<.05). CONCLUSION: Handgrip exercise helps rehabilitate the shoulder joint at the acute stage after rotator cuff repair when assertive exercise therapy cannot be applied.
  • 8.

    The Effects of Proprioceptive Exercise Combined with Cognitive Task on the Balance and Ankle Function of Chronic Ankle Instability Adult

    Ji-Su Chae | Choe Yuwon | Kim Meung Kwon | 2020, 15(1) | pp.65~76 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study were to determine an intervention that involves proprioceptive exercises combined with cognitive task completion for adults with chronic ankle instability and to investigate the effects of the exercises on the static balance, dynamic balance, and ankle function of such individuals. METHODS: A total of 30 adults suffering from the aforementioned condition were randomly divided into experimental (n=15) and control (n=15) groups. The experimental group performed proprioceptive exercises in combination with cognitive tasks for 15 minutes in each session that was held three times a week for four 4 weeks, whereas the control group carried out only proprioceptive exercises. A Wii Balance Board, which enables examining the fluctuation area distance, and speed, was used to determine static balance; a Y-balance test kit was employed to measure dynamic balance; and the side hop, figure-of-8 hop, and square hop tests were conducted to ascertain ankle function. RESULTS: The results showed that the static balance, dynamic balance, and ankle function of both the experimental and control groups significantly improved. The participants were instructed to perform one-leg postural exercises with and without vision blocking for the affected leg. The experimental group showed more significant improvement than did the controls in terms of the fluctuation distance, speed, and area of static balance. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, although combined proprioceptive exercises and cognitive tasks were insufficient to enhance all types of balance among the subjects, it effectively reinforced their static balance.
  • 9.

    Comparison of the Effects of Different Crutch Length Measurement Methods on Trunk Muscle Activities in Young Females

    Hyun Jeon | Duck-won Oh | 2020, 15(1) | pp.77~84 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study compared the activities of the trunk muscles during crutch walking to determine which of the crutch length measurements is most beneficial. METHODS: Twenty young women volunteered to participate in this study. After adjusting crutch length, the participants performed a three-point walking with nondominant leg limited in weight bearing. This study used six crutch length measurements: (1) Height-40.6cm, (2) Height´.77, (3) Olecranon-to-finger length, (4) Axillary-toheel length, (5) Arm-span length-40.6cm, and (6) Arm-span length´.77. The EMG activities of the internal oblique (IO), rectus abdominis (RA), multifidus (MF), and erector spinae (ES), muscles on the weight bearing side were monitored using wireless surface EMG. RESULTS: The EMG activities of the RA and ES appeared to be significantly different among the crutch length measurements (p<.05). The post-hoc test showed that the ‘Arm-span length-40.6cm’ was significantly greater in the RA activity when compared to the ‘Height´.77’ and ‘Axillary-to-heel length’ measurements, and in the ES activity when compared to ‘Height´.77’ measurements. Furthermore, IO/RA and MF/ES ratios showed significant differences among the crutch length measurements (p<.05). In the post-hoc test, significant difference was observed between ‘Olecranon-to-finger length’ and ‘Arm-span length-40.6cm’ for the IO/RA ratio, and between ‘Height´.77’ and ‘Olecranon-to-finger length’ and between ‘Height´.77’ and ‘Arm-span length-40.6cm’ measurement for the MF/ES ratio. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the ‘Height´.77’ measurement is relatively advantageous to optimize the activities of trunk muscles during the crutch walking, and allow simple measurements of the crutch length.
  • 10.

    Effect of Meridian Muscle Release and the Graston Technique on Pain and Functional Movement in Patients with Myofascial Pain Syndrome of the Shoulder Joint

    Hyo-Ryung Heo | Jang Ho Young | Kim Dong Hoon and 2other persons | 2020, 15(1) | pp.85~94 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of the meridian muscle release technique on the pain and functional movement of patients with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) of the shoulder joint. METHODS: The subjects of this study included 45 patients with MPS of the shoulder joint. The subjects were divided randomly into the following groups; the meridian muscle release technique group (n=15), the Graston technique group (n=15), and the control group (n=15). Both the meridian muscle release group and the Graston technique group received conventional therapy for 35 minutes initially and were then treated using the meridian muscle releases technique and Graston technique for 10 minutes, respectively. The control group received only conventional therapy for 35 minutes. All three groups underwent treatments three times a week for four weeks. Each subject was evaluated randomly using the VAS, PPT, SPADI and ROM both before and after treatment. RESULTS: The Graston technique group showed a significantly more substantial increase in functional movement (p<.05) than the meridian muscle release technique and control groups. The meridian muscle release technique group had significantly less pain (p<.05) compared to the Graston technique and control groups. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the meridian muscle release technique can be useful for decreasing pain and increasing the functional movement of patients with MPS of the shoulder joint.
  • 11.

    Analysis of correlation between the inspiratory capacity of the National softball players and the bone density, bon mass, muscle power, muscle endurance

    Hyun-Chul Kim | Park Ki Jun | 2020, 15(1) | pp.95~104 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: A prospective study was conducted to investigate the correlation between the inspiration ability, bone mineral density, lumbar muscle strength, and muscular endurance for the national softball athletes in the national training center. METHODS: The general characteristics of study subjects, inspiration ability, bone mineral density, muscle strength, and muscular endurance data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. In addition, the Pearson product moment correlation was performed to investigate the correlation between the inspiratory capacity, bone mineral density, muscle strength, and muscular endurance. RESULTS: The inspiration, flow rates, and volume were not correlated with the bone mass and bone mineral density. Inspiration and the flow rates and volume were not correlated with the bone mass and bone mineral density. On the other hand, inspiration was correlated with the Extensor muscles (r=.464, p=.006) at an angular velocity of 60°/s and the flexors (r=.463, p=.006) and extensor muscles (r=.615, p<.001) at an angular velocity of 180°/s. The flow rate was also correlated with the extensor muscles (r=.444, p=.009) at an angular velocity of 60°/s and with flexor muscles (r=.432, p=.011) and extensor muscles (r=.589, p<.001) at an angular velocity of 180°/s. Finally, the volume was correlated at the extensor muscles at an angular velocity of 180°/s (r=.534, p=.001). CONCLUSION: The correlation between the inspiratory capacity, bone mineral density, muscle strength, and muscular endurance of softball athletes did not correlate with the bone mass and bone density. On the other hand, the lumbar muscle strength increased with increasing inspiratory capacity.
  • 12.

    Effects of Interactive Metronome Training on the Plantar Pressure and Fall Efficacy in Chronic Stroke Patients

    Won Kyung Hwang | Lee, Han-Suk | Sun-Wook Park | 2020, 15(1) | pp.105~112 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of Interactive Metronome training on the plantar pressure and fall efficacy in chronic stroke patients. METHODS: Twenty-two hemiplegic patients were allocated randomly to an experimental group and control group. The experimental group received conventional physical therapy and emphasized weight-bearing interactive metronome training, whereas the control group received conventional physical therapy. The training was performed three times per week, 40 minutes per each session, for a total of seven weeks. The plantar pressure was assessed using the contact area and contact pressure, whereas the fall efficacy was assessed using the FES (Fall Efficacy Scale), ABC (Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale) and FOFQ (Fear of Falling Questionnaire). RESULTS: After training, a significant increase was observed in the paretic side of the contact area and the paretic and non-paretic side of contact pressure in both groups (p<.05). The between-group differences in the changes before and after training were statistically significant in the paretic side of the contact pressure (p<.05). After training, both the FES of the between-group and ABC of the experimental group were increased significantly (p<.05), but the between-group differences in the changes before and after training were not statistically significant in the FES, ABC, and FOFQ (p>.05). CONCLUSION: Interactive Metronome training is considered an effective treatment for improving the contact pressure of the paretic side in chronic stroke patients.
  • 13.

    Effects of Incorporating Non-elastic Taping into PNF Techniques on Muscle Activities, Balance, and Gait in Patients with Chronic Stroke

    Hyun-woo Kim | Park YoungHan | 2020, 15(1) | pp.113~121 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The study examined the effects of non-elastic taping on the knee and ankle joints of stroke patients to increase muscle activity, balance and gait ability. METHODS: In this study, 10 stroke patients were assigned to experimental group (knee and ankle joint non-elastic taping and PNF technique) and control group (PNF technique). The experimental group applied the PNF technique for 30 minutes after attaching the inelastic tape, and the control group performed the PNF technique for 30 minutes. five times a week for a total of four weeks (20 times). RESULTS: The muscle activity of Vastus Medialis and Tiblialis Anterior showed significant differences between the experimental and control groups. BBS and 10MWT also showed significant differences between the experimental and control groups. CONCLUSION: In this study, the muscle activity, balance and walking on the paraplegic side of stroke patients using inelastic taping, and applied inelastic taping on two joints in a different way from the previous study, Therefore, it will have the advantage of increasing paralysis side muscle activity and improving balance and walking ability.
  • 14.

    Effect of Both Lower Extremities Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Training with Functional Electrical Stimulation on the Balance and Gait of Stroke Patient: A Randomized controlled trial

    Sang-Mo Kim | Kin YoungMin | 2020, 15(1) | pp.123~132 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of both lower extremities proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation training with functional electrical stimulation on the balance and gait of stroke patients. METHODS: Ten patients with stroke were divided randomly into two groups of five patients each who met the selection criteria. The training was conducted five times a week, for 60 minutes. The experimental group received both lower extremities proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation training with functional electrical stimulation while the control group received general physical therapy with functional electrical stimulation. RESULTS: The timed Up-and-Go (TUG) test result was statistically significant after the intervention in the experimental group (p<.041). Berg Balance Scale (BBS) assessment was statistically significant after the intervention in the experimental group (p<.047) and between the experimental and control groups (p<.012). The cadence assessment was statistically significant after intervention in the experimental group (p<.031) and between the experimental and control groups (p<.015). The stride length assessment was not statistically significant after intervention in the experimental group and between the experimental and control groups. Gait velocity assessment was statistically significant after the intervention in the experimental group (p<.031) and between the experimental and control groups (p<.015). CONCLUSION: Both lower extremities proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation training with functional electrical stimulation had positive effects on the balance and gait of stroke patients.
  • 15.

    Effects of Active Release Technique on Pain, Oswestry Disability Index and Pelvic Asymmetry in Chronic Low Back Pain Patients

    Seung-Hoo Lee | Nam Seung Min | 2020, 15(1) | pp.133~141 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of active release technique on pain, Oswestry Disability Index, and pelvic asymmetry in chronic low back pain patients. METHODS: Thirty five outpatients diagnosed with chronic low back pain were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided randomly into an active release technique therapy group(experimental group; n=18) and myofascial release technique therapy group(control group; n=17). These groups performed their respective therapy for a 40-minute session occurring twice a week over six weeks. The Visual Analogue Scale(VAS) was used to measure the subjects’ pain, and the Korean Oswestry Disability Index(KODI) was used to measure the subjects’ dysfunction. To assess the patients’ pelvic asymmetry, their pelvic tilt and pelvic rotation were measured using X-ray imaging. RESULTS: Both the experimental group and control group exhibited significant decreases in their VAS and KODI scores after the therapy(p<.05). The experimental group exhibited a significant decrease in their pelvic tilt and pelvic rotation after therapy(p<.05). A significant difference was observed between the experimental group and the control group (p<.05). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that active release technique is effective in decreasing the level of pain and dysfunction in chronic low back pain patients. In addition, the active release technique is considered to be more effective in improving the pelvic tilt and pelvic rotation than myofascial release technique. This can be an effective method for the non-pharmacological and non-surgical treatment of chronic low back pain.
  • 16.

    Effect of a Telerehabilitation Exercise Program on the Gait, Knee function and Quality of life In Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    Jae-Yun Kim | leedongwoo | Mo-Beom Jeong | 2020, 15(1) | pp.143~152 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of videoconferencing-based telerehabilitation exercise program on the gait, knee function, and quality of life of patients with knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: Forty-eight subjects, who were diagnosed with osteoarthritis of the knee by the radiologic findings, history, and a physical examination, were assigned randomly to a Control group, Experiment group I, and Experiment group Ⅱ. The control group did not perform any exercise program and were educated in understanding and managing the disease of knee osteoarthritis for only one hour. Experimental groups I and Ⅱ were provided with an exercise guidelines book for knee osteoarthritis, and the same exercise programs were conducted by face-to-face visits and non-face-to-face using telerehabilitation for eight weeks, respectively. To verify the effectiveness of each exercise program, the gait speed, knee disability index, and health related quality of life were measured. All assessments were conducted twice before and after the intervention. RESULTS: The participants who underwent both face-toface and telerehabilitation exercise programs showed an improved gait speed, knee function, and health-related quality of life. In particular, there was no significant difference between the telerehabilitation exercise group and the direct face-to-face exercise group in improving the knee joint function and health related quality of life. CONCLUSION: A these findings the telerehabilitation exercise program for patients with knee osteoarthritis can alternate or supplement the face-to-face exercise program. Therefore, the telerehabilitation exercise program should be used not only as a substitute supplement program but also as an intervention for various diseases.